Chen, Xinxin and Shi, Yaojiang and Rozelle, Scott (2007): Does Taking One Step Back Get You Two Steps Forward? Grade Retention and School Performance in Rural China.
Download (329kB) | Preview
Abstract: Despite the rise in grade retention in China recently, little work has been done to understand the impact of grade retention on the educational performance of students in China. This paper seeks to redress this shortcoming and examines this impact on 1649 students in 36 elementary schools in Shaanxi province. With a dataset that was collected from a survey designed specifically to capture school performance of students before and after they were retained, we use Difference-in-Difference, Propensity Score Matching and Difference-in-Difference Matching approaches to analyze the effect of grade retention on school performance. Although the descriptive analysis shows that grade retention helps to improve the scores of the students that were retained, somewhat surprisingly, the results from the multivariate analysis consistently show that there is no significant positive effect of grade retention on school performance of the students. In fact, in some cases (e.g., for the students who repeat grade 2), grade retention is shown to hurt school performance.
|Item Type:||MPRA Paper|
|Original Title:||Does Taking One Step Back Get You Two Steps Forward? Grade Retention and School Performance in Rural China|
|Keywords:||Educational economics; Human capital|
|Subjects:||O - Economic Development, Technological Change, and Growth > O5 - Economywide Country Studies > O53 - Asia including Middle East
I - Health, Education, and Welfare > I2 - Education and Research Insititutions > I21 - Analysis of Education
I - Health, Education, and Welfare > I2 - Education and Research Insititutions > I28 - Government Policy
|Depositing User:||jiang shi|
|Date Deposited:||07. Oct 2008 02:38|
|Last Modified:||13. Feb 2013 04:17|
Abadie, A., and G. Imbens. 2006. “Large sample properties of matching estimators foraverage treatment effects.” Econometrica 74: 235-267.
Abadie, A. (1998). Semiparametric estimation of instrumental variables models for causal effects. In Working Paper. Cambridge, MA: MIT Economics Department.
Alexander, K. L., Entwisle, D. R., and Dauber, S. L. 1994. On the success of failure. New York: University of Cambridge Press.
China Central TV (CCTV). 2006. “the Amazing High retention Rate.9.16: http://bbs.cctv.com/cache/forumbook.jspid=8914299&pg=1&agMode=1
Dehejia, R. H., and S. Wahba. 1999. “'Causal Effects in Nonexperimental Studies:Reevaluating the Evaluation of Training Programs.” Journal of American Statistical Association 94: 1053-1062.
Dehejia, R. H., and S. Wahba. 2002. “Propensity Score-Matching Methods for Nonexperimental Causal Studies.” The Review of Economics and Statistics 84:151-161.
Eide E. R. and M. H. Showalter, 2001. “The effect of grade retention on educational and labor market outcomes.”Economics of Education Review 20 : 563-576.
Fredriksson, P., and Öckert B. 2005. “Is Early Learning Really More Productive? The Effect of School Starting Age on School and Labor Market Performance.” working paper, IZA DP No. 1659
Fine, M. 1991. Framing dropouts: notes on the politics of an urban public high school. Albany, NY: SUNY Press.
Grissom, J. B., and L. A. Shepard. 1989. “Repeating and dropping out of school.” in L. A. Shepard, and M. L. Smith, Flunking grades: research and policies on retention (pp.34–63). London: Falmer.
Guangming Daily, 2000. “Gansu will gradually abolish grade retention in the elementary schools.” 3.28
Holmes, C. T. 1989. “Grade level retention effects: a meta-analysis of research studies.”in L. A. Shepard, & M. L. Smith, Flunking grades: research and policies on retention (pp. 16–33). London: Falmer.
Huang Zh. 1998. “Retention shouldn’t be abolished.” Management of Elementary and Middle Schools 3.
Kellam, S. G., Branch, J. D., Agrawal, K. C., & Ensminger, M. E. 1975. Mental health and going to school: the Woodlawn Program of assessment, early intervention, and evaluation.Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
Rosenbaum, P., and D. B. Rubin. 1983. “The central role of the propensity score in observational studies for causal effects.” Biometrika 70: 41–55
Rosenbaum, P., and D. B. Rubin. 1985. “Constructing a control group using multivariate matched sampling methods that incorporate the propensity score.” American Statistician 39: 33–38
Royce, J. M., R. B. Darlington, & H. W. Murray. 1983. “Pooled analysis: findings across studies.” in Consortium for Longitudinal Studies, As the twig is bent: lasting effects of preschool programs. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum 411–459.
Smith, J. 2004. “Evaluating the Local Economic Development Policies: Theory and Practice.” Unpublished, College Park, Maryland.
Smith, J., and P. Todd. 2005. “Does Matching Overcome Lalonde's Critique of Nonexperimental Estimators?” Journal of Econometrics 125:305-353.
Wang, C., and F. Zhou. 2005. “Reforming fiscal policy after tax for fee reform in China.” Working paper, World Bank, Washington DC.
Wang, l., and Wang J. 1999. “Current situation of basic education in Northwest China.”, http://www.nwnu.edu.cn/yjzx/kcxzh.htm
Wen X. 2002. “Promotion or Retention, which is More Efficient.” Information of Education. 5:17-18
Yang N. 1991. “Analysis on the Dropping out and Grade retention in the Elementary and Middle Schools in China, People’s Education 3.
Yu Z. 1999. “There should be a Retention System in Elementary Schools.” Management of Elementary and Middle Schools 9