Wodon, Quentin and Beegle, Kathleen (2006): Labor Shortages Despite Underemployment? Seasonality in Time Use in Malawi. Published in: Gender, Time Use, and Poverty in sub-Saharan Africa (edited by Mark Blackden and Quentin Wodon, World Bank Working Paper) (January 2006): pp. 97-116.
Download (657kB) | Preview
Evidence for Malawi and other developing countries suggests the existence of labor shortages at the peak of the cropping season, with negative impacts on the ability of households to make the most of their endowments such as land. At the same time, for most of the year, there is substantial underemployment, especially in rural areas. It could therefore be argued that seasonality in the demand for labor is leading to both underemployment and labor shortages. This paper provides basic descriptive data from a 2004 nationally representative household survey to assess the typical workload of the population. The data confirm the presence of strong seasonality effects in the supply of labor, as well as substantial differences in workload between men and women due to the burden of domestic work, including the time spent for collecting water and wood.
|Item Type:||MPRA Paper|
|Original Title:||Labor Shortages Despite Underemployment? Seasonality in Time Use in Malawi|
|Keywords:||Time use; labor supply; poverty; intrahousehold allocation; seasonality|
|Subjects:||J - Labor and Demographic Economics > J2 - Demand and Supply of Labor > J22 - Time Allocation and Labor Supply
I - Health, Education, and Welfare > I3 - Welfare, Well-Being, and Poverty > I32 - Measurement and Analysis of Poverty
J - Labor and Demographic Economics > J1 - Demographic Economics > J16 - Economics of Gender ; Non-labor Discrimination
|Depositing User:||Quentin Wodon|
|Date Deposited:||14. Oct 2008 04:34|
|Last Modified:||23. May 2015 06:28|
Bardasi, E., and Q. Wodon. 2005. “Measuring Time Poverty and Analyzing its Determinants: Concepts and Application to Guinea.” Mimeo, World Bank, Washington, DC.
Beegle, K. 2005. “Labor Effects of Adult Mortality in Tanzanian Households.” Economic Development and Cultural Change 53:655–684.
Brummett, R.E. 2002. “Seasonality, Labor and Integration of Aquaculture into Southern African Smallhold Farming Systems.” Naga - The ICLARM Quarterly, 25(1).
Dercon, S., and P. Krishnan. 2000. “Vulnerability, Seasonality and Poverty in Ethiopia.” Journal of Development Studies 36:25–53.
Ellis, F. 2000. “The Determinants of Rural Livelihood Diversification in Developing Countries.” Journal of Agricultural Economics 51:289–302.
Kamanga, B.C.G. 2002. Understanding the Farmer’s Agricultural Environment in Malawi. Risk Management Projects Working Paper Series 02-01, International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center, Mexico.
Kanwar, S. 2004. “Seasonality and Wage Responsiveness in a Developing Agrarian Economy.” Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics 66:189–204.
Pitt, M.M., and S. Khandker. 2002. “Credit Programmes for the Poor and Seasonality in Rural Bangladesh.” Journal of Development Studies 39:1–24.
Population Reference Bureau. 2004. “Top 15 HIV/AIDS Prevalence Countries (end 2003).”
Shah, M.K., N. Osborne, T. Mbilizi, and G. Vilili. 2001. Impact of HIV/AIDS on Agricultural Productivity and Rural Livelihoods in the Central Region of Malawi. CARE International, Malawi.
Skoufias, E. 1993. “Seasonal Labor Utilization in Agriculture: Theory and Evidence from Agrarian Households in India.” American Journal of Agricultural Economics 75:20–32.
Skoufias, E. 1994. “Risk and Seasonality in an Empirical Model of the Farm Household.” Journal of Economic Development 19:93–116.
Tango International. 2003. Malawi Baseline Survey: Report of Findings. C-Safe.