Vadlamannati, Krishna Chaitanya (2008): The triumph of globalization at the expense of minority discriminations? – An empirical investigation on 76 countries, 1970 – 2005.
Download (240kB) | Preview
The relationship between globalization and minorities’ discrimination remains highly controversial in political economy framework. The neoliberal theorists argue that globalization lead to growth and development which in turn generates respect for basic human rights and thereby lowering discrimination against minorities. While skeptics contend that globalization process always tends to be ‘exclusive of poor’ and increases inequality leading to social unrest and economic insecurity. This leads to a preconceived notion of threat to their survival by the minorities who perceive themselves as the losers from globalization policies. These negative perceptions are often used to mobilize and show their dissent and opposition to the neoliberal policies, allowing governments to resort to repressive measures. We unpack the arguments taking the perspectives of both sides into consideration and test several dimensions of minority discriminations under the conditions of globalization.
We make use of Axel Dreher’s comprehensive measure of globalization index as a proxy for overall globalization process, followed by economic; social and political globalization indices capturing not only economic dimension, but also political and social dimensions of globalization, which is often ignored in previous studies. Using the sample of 76 countries for the period 1970 – 2005, our findings reveal a strong positive association between globalization and decline in two forms of minority discriminations viz., economic and political discriminations. In contrast to the arguments of dependency school of thought, we also find positive relationship between economic; social and political globalization and decline in both forms of discriminations. Of particular interest is the finding that these results are reiterated for a sample of low-income countries.
|Item Type:||MPRA Paper|
|Original Title:||The triumph of globalization at the expense of minority discriminations? – An empirical investigation on 76 countries, 1970 – 2005|
|Keywords:||Globalization; Minorities discrimination|
|Subjects:||F - International Economics > F1 - Trade > F15 - Economic Integration
P - Economic Systems > P1 - Capitalist Systems > P16 - Political Economy
|Depositing User:||Krishna Chaitanya Vadlamannati|
|Date Deposited:||11. Nov 2008 03:36|
|Last Modified:||11. Feb 2013 10:21|
Andersen, T. M. & Herbertsson, T. T. (2005): Quantifying globalization, Applied Economics, 37(10), pp. 1089 — 1098.
Barro, R. and Sala-i-Martin, X. (1995): Economic Growth (New York: McGraw Hill).
Blanton, Shannon Lindsey & Blanton, Robert G (2007): What Attracts Foreign Investors? An Examination of Human Rights & FDI, Journal of Politics, 69(1), pp. 143-155.
Barbieri, K & Rafael R (2005): Globalization & Civil War, Jonl of Politics 67(4), pp. 1228–1248
Brunner, A. D., (2003): The Long-Run Effects of Trade on Income and Income Growth, IMF Working Paper 03/37 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).
Blinder, A. (2006): Off shoring: The Next Industrial Revolution?, Foreign Affairs.
Boswell, Terry & William J. Dixon (1990): Dependency and Rebellion: a Cross national Analysis, American Sociological Review, 55(4), pp. 540–559.
Barbieri, Katherine (1996): Economic Interdependence: A Path to Peace or a Source of Interstate Conflict? Journal of Peace Research, 33(1), pp. 29–49.
Chua, A. (2003): World on Fire, How Exporting Free Market Democracy Breeds Ethnic Hatred and Global Instability, New York: Anchor Books.
Crossett, B (1997): A New Credo: Make Money, Nor War, in J.M. Lindsay (ed.) Perspectives: Global Issues, Boulder, Colo: Course wise.
Dollar, David (2004): Globalization, Poverty & Inequality since 1980, World Bank policy, Research Working paper 3333.
Dreher, Axel, Gassebner, Martin & Siemers, Lars-H. R (2007): Does Terror Threaten Human Rights? Evidence from Panel Data, WPS 07-156, KOF Swiss Economic Institute, ETH Zurich
Davenport, Christian. (1995): Multi-Dimensional Threat Perception & State Repression: An Inquiry into Why States Apply Negative Sanctions, American Journal of Political Science, 39 (3), pp. 683-713.
Davenport, Christian & Amstrong, David A (2004): Democracy and the Violation of Human Rights: A Statistical Analysis from 1976-1996, American Journal of Political Science 48(3), pp. 538-554.
Dan Ben-David (1993): Equalizing Exchange: Trade Liberalization and Income Convergence, Quarterly Journal of Economics, 108(3), pp. 653-679
Doces, John (2006): Globalization & Democracy: Empirical Analysis Using Simultaneous Equation Approach, presented at Annual International Political Economy Conference Woodrow Wilson School of Public & International Affairs Center for Globalization & Governance.
Edwards, S (1993): Openness, Trade liberalization and Growth in Developing Countries’, Journal of Economic Literature, 31(3), pp. 1358-1393. Fearon, James D. & David D. Laitin (2003): Ethnicity, Insurgency & Civil War, American Political Science Review 97 (1), pp. 1–16
Frankel, J & Romer, D (1999): Does trade cause growth? American Economic Review, 89(3), pp. 379–399.
Frey, R. Scott, Al-Sharideh, Khalid, Bausman, Kent, DaNa, Seifaldin, Dunkley, Robert, Keboneilwe, Daphne, Kemeh, Michael, Khoury, Laura, Laman, Sherry, Monier, Janis, Reyes, Deborah, Schraeder, James & Sheriff, Alpha (199): Development, Dependence, Population Pressure & Human Rights: Cross-National Evidence, Human Ecology Review, 6(1), pp. 48 – 55.
Frank, A. G (1979): Dependent Accumulation and Underdevelopment, New York, Monthly Review Press.
Flanagan, W. H. & E. Fogelman (1971): Patterns of Political Science in Comparative Historical Perspective, Comparative Politics 3(1), pp. 1–20.
Greenaway, D., Morgan, W. and Wright, P. (1998): Trade reform, adjustment and growth: What does the evidence tell us, Economic Journal, 108(450), pp. 1547–1561.
Giavazzi, Francesco & Tabellini, Guido (2005): Economic and political liberalizations, Journal of Monetary Economics, 52, pp. 1297–1330.
Hayek, F. (1976): Law, Legislation and Liberty, Vol.2: The Mirage of Social Justice, Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Hegre, Håvard, Tanja Ellingsen, Scott Gates, & Nils Petter Gleditsch (2001): Toward a Democratic Civil Peace? Democracy, Political Change, and Civil War, 1816–1992, American Political Science Review, 95(1), pp. 33–48.
Haan, Jakob De, Lundstrom, S & Sturm, Jan (2006): Market Oriented Institutions & Policies & Economic Growth: A Critical Survey, Journal of Economic Surveys, 20(2), pp. 157 - 191.
Heshmnati, A (2005): Relationship between Income Inequality, Poverty & Globalization, World Institute for Development Economics Research paper no. 2005/37, United Nations University.
Jacobsen, Monika S. (1996): Peace and Prosperity, or Democratic Chaos?, Internasjonal Politikk, 54(2), pp. 237–254.
Johnston, A (2001): Disparities in wealth are seen as fuel for terrorism, International Herald Tribune, December 19.
Krugman, P. (2007): Trade and Inequality, Revisited, available online at http://www.voxeu.org/index.php?q=node/261
Kaufmann, D & Aart Kraay & Massimo Mastruzzi (2004): Governance Matters III: Governance Indicators: 1996, 1998, 2000 & 2002, World Bank Economic Review, 18(2), pp. 253-287.
Kaufmann, Daniel (2004): Corruption, Governance and Security: Challenges for the Rich Countries and the World, MPRA Paper 8207, University Library of Munich, Germany.
Kenny, Charles (2005): Why are we worried about Income? Nearly everything that Matters is Converging, World Development, 33(1), pp. 1 – 19.
Kamenka, E. (1970): The Concepts of a Political Revolution” in G.A. Kelly & C.W. Brown (eds.) Struggles in the State: Sources & Patterns of World Revolution. New York: John Wiley.
La Porta, R., Lopez-de-Silanes, F., Shleifer, A. & Vishny, R.W (1998): Law and finance, Journal of Political Economy 106(6), pp. 1113–1155.
Lockwood, Ben & Redoano, Michela (2005): The CSGR Globalization Index: An Introductory Guide, Centre for the Study of Globalization and Regionalization, Working Paper 155/04.
Londregan, John B & Keith T. Poole (1996): Does High Income Promote Democracy? World Politics, (49), pp. 1-30.
Mitchell & Mc Cormick, (1988): Economic & Political Explanations of Human Rights Violations, World Politics, 40, pp. 476-498.
Merritt, Giles (2001): Wake up to the perilous cost of the wealth gap, International Herald Tribune, October 30.
Milner, W. T, Poe S. C & Leblang D (1999): Security Rights, Subsistence Rights & Liberties: A Theoretical Survey of Empirical Landscape, Human Rights Quarterly, 21, pp. 403 – 443.
Marshall, Monty, G & Keith Jaggers (2002): Polity IV Project: Political Regime Characteristics and Transitions, 1800-2000. College Park: University of Maryland, Accessed from: http://www.cidcm.umd.edu/inscr/polity/
Moon B.E & Dixon W.J (1985): Politics, the State and Basic Human Needs: A Cross National Study, American Journal of political Science 29, pp. 661-94.
Martin, Philippe & Mayer, Thierry & Thoenig, Mathias, (2005): Make Trade not War?, CEPR Discussion Papers 5218, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
Milner, Wesley T., Steven C. Poe & David Leblang (1999): Security Rights, Subsistence Rights, & Liberties: Theoretical Survey of Empirical Landscape, Human Rights Quarterly, 21(2), pp. 403-443.
Meyer W. H (1996): Human Rights & MNCs: Theory versus Quantitative Analysis, Human Rights Quarterly, 18, pp. 368 – 397.
Milner, Wesley T., David Leblang, and Steven C. Poe (2004): Providing Subsistence Rights: Do States Make a Difference? - In Systematic Study of Human Rights, (eds.) Sabine Carey and Steven C. Poe. Burlington, VT: Ashgate. pp. 110-24.
Poe, Steven C. & C. Neal Tate (1994): Repression of Human Rights to Personal Integrity in the 1980s: A global Analysis, American Political Science Review, 88(4), pp. 853–872.
Poe, Steven C.; Neal Tate & Linda C. Keith (1999): Repression of Human Right to Personal Integrity Revisited: A Global Cross-National Study Covering the Years 1976-1993’, International Studies Quarterly, 43, pp. 291–313. Rogers, William H, (1993): Regression Standard Errors in Clustered Samples, Stata Technical Bulletin, 13, pp. 19-23.
Rodrik, D (1994): The rush to free trade in the developing world: Why so late? Why now? Will it last? in: Haggard, S., Webb, S. (Eds.), Voting for Reform: Democracy, Political Liberalization & Economic Adjustment. Oxford Univ. Press, Oxford.
Rodrik, D. (1997): Has Globalization Gone Too Far? Institute for International Economics, USA
Rodrik, D. (1998): Who Needs Capital-Account Convertibility? in “Should the IMF Pursue Capital-Account Convertibility”, Essays in International Finance, 207, Princeton University.
Rodrik, Dani (1999): Why Do More Open Economies Have Bigger Governments? Survival, 35, pp. 27 – 47.
Rodríguez, F. and Rodrik, D. (2000): Trade policy and economic growth: a sceptics guide to cross-national evidence, in Ben Bernanke & Kenneth Rogoff (eds.) NBER Macroeconomics Annual 2000, pp. 261– 324. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press.
Rice, Susan E (2001): The Africa battle, The Washington Post, December 11.
Rao, B. Bhaskara & Tamazian, Artur & Vadlamannati, Krishna Chaitanya (2008): Growth Effects of a Comprehensive Measure of Globalization with Country Specific Time Series Data, Applied Economics (Forthcoming).
Rothgeb J M (1989): FDI, Repression & Reform & Political Conflict in 3rd World States, Markets, Politics & Changes in Global Political Economy, Journal of Peace Research, 27, pp. 295 – 352.
Richards, David L. Ronald D. Gelleny & David H. Sacko (2001): Money with a Mean Streak? Foreign Economic Penetration and Government Respect for Human Rights in Developing Countries, International Studies Quarterly, 45(2), pp. 219–239.
Ross Michael L (2004): How Do Natural Resources Influence Civil War? Evidence from Thirteen Cases, International Organization 58, pp. 35–67.
Sen, Amartya (1996): Freedom Favors Development, New Perspectives Quarterly (Fall).
Sen, Amartya (1999): Development as Freedom, Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Stiglitz J & Squire L (1998): International Development: Is It Possible? Foreign Policy, 110, pp. 138-151.
Sachs, Jeffrey & Warner, Andrew, (1995): Economic Reforms and the Process of Global Integration, Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, pp. 1-118.
Spar D. L (1998): The Spotlight and the Bottom Line: How Multinationals Export Human Rights, Foreign Affairs, 77, pp. 7 – 12.
Summers, L. (2006): Financial Times, October 29.
Tyson, Laura (2001): It’s time to step up the global war on poverty, Business Week, December 3. Vamvakidis, A. (1998): Regional Integration and Economic Growth, World Bank Economic Review, 12(2), 251–70.
Weede, E. (1995): Economic Policy and International Security: Rent-Seeking, Free Trade & Democratic Peace, European Journal of International Relations, 1, pp. 519–537
Williams, Rick L (2000): A Note on Robust Variance Estimation for Cluster-correlated Data, Biometrics, 56, pp. 645-46.
White, H. (1980): A Heteroskedasticity Consistent Covariance Matrix Estimator & a Direct Test of Heteroskedasticity, Econometrica, (48), pp. 817-838.
Zhao, L. (1998): The impact of FDI on wages and employment, Oxford Economic Papers, 50, pp.284-301.