Vadlamannati, Krishna Chaitanya (2008): SOCIOECONOMIC, INSTITUTIONAL & POLITICAL DETERMINANTS OF HUMAN RIGHTS ABUSES: A SUBNATIONAL STUDY OF INDIA, 1993 – 2002.
Download (691Kb) | Preview
We conduct an econometric analysis of socioeconomic, institutional and political factors determining government respect for human rights within India. Using time series cross-sectional data for 28 Indian states for the period 1993 – 2002, we find that internal threat poised by number of social violence events, presence of civil war and riot hit disturbed areas are strongly associated with human rights abuses. Amongst socioeconomic factors, ‘exclusive’ economic growth, ‘uneven’ development, poor social development spending, youth bulges and differential growth rates between minority religious groups explain the likelihood of human rights violations. Capturing power at the state and central level by Hindu national parties’ viz., Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) and Shiv Sena, further help understand the incidence of human rights violations within India.
|Item Type:||MPRA Paper|
|Original Title:||SOCIOECONOMIC, INSTITUTIONAL & POLITICAL DETERMINANTS OF HUMAN RIGHTS ABUSES: A SUBNATIONAL STUDY OF INDIA, 1993 – 2002|
|Subjects:||R - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics > R5 - Regional Government Analysis > R59 - Other
P - Economic Systems > P5 - Comparative Economic Systems > P59 - Other
|Depositing User:||Krishna Chaitanya Vadlamannati|
|Date Deposited:||25. Aug 2008 01:08|
|Last Modified:||12. Feb 2013 18:59|
Apodaco, C (2001): Global Economic Patterns and Personal Integrity Rights after the Cold War, International Studies Quarterly, 45 (4), pp. 587–602.
Alesina, Alberto & Roberto Perotti (1996): Income Distribution, Political Instability and Investment, European Economic Review, XL, pp. 1203-1228.
Alesina, Alberto & Dani Rodrik (1994): Distributive Politics & Economic Growth, Quarterly Journal of Economics, CIX, pp. 465-490.
Axel Dreher, Martin Gassebner & Lars R. Siemers (2007): Does Terror Threaten Human Rights? Evidence from Panel Data, Working papers 07-156, KOF Swiss Economic Institute, ETH Zurich
Barro, R J (1996) Determinants of Economic Growth: A Cross-Country Empirical Study, NBER, Working Paper No. 5698, August.
Besley, T & R Burgess (2002): Political Economy of Government Responsiveness: Theory and Evidence from India, Quarterly Journal of Economics 117 (4): 1415-52.
Brock Blomberg, S. Gregory D. Hess & Siddharth Thacker (2006): on the conflict–poverty nexus, economics & politics, 18(3), pp. 237-267.
Blanton, Shannon Lindsey (1999): Instruments of Security or Tools of Repression? Arms Imports & Human Rights Conditions in Developing Countries, Journal of Peace Research 36 (2), pp. 233-244
Blanton, Shannon Lindsey (2005): Foreign Policy in Transition? Human Rights, Democracy, and U.S. Arms Exports, International Studies Quarterly, 49 (4), pp. 647-667.
Blanton, Shannon Lindsey & Blanton, Robert G (2007): What Attracts Foreign Investors? An Examination of Human Rights & FDI, Journal of Politics, 69(1), pp. 143-155.
Boix, Carles (2004): Political Violence, Paper prepared for Yale Conference on Order, Conflict and Violence, Yale University, April 30th – May 1st.
Blunch, Niels-Hugo and Verner, Dorte (2000): Is Functional Literacy a Prerequisite for Entering the Labor Market? An Analysis of Determinants of Adult Literacy and Earnings in Ghana, CLS Working Paper No. 00-05; World Bank Policy Research, World Bank, Washington DC.
Blunch, N.H. & D. Verner (1999): Determinants of Income and Literacy in Ghana, Mimeo, World Bank, Washington DC.
Blinder, A. (2006): Off shoring: The Next Industrial Revolution? Foreign Affairs.
Boswell, Terry & William J. Dixon (1990): Dependency and Rebellion: A Cross-National Analysis, American Sociological Review, 55, pp. 540-59.
Braungart, Richard G. (1984): Historical and Generational Patterns of Youth Movements: A Global Perspective, Comparative Social Research, 7(1), pp. 3–62.
Brockett, Charles (1992): Measuring Political Violence and Land Inequality in Central America”, American Political Science Review, LXXXVI, pp. 169-176.
Binswanger, Hans, Klaus Deininger & Gershon Feder (1993): Power, Distortions, Revolt, & Reform in Agricultural Land Relations, Latin America & Caribbean Technical Department & Agriculture & Rural Development Department, mimeo, World Bank, Washington DC.
Bourguignon, François (1999): Crime, Violence & Inequitable Development, Paper prepared for the Annual World Bank Conference in Development Economics, April 28-30.
Besley, Timothy; Burgess, R (2002): The political economy of government responsiveness: theory and evidence from India, Quarterly Journal of Economics, 117(4), pp. 1415-1451.
Beer, Caroline & Mitchell, Neil J (2006): Comparing Nations & States Human Rights & Democracy in India, Comparative Political Studies, 39(8), pp. 996-1018.
Bawn, K. (1995): Political control versus expertise: Congressional choices about administrative procedures. American Political Science Review, 89, pp. 62-73.
Basu, A. (2001): The dialectics of Hindu nationalism. In A. Kohli (Ed.), The success of India’s democracy. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Besançon, Marie L. (2005): Relative Resources: Inequality in Ethnic Wars, Revolutions, and Genocides, Journal of Peace Research, 42(4), pp. 393-415.
Blasi, Gerald & David Cingranelli (1997): Do Constitutions and Institutions Help Protect Human Rights? in David Louis Cingranelli, ed., Human Rights and Developing Countries, (J.A.I. Press)
Brown, V (1988): The root causes: Poverty & politics, World Press Review (April), 10.
Choucri, Nazli (1974): Population Dynamics and International Violence: Propositions, Insights and Evidence. Lexington, MA: Lexington.
Cincotta, Richard P, Robert Engelman & Daniele Anastasion (2003): The Security Demographic: Population & Civil Conflict after Cold War. Washington, DC: Population Action International.
Cingranelli, David & Filippov, Mikhail (2008): Electoral Rules and Incentives to Protect Human Rights, Paper presented at the annual meeting of the ISA's 49th Annual Convention, Bridging Multiple Divides, Hilton San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA.
Chadda, Maya (2006): Minority Rights & Conflict Prevention: Case Study of Conflicts in Indian Jammu and Kashmir, Punjab and Nagaland, Minority Rights Group International (MGRI), UK.
Chase-Dunn, C (1989): Global Formation. Cambridge, MA: Basil Blackwell.
Cingranelli, David L. & David L. Richards (1999): Measuring Level, Pattern & Sequence of Government Respect for Physical Integrity Rights, International Studies Quarterly 43(2), pp. 407–417
Carlton, David & Michael Stohl, (1987): The Role of Human Rights in U.S. Foreign Assistance Policy, American Journal of Political Science, 31 (4), pp. 1002-1018 Collier & Hoeffler (1998): On Economic Causes of Civil War, Oxford Economic Papers 50(4), pp. 563–73
Collier, Paul & Hoeffler, Anke (2004): Aid, policy and growth in post-conflict societies, European Economic Review, 48(5), pp. 1125-1145
Cochrane, S. H (1979): Fertility and Education: What Do We Really Know? Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.
Donald J. Treiman (2002): Growth & Determinants of Literacy in China, California Center for Population Research, Working Paper no. ccpr-005-02; http://repositories.cdlib.org/ccpr/olwp/ccpr-005-02
Davenport, Christian & David A. II Armstrong (2004): Democracy & Violation of Human Rights: A Statistical Analysis from 1976 to 1996, American Journal of Political Science, 48 (3), pp. 538–554.
Davenport, Christian. (1995): Multi-Dimensional Threat Perception & State Repression: An Inquiry into Why States Apply Negative Sanctions, American Journal of Political Science, 39 (3), pp. 683-713.
Davenport, Christian (1997): From Ballots to Bullets: an Empirical Assessment of How National Elections Influence State Uses of Political Repression, Electoral Studies, 16 (4), pp. 517 5411.
Davenport, Christian (1996): The Weight of the Past: Exploring Lagged Determinants of Political Repression, Political Research Quarterly, 49 (2), pp 377-403
Dev, S. Mahendra & Jos Mooij (2002): Social Sector Expenditure in the 1990s: An Analysis of Central and State Budget, Economic and Political Weekly, 37(9), March.
Datt, G., Kozel, V & Ravallion, M. (2003): A Model-Based Assessment of India’s Progress in Reducing Poverty in the 1990s, Economic and Political Weekly, January 25
Ellingsen, T (2000): Colorful Community or Ethnic Witches’ Brew? Multiethnicity and Domestic Conflict during and after the Cold War, Journal of Conflict Resolution, 44(2), pp. 228–49
Earnest A. Duff & John McCamant (1976): Violence and Repression in Latin America: A Quantitative and Historical Analysis (New York: Free Press).
Esty, Daniel C. et al. (1998): State Failure Task Force Report: Phase II Findings. McLean, VA: Science Applications International, for State Failure Task Force. (online): http://www.bsos.umd.edu/cidcm/stfail/.
Eriksen, Silja & Indra de Soysa (2009): A Fate Worse than Debt? International Financial Institutions and Human Rights, 1981–2003. Journal of Peace Research (forth coming).
Frey, R.S. & I. Al-Mansour (1995): The effects of development, dependence, and population pressure on democracy: The cross-national evidence, Sociological Spectrum, 15, pp. 181-208.
Fearon, James D. & David D. Laitin (2003): Ethnicity, Insurgency & Civil War, American Political Science Review 97 (1), pp. 1–16 Fedderke, Johannes W & Luiz, M. John (2008): Does human capital generate social and institutional capital? Exploring evidence from South African time series data, Oxford Economic Papers, doi:10.1093/oep/gpn007, pp. 1-34.
Fein, Helen (1995): Murder in Middle: life-integrity violations & democracy in the world, 1987, Human Rights Quarterly, 17(1), pp. 170-191
Gaurav Nayyar (2005): Growth and Poverty in Rural India: An Analysis of Inter-State Differences, Economic & Political Weekly, April, pp. 1631-1639
Gaurav Datt, Valerie Kozel, Martin Ravallion (2003): A Model-Based Assessment of India’s Progress in Reducing Poverty in 1990s, Economic & Political Weekly, January, pp. 335-361.
Gibney, Matthew J. (2004): The Ethics and Politics of Asylum: Liberal Democracy and the Response to Refugees. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Goldstone, J (1991): Revolution and Rebellion in the Early Modern World. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Goldstone, Jack A. (2001): Demography, Environment, and Security, in Paul F. Diehl & Nils Petter Gleditsch, eds, Environmental Conflict. Boulder, CO: Westview (84–108).
Gartner, Scott S. and Patrick M. Regan (1996): Threat & Repression: Non-Linear Relationship between Government & Opposition Violence, Journal of Peace Research, 33 (3), pp. 273-288
Gurr TR (1985): On political consequence of scarcity & economic decline. International Studies Quarterly, 29(1), pp. 51-75.
Gurr, Ted (1986): The Political Origins of State Violence and Terror: A Theoretical Analysis, In Governmental Violence and Repression: An Agenda for Research, ed. Michael Stohl and George Lopez. New York: Greenwood Press
García Montalvo, José & Reynal-Querol, Marta (2002): Why Ethnic Fractionalization? Polarization, Ethnic Conflict & Growth, UPF Economics & Business Working Paper No. 660.
Gujarati D N (1995): Basic Econometrics, 3rd edition, Mc Graw-Hill International Editions, Econometric Series.
Gupta SP (1999): Trickledown Theory Revisited: Role of Employment & Poverty, VV Singh Memorial Lecture at 41st, Annual Conference of Indian Society of Labor Economics, Nov. 18-20.
Horowitz, Donald L (2001): Deadly Ethnic Riot, Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
Homer-Dixon, T.F., J.H. Boutwell, & G.W. Rathjens (1993): Environmental change and violent conflict, Scientific American, pp. 38-45.
Henderson, C.W (1991): Conditions affecting the use of political repression, Journal of Conflict Resolution, 35,120-142
Henderson, C.W (1993): Population pressure and political repression, Social Science Quarterly, 74, pp. 322-333. Hamid E. Ali & James K. Galbraith (2003): Military Expenditures and Inequality: Empirical Evidence from Global Data, UTIP Working Paper No.24, Texas, U.S.
Hauge, Wenche & Tanja Ellingsen (2001): Causal Pathways to Conflict, in Paul F. Diehl & Nils Petter Gleditsch, eds, Environmental Conflict. Boulder, CO: Westview (pp. 36–57).
Hibbs, Douglas A. (1973): Mass Political Violence: A Cross-National Causal Analysis. New York, Wiley.
Human Rights Watch (2000): Human Rights Developments, (online) http://www.hrw.org/wr2k/Asia-04.htm#TopOfPage
Human Rights Watch (2001): India: Proposed Anti-Terror Law Should Be Rejected, October 18, (online): http://www.hrw.org/press/2001/10/india1018.htm.
Human Rights Watch (2002): Human Rights Developments, (online) http://hrw.org/wr2k3/asia6.html
Human Rights watch (2004) Human Rights Developments, (online) http://hrw.org/english/docs/2005/01/13/india9824.htm
Hardy, Melissa (1979): Economic Growth, Distributional Inequality & Political Conflict in Industrial Societies, Journal of Political and Military Sociology, VII, pp. 209-227.
Harriss-White, Barbara (2002): Globalization, Insecurities and Responses: an Introductory Essay, in Barbara Harriss-White (ed.), Globalisation and Insecurity: Political, Economic and Physical Challenges (Hampshire and New York: Palgrave Publishers Ltd), pp. 1-3.
Jaggers, Keith & Ted R. Gurr, (1995): Tracking Democracy's Third Wave with the Polity III Data, Journal of Peace Research, 32, pp. 469–482
Jaya Prakash Pradhan & Vinoj Abraham (2002): Does Human Development Policy Matter for Economic Growth? Evidence from Indian States, South Asia Economic Journal, 3(1), pp. 77-93.
Johannes W. Fedderke & John M. Luiz (2008): Does human capital generate social & institutional capital? Exploring evidence from South African time series data, Oxford Economic Papers, pp. 1-34
Kirsch I.S., Jungeblut, A., Jenkins, L. & Kolstad, A. (1993): Adult literacy in America: A first look at results of national adult literacy survey, Educational Testing Service, Princeton, NJ.
Kaufmann, D & Aart Kraay & Massimo Mastruzzi (2004): Governance Matters III: Governance Indicators: 1996, 1998, 2000 & 2002, World Bank Economic Review, 18(2), pp. 253-287.
Kaufmann, Daniel (2004): Corruption, Governance and Security: Challenges for the Rich Countries and the World, MPRA Paper 8207, University Library of Munich, Germany.
Kumar, Anand, Haridwar & Kant, Kanihar (2005): Some Aspects of Post-Conflict face of Poverty: A Study of 4 Villages of Musahari block, Muzaffarpur, Paper Presented at CPRC-IIPA seminar on ‘Chronic Poverty: Emerging Policy Options and Issues’ 29th & 30th Sept, Indian Institute of Public Administration New Delhi Kaufmann, Daniel (2001): Misrule of Law, (online): http://www.worldbank.org/wbi/governance
Keefer, Philip & Khemani, Stuti (2003): Democracy, Public Expenditures & Poor, World Bank Policy Research, Working Paper No. 3164, World Bank, Washington DC.
Keefer, P & Knack S (1995): Polarization, Property Rights & links between Inequality and Growth, mimeo, World Bank, Washington DC.
Londregan, John B. & Keith Poole (1990): Poverty, the Coup Trap & Seizure of Executive Power, World Politics, XLII, pp. 151-183.
Lee, Chris, Ronny Lindstrom, Will H. Moore & Kursad Turan (2004): Ethnicity & repression: teh ethnic composition of countries & human rights violations, In Understanding Human Rights Violations: New systematic studies, ed. S.C. Carey & S.C. Poe (Aldershot: Ashgate) pp. 186–201
Lee, Jong-Wha & Barro, Robert J (2001): Schooling Quality in a Cross-Section of Countries, Economica, London School of Economics and Political Science, 68(272), pp. 465-88.
Lopez-Pintor, R (1987): Mass and elite perspectives in the process of transition to democracy, in Comparing new democracies, edited by E. A. Baloyra, 79-106. Boulder, CO: Westview.
Loveman, Brian & Th. M. Davies (1997): The Politics of Antipolitics: The Military in Latin America. (Revised Edition) Wilmington DE: Scholarly Resource Books
Lee, Chris (2001): Protest and Repression in Latin America: A Synthetic Model, unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Riverside: University of California
Lee Chris, Lindström, Ronny, Will H Moore & Kürşad Turan (2002): The Ethnic Composition of Countries & Human Rights Violation, in Sabine C. Carey and Steven C. Poe (eds.) The Systematic Study of Human Rights, (under review).
Lindström, Ronny (1996): Private Goods and Collective Action: Overcoming the “Large N” Problem in Ethnic Conflict, unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Riverside: University of California
Landman, Todd, (2006): Holding the Line: Human Rights Defenders in the Age of Terror, British Journal of Politics and International Relations, 8, pp. 123-147
Louis Haddad (1998): Economic Dimensions of Human Rights in Transition Economies, Australian Journal of Human Rights, 6, pp.
Lee Chris, Lindström, Ronny, Will H Moore & Kürşad Turan (2002): The Ethnic Composition of Countries & Human Rights Violation, in Sabine C. Carey and Steven C. Poe (eds.) The Systematic Study of Human Rights, (under review).
Lipset, S.M (1959): Some social requisites of democracy: Economic development and political legitimacy, American Political Science Review, 53, pp. 69-105.
Lake, David & Donald Rotchild (2001): Containing Fear: The Origins and Management of Ethnic Conflict, in Michael E. Brown et al., eds, Nationalism and Ethnic Conflict. Cambridge, MA & London: MIT Press (126–160).
Landman, Todd (2005): The Political Science of Human Rights, British Journal of Political Science, 35 (3), pp. 549-572
Murshed M & Tadjoeddin Z (2007): Reappraising the Greed and Grievance Explanations for Conflict, MICROCON Research Working Paper No 2, http://www.microconflict.eu/.
Muller, E. N & M. A. Seligson (1987): Inequality and Insurgency, American Political Science Review, 81(2), pp. 425–51.
Mahoney-Norris, Kathleen A (2000): Political Repression & Threat Perception: How Solidarity Networks Influence Policy Makers, in Paths to State Repression: Human Rights & Contentious Politics in Comparative Perspective, Davenport (ed), Boulder: Rowman & Littlefield, pp. 71-108
Miguel, Edward, Shanker Satyanath & Ernest Sergenti (2004): Economic Shocks & Civil Conflict: An Instrumental Variables Approach, Journal of Political Economy, 112, pp. 725–53.
Murshed, Mansoob S., & Gates, Scott (2005): Spatial-horizontal inequality & Maoist insurgency in Nepal, Review of Development Economics, 9(1), pp. 121–134
Muller, Edward N (1985): Income Inequality, Regime Repressiveness & Political Violence, American Sociological Review, pp. 47-61.
Muller, Edward N. & Mitchell A. Seligson (1987): Inequality and Insurgency, American Political Science Review, LXXXI, pp. 425-451.
Midlarsky, Manus I (1988): Rulers & the Ruled: Patterned Inequality and the Onset of Mass Political Violence, American Political Science Review, LXXXII, pp. 491-509.
Marks, G. and L. Diamond (eds.) (1992): Reexamining Democracy. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
Michael F. Charette and Ronald Meng (1998): The determinants of literacy and numeracy, and the effect of literacy and numeracy on our market outcomes, Canadian Journal of Economics Revue canadienne d'Economique, 31(3), pp. 495-517.
Moon, Bruce E. Moon & William J. Dixon (1985): Politics, the State, and Basic Human Needs: A Cross-National Study, American Journal of Political Science, 29, pp. 661-94.
Milner, Wesley T., Steven C. Poe & David Leblang (1999): Security Rights, Subsistence Rights, and Liberties: A Theoretical Survey of the Empirical Landscape, Human Rights Quarterly, 21(2), pp. 403-443.
Milner, Wesley T., David Leblang & Steven C. Poe (2004): Providing Subsistence Rights: Do States Make a Difference? in The Systematic Study of Human Rights, (eds.) Sabine Carey and Steven C. Poe. Burlington, VT: Ashgate. pp. 110-24.
Milner, Wesley T (2000): Economic Freedom, Globalizations and Human Rights, Journal of Private Enterprise 15(2), pp. 35-61.
Mitchell & Mc Cormick, (1988): Economic & Political Explanations of Human Rights Violations, World Politics, 40, pp. 476-498.
Moon, B.E (1991): Political Economy of Basic Human Needs. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.
Moller, Herbert (1968): Youth as a Force in the Modern World, Comparative Studies in Society and History, 10, pp. 238–260.
Muller, E. N & E. Weede (1990): Cross-National Variation in Political Violence: A Rational Action Approach, Journal of Conflict Resolution, 34(4): 624–51
McKilay & Cohan (1975): A Comparative Analysis of the Political & Economic Performance of Military and Civilian Regime, Comparative Politics, 8(1), pp. 1-30.
Monty G. Marshall & Ted Robert Gurr (2005): Peace & Conflict 2005: A Global Survey of Armed Conflicts, Self-Determination Movements, and Democracy. College Park, MD: Center for International Development and Conflict Management, University of Maryland.
Marks, G. and L. Diamond (eds.) (1992): Reexamining Democracy. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
Nayyar, Gaurav (2005): Growth and Poverty in Rural India - An Analysis of Inter-State Differences, Economic & Political Weekly, April, pp. 1631-1639.
Olson, Martin (1963): Rapid Growth as a Destabilizing Force, Journal of Economic History, XXIII (1963), pp. 529-552.
Park H, (1987): Correlates of Human Rights: Global Tendencies, Human Rights Quarterly, 9, pp. 405-413.
Poe, Steven C. & C. Neal Tate (1994): Repression of Human Rights to Personal Integrity in the 1980s: A global Analysis, American Political Science Review, 88(4), pp. 853–872.
Poe, Steven C Tanya Vazquez & Sabine Carey (2001): How are these Pictures Different: Assessing the Biases in the U.S. State Department’s Country Reports on Human Rights Practices, Human Rights Quarterly, 23, pp. 650-677
Poe, Steven C.; Neal Tate & Linda C. Keith (1999): Repression of Human Right to Personal Integrity Revisited: A Global Cross-National Study Covering the Years 1976-1993’, International Studies Quarterly, 43, pp. 291–313.
Philip Keefer & Stuti Khemani (2004): Why Do the Poor Receive Poor Services?, Economic & Political Weekly, February, pp. 935-943
Patricia Justino (2008): Poverty and Violent Conflict: A Micro Level Perspective on the Causes and Duration of Warfare, MICROCON Research, working Paper 6.
Patricia Justino (2004): Redistribution, Inequality and Political Conflict, working paper no. 18, Poverty Research Unit, Department of Economics, University of Sussex, UK.
Park, Kang Hoon (1986): Reexamination of the Linkage between Income Inequality and Political Violence, Journal of Political and Military Sociology, XIV, pp. 185-197.
Perotti, Roberto (1992): Fiscal Policy, Income Distribution, and Growth, Columbia University, Working Paper no. 636, November. Perotti, Roberto (1996): Growth, Income Distribution & Democracy: What the Data Say, Journal of Economic Growth, I, pp. 149-187.
Poe, Steven C., C. Neal Tate, Linda Keith and Drew Lanier (2000): Domestic Threats to Regimes’ Rule and Their Abuse of Human Rights Across Time, in Paths to State Repression: Human Rights and Contentious Politics in Comparative Perspective, C. Davenport (ed), Boulder: Rowman and Littlefield, pp. 27-70.
Piketty, Thomas (1997): L'élasticité de la transition non-emploi-emploi, CEPREMAP Working Papers (Couverture Orange) 9708, CEPREMAP.
Pradhan, Jaya Prakash & Abraham V. (2002): Does Human Development Policy Matter for Economic Growth? Evidence from Indian States, South Asia Economic Journal, 3(1), Jan-June.
Quy-Toan Do & Lakshmi Iyer (2007): Poverty, Social Divisions and Conflict in Nepal, presented at World Bank, Harvard Business School, Workshop on Endogenous Institutions & Political Conflict (UC Berkeley) and NEUDC 2006.
Richards, David L. (1999): Perilous Proxy: Human Rights & Presence of National Elections, Social Science Quarterly, 80 (4), pp. 648-665.
Richards, David, R. Gelleny & D. Sacko (2001): Money with a Mean Streak? Foreign Economic Penetration and Government Respect for Human Rights in Developing Countries, International Studies Quarterly, 45(2), pp. 219-39.
Rogers, William H. (1993): Regression Standard Errors in Clustered Samples, Stata Technical Bulletin, 13, pp. 19-23.
Regan, Patrick M & Errol Henderson (2000): Democracy, Threats & Political Repression in Developing Countries: Are Democracies Internally Less Violent?, Third World Quarterly, 23 (1), pp. 119-136
Rodrick, D. (1997): Trade, Social Insurance & the Limits to Globalization, NBER Working Paper No. 5905. Available at: http://papers.nber.org/papers/w5905.
Rodrik, D. (1997): Has Globalization Gone Too Far? Washington, DC: Institute for International Economics.
Rodrik, D. (1998): Who Needs Capital-Account Convertibility? in “Should the IMF Pursue Capital-Account Convertibility”, Essays in International Finance, 207, Princeton University.
Rodríguez, F. & Rodrik, D. (2000): Trade policy and economic growth: a skeptic´s guide to the cross-national evidence, in Ben Bernanke & Kenneth Rogoff (eds.) NBER Macroeconomics Annual 2000, pp. 261– 324. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press.
Robert J. Barro (2001): Human Capital & Growth, American Economic Review, American Economic Association, 91(2), pp. 12-17
Robert J. Barro (2002): Quantity & Quality of Economic Growth, Journal Economía Chilena (The Chilean Economy), Central Bank of Chile, 5(2), pp. 17-36
Ramanathan, Ramu (2002): Introductory Econometrics with Applications, Fifth edition, published by Harcourt College Publishers, USA.
Rasler, Karen A (1976): War, Accommodation & Violence in the United States, 1890-1970, American Political Science Review, 80, pp. 921-945
Sigelman, Lee & M. Simpson (1977): A Cross-National Test of the Linkage between Economic Inequality and Political Violence, Journal of Conflict Resolution, XXI (1977), pp. 105-128.
Svensson, J (1993): Investment, Property Rights and Political Instability, Stockholm University, Institute for International Economic Studies, December.
Schock, Kurt (1996): A Conjectural Model of Political Conflict: Impact of Political Opportunities on Relationship between Economic Inequality & Violent Political Conflict, Journal of Conflict Resolution, XL, pp. 98-133.
Stephen Howes; Rinku Murgai & Marina Wes (2004): Expenditure Implications of India's State-level Fiscal Crisis, working paper asarcc: 2004-15, (online): http://rspas.anu.edu.au/papers/asarc/WP2004_15.pdf
Stephen Howes, Rinku Murgai & Marina Wes (2004): Expenditure Implications of India’s State-level Fiscal Crisis, ASARC, ASARC Working Paper 2004/15
Sumir Meghani (2003): A State-Level Examination of Rural Poverty in India from 1983-1994, MS Honors Thesis, Economics Department, Stanford University, USA
Spalding, Nancy (1986): Providing for Economic Human Rights: The Case of the Third World, Policy Studies Journal 15, pp. 123-34.
Scarritt, James R. & Susan McMillan (2000): Protest, Democratization and Human Rights in Africa, in C. Davenport (ed.) Paths to State Repression: Human Rights Violations and Contentious Politics, pp. 195-216.
Stohl, M (1975): War & Domestic Violence: The Case of the United States, 1890-1970, Journal of Conflict Resolution, 19(3), pp. 379-416.
Sen, Amartya (1999), Development as Freedom, Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Syed Mansoob Murshed (2007): The confl ict-growth nexus & poverty of nations, DESA Working Paper No. 43, ST/ESA/2007/DWP/43, Institute of Social Studies, Netherlands
Studenmund, A H (2001): Using Econometrics, A practical Guide, 4th Edition, Pearson Education.
Sambanis, Nicholas (2004): Using Case Studies to Expand Economic Models of Civil War, Perspectives on Politics, 2(2), pp. 259-279.
Sambanis, Nicholas (2001): Do Ethnic and Non ethnic Civil Wars Have the Same Causes? A Theoretical and Empirical Inquiry (part 1), Journal of Conflict Resolution, 45(3), pp. 259–282.
Sergenti, E. (2005): Ethnic Violence--Growth Matters! - An Empirical Investigation of Hindu-Muslim Riots in India, Paper presented at annual meeting of American Political Science Association.
Strouse, J. C. & Claude, R. P (1976): Empirical Comparative Rights Research: Some Preliminary Tests of Development Hypotheses, in Claude R. P. (Ed.), Comparative Human Rights, Baltimore and London: Johns Hopkins University Press (pp. 51-67).
Tilly, Charles (1978): From Mobilization to Revolution. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley. Uppsala: Department of Peace and Conflict Research, Uppsala University
Toft, Monica Duffy (2007): Population Shifts and Civil War: A Test of Power Transition Theory, International Interactions, 33(3), pp. 243-269.
Urdal, Henrik (2005): People vs. Malthus: Population Pressure, Environmental Degradation and Armed Conflict Revisited, Journal of Peace Research, 42(4), pp. 417–434.
Urdal, Henrik (2006): A Clash of Generations? Youth Bulges and Political Violence, International Studies Quarterly, 50(3), pp. 607–629.
Urdal, Henrik (2008): Population, Resources, and Political Violence: A Subnational Study of India 1956-2002, Journal of Conflict Resolution (forth coming).
US Department of State: India Country Report on Human Rights Practices (2001): http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/hrrpt/2001/sa/8230pf.htm.
Verner D (1999): What Factors Influence Literacy?, Draft, World Bank, Washington, DC
Verner D (2005): What Factors Influence World Literacy? Is Africa Different?, World Bank Policy Research Working Paper 3496, World Bank, Washington DC.
Van de Walle, Dominique P (1995): Public Spending and the Poor: What We Know, What We Need to Know, World Bank Policy Research, Working Paper No. 1476. Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=597227
Vyas, V.S & Bhargava, Pradeep (1995): Public Intervention for Poverty Alleviation: An Overview, Economic and Political Weekly, October 14-21, pp.
Van de Walle, Dominique & Kimberly Nead (1995): Public Spending and the Poor: Theory and Evidence, published for The World Bank, Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore & London.
Vadlamannati Krishna Chaitanya (2007): Exploring the interrelationship between Military expenditure and Income Inequality – Evidence from South Asia, working paper no. 918, William Davidson Institute Michigan University.
Vadlamannati, Krishna Chaitanya (2008): Do Economic Reforms care for Human rights? Evidence from Transition Economics, Working paper No, 02/08, USC, Spain.
Wilkinson, Steven I (2004): Votes and Violence: Electoral Competition and Ethnic Riots in India. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Williams, Rick L. (2000): A Note on Robust Variance Estimation for Cluster-correlated Data, Biometrics, 56, pp. 645-46.
World Bank (2004) Outline: World Development Report 2006, Equity & Development, online: (http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTWDR2006/Resources/WDR_on_Equity_FinalOutline_July_public.pdf)
Walker, Scott & Steven C. Poe (2002): Does Cultural Diversity Affect Countries’ Respect for Human Rights?” Human Rights Quarterly, 24, pp. 237-263
Williamson, J (1987): Social security and physical quality of life in developing nations: A cross-national analysis, Social Indicators Research, 19, pp. 205-227.
Weede, Erich (1981): Income Inequality, Average Income & Domestic Violence, Journal of Conflict Resolution, XXV, 639-654.
Weede, Erich (1987): Some New Evidence on Correlates of Political Violence: Income Inequality, Regime Repressiveness & Economic Development, European Sociological Review, III (1987), pp. 97-108.
Weitz, R (1986): Insurgency & counterinsurgency in Latin America, 1960-1980, Political Science Quarterly, 101(3), pp. 397-414.
Weiner, M. and Teitelbaum, M (2001): Political Demography, Demographic Engineering. New York: Berghahn Books.
Ziegenhahen E. A. (1986): The Regulation of Political Conflict. CT: Praeger.
Zimmermann, E (1980): Macro-comparative research on political protest. In Handbook of political conflict: theory & research, edited by T. R. Gurr, 167-237. New York: Free Press.
Zanger, Sabine C (2000): A Global Analysis of the effect of Political Regime Changes on Life Integrity Violations, 1977-93, Journal of Peace Research, 37, pp. 213-33.
PTS dataset (online) http://www.unca.edu/~mgibney
Census (1981; 1991 & 2001), Central Statistical Organization (CSO), Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation Government of India (online): http://www.censusindia.net/
World Development Indicators, World Bank 2006 (online): http://ddp-ext.worldbank.org/WDI
Reserve Bank of India (RBI), database on Indian economy (online): http://www.rbi.org.in/scripts/statistics.aspx
Economic Survey (2007): Ministry of Finance, Government of India (online): http://indiabudget.nic.in/
STICERD, EOPP, London School of Economics, (online): http://sticerd.lse.ac.uk/eopp/_new/data/Indian_Data/default.asp
Inequality Project – India, University of Texas, http://utip.gov.utexas.edu/data.html