Bradbury, Bruce (2006): The impact of young motherhood on education, employment and marriage.
Download (397kB) | Preview
The poor socio-economic outcomes of women who have their first child when young are well documented. However, the policy implications of this association depend upon the causal mechanisms that underlie it. Recent studies in the US and UK have used miscarriage as an instrument to identify the direct causal impact of young childbearing – with US research suggesting that early child-bearing may even have a beneficial impact upon mother’s outcomes. This paper uses this method to examine this issue for a new Australian panel of young women. No evidence is found for an adverse impact of young childbirth on education, labour market, income or location. Instead these outcomes follow the patterns that might be expected on the basis of selection effects. On the other hand, young motherhood does have an impact on partnering outcomes. Being a young mother reduces the likelihood of being legally married (instead of defacto partnered) when aged in the late 20s. Also, having a child in the early rather than late 20s leads to a greater likelihood of being a lone parent at around age 30.
|Item Type:||MPRA Paper|
|Institution:||University of New South Wales|
|Original Title:||The impact of young motherhood on education, employment and marriage|
|Keywords:||teenage mothers; miscarriage|
|Subjects:||J - Labor and Demographic Economics > J1 - Demographic Economics > J12 - Marriage; Marital Dissolution; Family Structure; Domestic Abuse
J - Labor and Demographic Economics > J1 - Demographic Economics > J13 - Fertility; Family Planning; Child Care; Children; Youth
|Depositing User:||Bruce Bradbury|
|Date Deposited:||10. Jan 2007|
|Last Modified:||12. Feb 2013 01:55|
Angrist, J. D., G. W. Imbens and D. B. Rubin (1996), ‘Identification of causal effects using instrumental variables’ Journal of the American Statistical Association 91(434, June): pp. 444-55. Angrist, Joshua D. and Alan B. Krueger (2001), ‘Instrumental variables and the search for identification: From supply and demand to natural experiments’ Journal of Economic Perspectives 15: pp. 69-85. Bradbury, B. (2006, forthcoming), ‘Disadvantage among Australian young mothers’, Australian Journal of Labour Economics 9(2). Bradbury, B. and K. Norris (2005), Family Dynamics in Australia Final Report of the Fluid Families Project, Report for the Department of Family and Community Services under the Deed of Agreement for the Provision of Social Policy Research and Services, Social Policy Research Centre, June. Ermisch, J. and D. J. Pevalin (2003), ‘Does a “teen-birth” have longer-term impacts on the mother? Evidence from the 1970 British Cohort Study’, ISER Working Paper No. 2003-28. Ermisch, J. and D. J. Pevalin (2005), ‘Early motherhood and later partnerships’, Journal of Population Economics, 18: pp. 469-89. Hoffman, S. D. (1998), ‘Teenage childbearing is not so bad after all … or is it? A review of the new literature’, Family Planning Perspectives, 30, pp. 236-9 Holmlund, H. (2005), ‘Estimating long-term consequences of teenage childbearing; An examination of the siblings approach’, Journal of Human Resources, 40(3): pp. 716-743. Hotz, V. J., S. McElroy and S. Sanders (2005), ‘Teenage childbearing and its life cycle consequences: exploiting a natural experiment’, Journal of Human Resources, XL (3): pp. 683-715. Hotz, V. Joseph, Charles H. Mullin and Seth G. Sanders (1997), ‘Bounding causal effects using data from a contaminated natural experiment: analyzing the effects of teenage childbearing, Review of Economic Studies, 64: pp. 575-603. Kline, Jennie, J. Stein and M. Susser (1989), Conception to Birth: Epidemiology of Prenatal Development, Monographs in Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Volume 14, OUP, New York. Lee, C., A. J. Dobson, W. J. Brown, L. Bryson, J. Byles, P. Warner-Smith and A. F. Young (2005), ‘Cohort profile: the Australian longitudinal study on women’s health’, International Journal of Epidemiology, (published May 13). Stewart, J. (2003), ‘The mommy track: the consequences of gender ideology and aspirations on age at first motherhood’, Journal of Sociology and Social Welfare, 30(2): pp. 3-30. UNICEF (2001), A League Table of Teenage Births in Rich Nations, Innocenti Report Card, Issue No. 3, July. Florence: UNICEF Innocenti Research Centre http://www.unicef-icdc.org/publications/index.html Wolfe, B., K. Wilson and R. Haveman (2001), ‘The role of economic incentives in teenage nonmarital childbearing choices’, Journal of Public Economics, 81, pp. 473–511.