Funk, Matt (2008): On the Problem of the Island of Earth: Introducing a Universal Theory of Value in an Open Letter to The President of the United States.
Download (4Mb) | Preview
This paper introduces a unified theory of value.
|Item Type:||MPRA Paper|
|Original Title:||On the Problem of the Island of Earth: Introducing a Universal Theory of Value in an Open Letter to The President of the United States|
|Keywords:||theory of value; evolutionary stable solution; economic power; military power; national security; global threat mitigation; extinction; human evolution; ideological environmentalism; the problem of induction; karl popper; F.A. von Hayek; austrian economics|
|Subjects:||B - History of Economic Thought, Methodology, and Heterodox Approaches > B4 - Economic Methodology > B40 - General
A - General Economics and Teaching > A1 - General Economics > A12 - Relation of Economics to Other Disciplines
Z - Other Special Topics > Z1 - Cultural Economics; Economic Sociology; Economic Anthropology > Z10 - General
|Depositing User:||Matt Funk|
|Date Deposited:||06. Apr 2009 08:31|
|Last Modified:||12. Feb 2013 00:13|
SELECTED & ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY
Amir, S. (1994). The role of thermodynamics in the study of economic and ecological systems. Ecological Economics, 10(2), 125-142.
Andsersen, Henning (1995) ‘Research on Islands: Classic, Recent and Prospective Approaches’ in P. M. Vitousek, L. Loope & H. Adsersen, eds. Islands: Biological Diversity and Ecosystem Function, New York, Springer-Verlag, pp. 7-21.
Anckar, D & Anckar, C. (1995) ‘Size, Insularity and Democracy’, Scandinavian Political Studies, Vol. 18, No. 4, pp. 211-229.
Aoki, K. (2004). Altruism may be sexy: Comment on cultural group selection, coevolutionary processes and large-scale cooperation. Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, 53(1), 37-40.
Arnason, R. (2008). Fisheries management and operations research. European Journal of Operational Research, In Press, Corrected Proof
Arrow, K., Bolin, B., Costanza, R., Dasgupta, P., Folke, C., Holling, C. S., et al. (1995). Economic growth, carrying capacity, and the environment. Ecological Economics, 15(2), 91-95.
Aumann, R.J. (2005). War and peace. Sveriges Riksbank Prize Lecture. December 8, 2005. Center for the Study of Rationality, and Department of Mathematics, The Hebrew University, Jerusalem, Israel.
Axelrod, R., & Hamilton, W. (1981). The evolution of cooperation,'' Science, 211:1390-1396 (March 1981).
Baldacchino, G. (2007). Fixed links and the engagement of islandness: reviewing the impact of the Confederation Bridge. The Canadian Geographer/Le Géographe Canadien, 51(3), 323-336. 1. The Confederation Bridge, linking Prince Edward Island (PEI) to New Brunswick (NB) across the Northumberland Strait... has probably been the most keenly debated and most traumatic event in the modern history of PEI, Canada's smallest province (Calhoun 1989; Weale 1991; Begley 1993; Shea 1993; Johnston 1995; Macdonald 1997) (p 329). 2. In A Geography of Islands, Royle dedicates the first photo in his book to the 14-km Confederation Bridge, linking PEI (and its 140,000 citizens) to mainland New Brunswick since 1997 (Royle 2001, 13). To judge from the lead-up, many Islanders held high hopes from the completed structure. ‘Our Island province is about to experience a transition to a new frontier of vigorous expansion and renewed community vitality,’ PEI Premier Pat Binns predicted at the official opening. ‘Our traditional sectors of agriculture and the fishery will be enhanced by a marked improvement in transportation infrastructure (Journal-Pioneer 1997). The decision to bridge the gap (that is, the Northumberland Strait) was by no means universally popular, however (Royle 2001, 114; Begley 1993). Prominent islanders like Betty Howatt campaigned vigorously against the bridge—because she saw ‘a loosening of the social fabric in the province’ and claimed that ‘people no longer have that sense of place that they once had’ (The Guardian, PEI, 8 November 2003). In a January 1988 plebiscite, 40 percent of islanders voted against a fixed link. For many of these, a fixed attachment was a violation of a natural order of things; a forced and permanent alternation of an intimate and fundamental spatiality (e.g., Weale 1991, 82). A key perceived threat was to the impact that a bridge would have on the island's unique and distinct ‘way of life.’ The latter may escape definition, although Ansel Ferguson, an island fisherman, describes it as ‘a little more friendliness, a little more community, a little less crime’ (Calhoun 1989, 19). Critics argued that easy access to the island province would damage the tranquility, natural beauty and charm of island life. Islanders did not want the green fields and red soil to be tarnished by the hotdog stands and jukebox joints that would transform the place into another Coney Island (CBC 2002). A fixed connection would allow New Brunswick and Nova Scotia firms to truck their products more efficiently to PEI, as well as encourage Islanders to go shopping in such places as Moncton or Halifax, undercutting the island's smaller producers and retail outlets. Fishers complained that any solid structure in the strait would affect fish stocks, shellfish beds and especially lobster (FEARO 1990, 13) (p 329). 3. For an island that depends so much on its natural resources (sea, land) and their scapes and symbolism (through tourism) to support its economy, it is not surprising that much concern was raised on the environmental impact of the bridge, especially in the sensitive Northumberland Strait. There are now tell tale signs of ‘ecological collapse’ in that stretch of water (Gustafson 2006). Many are claiming that the bridge is to blame for a ‘sick strait’ (e.g., CBC 2006)....The Federal Environmental Assessment Review Office had concluded, in 1990, that ‘… in terms of the marine ecosystem of the Northumberland Strait, the risks associated with the proposed bridge concept are unacceptable’ (FEARO 1990, 14) (pp 321-322).
Baldacchino, G. (2007). A world of islands : an island studies reader. Charlottetown, P.E.I.; Malta: Institute of Island Studies; Miller House.
Baldacchino, G., Baldacchino, G., MacDonald, E., Baldacchino, G., & Spears, A. (2007). Bridging islands : the impact of fixed links. Charlottetown, P.E.I.: Acorn Press.
Baldacchino, G., Greenwood, R., MacKinnon, W. E., Bartmann, B., & UPEI. IIS. (1998). Competing strategies of socio-economic development for small islands. Charlottetown, P.E.I.: IIS, UPEI. 1. Even the official motto belies its aspirations. The motto of Prince Edward Island, Parva sub ingenti, “the small under the protection of the great,” is an apt metaphor for Canada’s smallest province. It is also a bitterly paradoxical expression of the Island’s status as a “have not” province, largely dependent on others for its survival, first as a colony under British rule and then as a somewhat reluctant new province of Canada. As Prince Edward Island comes to the end of the 20th century, the goal of greater self-sufficiency and self-reliance remains as elusive as ever (p 175). Baldacchino, G., Milne, D., Bartmann, B., Srebrnik, H. F., Paterson, R., Jolliffe, L., et al. (2000). Lessons from the political economy of small islands : The resourcefulness of jurisdiction. New York: St. Martin's Press.
Bartmann, B. (1991). A world made safe for small states. Charlottetown: Institute of Island Studies.
Baumgärtner, S., Becker, C., Faber, M., & Manstetten, R. (2006). Relative and absolute scarcity of nature. Assessing the roles of economics and ecology for biodiversity conservation. Ecological Economics, 59(4), 487-498.
Beaulier, S., & Caplan, B. (2007). Behavioral Economics and Perverse Effects of the Welfare State. Kyklos, 60(4), 485-507. 1. The perverse effects frequently attributed to the welfare state are easy to interpret from a behavioral perspective. If people overestimate the magnitude of immediate benefits relative to more distant ones, you can actually – on net – harm them by offering them additional immediate benefits. They already tend to under-invest. Making their present more livable with cash gifts only amplifies this tendency. Similarly, if individuals systematically overestimate their own abilities, you could easily harm a student by admitting him to a program for which he is under-qualified. Blinded by over-confidence, he would be likely to select the best school that accepted him, scarcely considering the possibility that he will be out of his league. Looking at the welfare state from a behavioral standpoint lays the groundwork for a stronger claim: Potential welfare recipients’ deviations from neoclassical assumptions tend to be especially pronounced. If the average American falls short of the neoclassical ideal, the average recipient of government assistance does not even come close (p 487). 2. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first paper to analyze the connection between behavioral economics and what Tyler Cowen calls the ‘traditional conservative critique of the welfare state.’ Most detractors of the welfare state have turned to neoclassical economics for intellectual support. Few promoters of behavioral economics have stopped to consider its implications for poverty policy. Our paper aims to reverse both of these trends. Some of the most common complaints about the welfare state are, from a strict neoclassical perspective, senseless. But from the standpoint of behavioral economics, they are quite coherent. Moreover, even though behavioral economists have given policy towards the disadvantaged short shrift, this turns out to be a topic where behavioral findings are especially relevant. A variety of sources indicate that ‘the poor deviate more.’ If the average person violates neoclassical assumptions, the average welfare recipient violates them to a markedly greater degree.... Once you accept the idea that you can hurt people by giving them more choices, you cannot dismiss the idea that you can help them by taking some of their choices away. In practice, of course, the latter is much more costly and intrusive than the former (Glaeser 2006) (p 503).
Becker, G. S. (1993). Sveriges Riksbank Prize Lecture: The Economic Way of Looking at Behavior. The Journal of Political Economy, 101(3), 385-409.
Begley, L. (1993). Crossing that bridge : a critical look at the PEI fixed link. Charlottetown, PEI: Ragweed Press.
Beise, J., & Voland, E. (2002). Differential infant mortality viewed from an evolutionary biological perspective. The History of the Family, 7(4), 515-526.
Benz, M., & Frey, B. S. (Online early release). Being independent is a great thing. Economica.
Benson, V. S., VanLeeuwen, J. A., Sanchez, J., Dohoo, I. R., & Somers, G. H. (2006). Spatial analysis of land use impact on ground water nitrate concentrations. Journal of environmental quality, 35(2), 421-432. doi:35/2/421 [pii]; 10.2134/jeq2005.0115 [doi]
Berninghaus, S., & Schwalbe, U. (1996). Evolution, interaction, and Nash equilibria. Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, 29(1), 57-85. Biagini, E., & Hoyle, B. S. (1999). Insularity and development : international perspectives on islands. London ; New York: Pinter.
Blaikie, P. M., & Brookfield, H. C. (1987). Land degradation and society. London ; New York: Methuen.
Botton, A. de. (2001). The consolations of philosophy (1st Vintage International ed.). New York: Vintage Books
Brubaker, E., & 20 Atlantic Institute for Market Studies. (1995). Making the oceans safe for fish : how property rights can reverse the destruction of the atlantic fisheries. Halifax, NS: Atlantic Institute for Market Studies. Bush, G. W. (Bush 2006). Proclamation on Independence Day, 2006, President pays tribute to our Nation's Founding Fathers. THE WHITE HOUSE. Office of the Press Secretary. June 26, 2006. Distributed by the Bureau of International Information Programs, U.S. Department of State. Web site: http://usinfo.state.gov.
Bush, G. (1991) Remarks on Presenting the Presidential Medal of Freedom Awards, 1991 Public Papers of the Presidents of the United States, George November 18, 1991. Retrieved 7/2/2008, from http://www.medaloffreedom.com/1991Recipients.htm
Capra, F. (2007). The science of Leonardo : inside the mind of the great genius of the Renaissance (1st ed.). New York: Doubleday. - - - . (2002). The hidden connections : integrating the biological, cognitive, and social dimensions of life into a science of sustainability (1st ed.). New York: Doubleday.
Carlsson, H., & Damme, E. v. (1993). Global Games and Equilibrium Selection. Econometrica, 61(5), 989-1018.
Cairns, D. K. (1992). Fisheries management on Prince Edward Island : insular autonomy or Pax Ottawa?. Charlottetown: Institute of Island Studies. Canada. (1970). Canada. Dept. of Regional Economic Expansion, & Prince Edward Island. (1970). Development plan for Prince Edward Island : A 15 year federal-provincial program for social and economic advancement, 1970. Helen C. Abell Collection, UPEI, 1970.
- - - . (1971). Canada. Dept. of Regional Economic Expansion, & Prince Edward Island. (1971). Agreement covering development plan for Prince Edward Island, between the government of Canada and the government of Prince Edward Island March 7, 1969, amended by Amendment no.1 of June 21, 1971. Ottawa: Information Canada.
- - - . (1975). Canada. Dept. of Regional Economic Expansion & Agricultural and Rural Development Act. Developement Plan for Prince Edward Island, Dept. of Regional Economic Expansion and the Province of Prince Edward Island, 1975. 1975: Helen C. Abell Collection: UPEI. Caribbean Conservation Association, & Island Resources Foundation. (1991). Environmental agenda for the 1990's : a synthesis of the Eastern Caribbean country environmental profile series : Antigua and Barbuda, Dominica, Grenada, St. Kitts and Nevis, St. Lucia, St. Vincent and the Grenadines. St. Michael, Barbados; Washington, D.C.: The Caribbean Conservation Association; The Island Resources Foundation. Caribbean Conservation Association, & Saint Vincent and the Grenadines. Ministry of Health and the Environment. (1990). St. Vincent and the Grenadines. St. Michael, Barbados: The Association.
Carlquist, S. J. (1974). Island biology. New York: Columbia University Press.
- - - . (1965). Island life: a natural history of the islands of the world (1st ed.). Garden City, N.Y.: Published for the American Museum of Natural History by the Natural History Press.
Carson, R. (1962). Silent spring. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
Cellino, A., Somma, R., Tommasi, L., Paolinetti, R., Muinonen, K., Virtanen, J., et al. (2006). NERO: General concept of a Near-Earth object Radiometric Observatory. Advances in Space Research, 37(1), 153-160.
Charles, M. E. (1997). A future for small states : overcoming vulnerability. Commonwealth Advisory Group for Updating the 1985 Vulnerability Report, London: Commonwealth Secretariat.
CIA. (2008). The United States Central Intelligence Agency World Factbook -- Saint Vincent and the Grenadines. Updated 17 January, 2008. Clark, C. W., Clarke, F. H., & Munro, G. R. (1979). The Optimal Exploitation of Renewable Resource Stocks: Problems of Irreversible Investment. Econometrica, 47(1), 25-47.
Clark, J. M. (1918). Readings in the economics of war. Chicago, IL: The University of Chicago Press.
Clow, F. R. (1893). Our Commercial Relations with the Hawaiian Islands. The Journal of Political Economy, 1(2), 280-284.
Coase, R. H. (1937). The nature of the firm. Economica, 4(16), 386-405.
Costanza, R., d'Arge, R., de Groot, R., Farber, S., Grasso, M., Hannon, B., Naeem, S., Limburg, K., Paruelo, J., O'Neill, R.V., Raskin, R., Sutton, P., and van den Belt, M. (1997). The value of the world's ecosystem services and natural capital. Nature 387: 253-260.
Copernicus, N. (1543). On the revolutions of the heavenly spheres [De revolutionibus orbium caelestium (literal translation: The revolutions of celstrial orbs).] (A. M. Duncan Trans.). (1976th ed.). Newton Abbot Eng.; New York: David & Charles; Barnes & Noble.
Cournot, A. A. (1838). Researches into the mathematical principles of the theory of wealth. New York; London: Macmillan; Macmillan.
Cressman, R. (1996). Evolutionary Stability in the Finitely Repeated Prisoner 's Dilemma Game. Journal of Economic Theory, 68(1), 234-248.
Crusol, J., & Crusol, L. (1980). A programme for agriculture in island plantation economies. World Development, 8(12), 1027-1033.
Czárán, T. (1999). Game theory and evolutionary ecology: Evolutionary Games & Population Dynamics by J. Hofbauer and K. Sigmund, and Game Theory & Animal Behaviour, edited by L.A. Dugatkin and H.K. Reeve. Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 14(6), 246-247.
Czárán, T. (1999). Game theory and evolutionary ecology: Evolutionary Games & Population Dynamics by J. Hofbauer and K. Sigmund, and Game Theory & Animal Behaviour, edited by L.A. Dugatkin and H.K. Reeve. Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 14(6), 246-247.
Daily, G.C. (1997). Nature's Services: Societal Dependence on Natural Ecosystems. Washington, D.C.: Island Press. Daly, H. (1991). Steady-State Economics (2nd ed.). Washington, D.C.: Island Press.
Daly, H. and Farley, J. (2004). Ecological Economics: Principles and Applications. Washington: Island Press.
Darwin, C. (1845). Journal of the researches into the natural history and geology of the countries visited during the voyage of h.m.s. beagle round the world. From so simple a beginning: the four great books of charles darwin. Introduction, Afterword, and General Index by E.O. Wilson, 2006, 1st ed.). New York: W.W. Norton.
- - - . (1859a). On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life (A facsimile of the first edition by Wildside Press, Holicong, PA, U.S.A., 2003 ed.). London: John Murray, Albermarle Street. 1. WHEN on board H.M.S. Beagle, as naturalist, I was much struck with certain facts in the distribution of the inhabitants of South America, and in the geological relations of the present to the past inhabitants of that continent. These facts seemed to me to throw some light on the origin of species — that mystery of mysteries, as it has been called by one of our greatest philosophers. On my return home, it occurred to me, in 1837, that something might perhaps be made out on this question by patiently accumulating and reflecting on all sorts of facts which could possibly have any bearing on it. After five years' work I allowed myself to speculate on the subject, and drew up some short notes (p 1). 2. It is interesting to contemplate an entangled bank, clothed with many plants of many kinds, with birds singing on the bushes, with various insects flitting about, and with worms crawling through the damp earth, and to reflect that these elaborately constructed forms, so different from each other, and dependent on each other in so complex a manner, have all been produced by laws acting around us. These laws, taken in the largest sense, being Growth with Reproduction; inheritance which is almost implied by reproduction; Variability from the indirect and direct action of the external conditions of life, and from use and disuse; a Ratio of Increase so high as to lead to a Struggle for Life, and as a consequence to Natural Selection, entailing Divergence of Character and the Extinction of less-improved forms. Thus, from the war of nature, from famine and death, the most exalted object which we are capable of conceiving, namely, the production of the higher animals, directly follows. There is grandeur in this view of life, with its several powers, having been originally breathed into a few forms or into one; and that, whilst this planet has gone cycling on according to the fixed law of gravity, from so simple a beginning endless forms most beautiful and most wonderful have been, and are being, evolved (pp 489-490).
- - - . (1859b). On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life. From so simple a beginning: the four great books of charles darwin. Introduction, Afterword, and General Index by E.O. Wilson, 2006, 1st ed.). New York: W.W. Norton.
- - - . (1871). The descent of man, and selection in relation to sex. From so simple a beginning: the four great books of charles darwin. Introduction, Afterword, and General Index by E.O. Wilson, 2006, 1st ed.). New York: W.W. Norton.
- - - . (1872). The expressions of the emotions in man and animals. From so simple a beginning: the four great books of charles darwin. Introduction, Afterword, and General Index by E.O. Wilson, 2006, 1st ed.). New York: W.W. Norton.
Darwin, C., Herschel, J. F. W., Hoisington, H. R., Hoisington, H. R., & The British Admiralty. (1849). A Manual of scientific enquiry; : prepared for the use of Her Majesty's navy : and adapted for travellers in general. London: J. Murray.
Descartes, R. (1637). Discourse on the method of rightly conducting the reason, and seeking truth in the sciences.(F.E. Sutcliffe English Translation, 1968). Penguin Books Ltd, Middlesex, England.
Dasgupta, P. (forthcoming). What Do Economists Analyse and Why: Values or Facts?, Economics and Philosophy, 21(April), 2005, 221-278. Revised and expanded version, under the title, Facts and Values in Modern Economics, to be published in H. Kincaid and D. Ross, eds., Handbook on the Philosophy of Economic Science (Oxford: Oxford University Press).(1978). Fairness between generations and the social rate of discount. Resources Policy, 4(3), 172-177.
- - - . (2007a). China, the U.S., and Sustainability: Perspectives Based on Comprehensive Wealth (with K.J. Arrow, L.H. Goulder, K. Mumford, and K. Oleson, Mimeo., Department of Economics, Stanford University.
- - - . (2007b). The Idea of Sustainable Development, Sustainability Science,, 2(1), 5-11. Poverty, Fertility, and the Environmental Resource Base.
- - - . (2007c). Nature and the Economy, Journal of Applied Ecology,, 44(3), 475-487.
- - - . (2005a). Are We Consuming Too Much? (with K.J. Arrow, L. Goulder, G. Daily, P. Ehrlich, G.M. Heal, S. Levin, K.-G. Mäler, S. Schneider, D. Starrett, and B. Walker), Journal of Economic Perspectives, 2004, 18(3), 147-172. Response (with K.J. Arrow and L. Goulder) to Bernard Wasow, Journal of Economic Perspectives, 2005, 19(2), 229-230.
- - - . (2005b). "Bottlenecks" (review of Collapse: How Societies Choose to Fail or Survive, by Jared Diamond), London Review of Books, 27(10), 19 May, 21-22.
- - - . (2005c). Common Property Resources: Economic Analytics, Economic and Political Weekly, 2005, 40(16) (April 16-22), 1610-1622. Reprinted in R. Ghate, N. Jodha, and P. Mukhopadhyay, eds., Promise, Trust, and Evolution (Oxford: Oxford University Press), forthcoming, 2008.
- - - . (2005d). Discounting Ecosystem Losses, Our Planet, 2005, 16(2: September), 14-15.
- - - . (2005e). Sustainable Development and the Wealth of Nations, published by Project Syndicate in the Bangkok Post and other national newspapers, February 2005.
- - - . (2005f). Uncertainty and Hyperbolic Discounting (with E.S. Maskin), American Economic Review, 2005, 95(4), 1290-1299.
- - - . (2004a). How To Face the Coming Storm (Review of Red Sky in the Morning: America and the Crisis of the Global Environment), Science, 2004, 305(17 September), 1716-1717.
- - - . (2004b). The Making of an Academic Economist, in One Hundred Reasons to be Scientist, 40th anniversary volume, Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics (Trieste), pp. 70-74.
- - - . (2003a). Coping With Uncertainty: A Call for a New Science-Policy Forum (with K.J. Arrow, B. Bolin, P. Ehrlich, C. Folke, M. Hanemann, G.M. Heal, M. Hoel, B.-O. Jansson, AM Jansson, N. Kautsky, A., Kinzig, S. Levin, J. Lubchenco, K.-G. Mäler, S. Pacala, S., Schneider, D. Siniscalco, and D.A. Starrett), Ambio, 32(5), pp. 330-335.
- - - . (2003b). The Optimal Depletion of Exhaustible Resources" (with G.M. Heal), Review of Economic Studies,1974 (Special Number), 3-28. Reprinted in G.M. Heal, ed., The International Library of Critical Writings in Economics: The Economics of Exhaustible Resources (Cheltenham: Edward Elgar), 1993 (pp. 56-81); in R.U. Ayers, K.J. Button, and P. Nijkamp, eds., Global Aspects of the Environment (Cheltenham: Edward Elgar), 1999; and in J. Scheraga, ed., Discounting and Environmental Policy (Aldershot, Hampshire: Ashgate), 2003.
- - - . (2003c). Population, Poverty, and the Natural Environment, in K.-G. Mäler and J. Vincent, eds, Handbook of Environmental Economics, Vol. I (Amsterdam: North Holland), pp. 191-247.
- - - . (2002a). Economic Growth, Carrying Capacity, and the Environment (with K.J. Arrow, B. Bolin, R. Costanza, C. Folke, C.S. Holling, B.-O. Jansson, S. Levin, K.-G. Mäler, C. Perrings, and D. Pimentel), Science, 1995, 268(5210), 28 April, 520-1. Reprinted in Ecological Economics, 1995, 15(2), 91-95; in Ecological Applications, 1996, 6(1), February, 13-15; in Environment and Development Economics, 1996, 1(1), 104-110; and in R. Kerry Turner, K.J. Button and P. Nijkamp, eds., Ecosystems and Nature (Cheltenham: Edward Elgar).
- - - . (2002b). Food Production, Population Growth, and Environmental Security (with G. Daily, B. Bolin, P. Crosson, J. du Guerny, P. Ehrlich, C. Folke, A.-M. Jansson, B.-O. Jansson, N. Kautsky, A. Kinzig, S. Levin, K.-G. Mäler, P. Pinstrup-Andersen, and B. Walker), Science, 1998, 281, 1291-1292. Reprinted in W. Krull, ed., Debates on Issues of Our Common Future (Velbruck Wissenschaft).
- - - . (2002c). The Population Problem: Theory and Evidence, Journal of Economic Literature, 1995, 33(4), 1879-1902. Reprinted under the title, Poverty, Population and the Environment, in S. Hanna and M. Munasinghe, eds., Property Rights and the Environment: Social and Ecological Issues (Washington, DC: World Bank, 1995 (pp. 141-164). Reprinted also in A.K. Dutt, ed., International Library of Critical Writings in Economics: The Political Economy of Development, Vol. 2 (Cheltenham: Edward Elgar).
- - - . (2001a). Are We Consuming Enough? (ESRC 12th Annual Lecture, Swindon: ESRC).
- - - . (2001b). Ecological Systems and Economic Institutions, in Science for Survival and Sustainable Development, Proceedings of a Study-Week of the Pontifical Academy of Sciences, 12-16 March 1999, (Vatican City: Pontificiae Academiae Scientiarum, pp. 131-144.
- - - . (2000a). Economic Value of Biodiversity, Overview. In Simon A. Levin (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Biodiversity, (pp. 291-304). New York: Elsevier.
- - - . (2000b). Managing Ecosystem Resources (with K.J. Arrow, G. Daily, S. Levin, K.-G. Mäler, E. Maskin, D. Starrett, T. Sterner, and T. Tietenberg), Environmental Science and Technology, 34(8), 1401-1406.
- - - . (2000c). Population and Resources: An Exploration of Reproductive and Environmental Externalities, Population and Development Review, 26(4), 643-689.
- - - . (1999). The Nature of Value and the Value of Nature (with G. Daily, T. Soderqvist, S. Aniyar, K.J.Arrow, P. Ehrlich, A.M. Jansson, B.O., Jansson, N. Kautsky, S. Levin, J. Lubchenco, K.-G. Mäler, D. Simpson, D. Starrett, D. Tilman, B. Walker, Science, 289 (21 July), 395-396.
- - - . (1998). Population, consumption and resources: Ethical issues. Ecological Economics, 24(2-3), 139-152.
- - - . (1992). On measuring the quality of life. World Development, 20(1), 119-131.
- - - . (1989). Some theoretical considerations. European Economic Review, 33(2-3), 619-624.
- - - . (1986a). The Existence of Equilibrium in Discontinous Economic Games, 1: Theory (with E. Maskin), Review of Economic Studies, 53(1), 1-26.
- - - . (1986b). The Existence of Equilibrium in Discontinuous Economic Games, 2: Applications (with E. Maskin), Review of Economic Studies, 53(1), 27-41.
- - - . (1981). Resource Depletion under Technological Uncertainty (with J.E. Stiglitz), Econometrica, 49(1), 85-104.
- - - . (1967). Determinism and the Free Will Problem, Inquiry (New Series), II(3), 119-31..
Dawkins, R. (2006). The God Delusion. New York. Houghton Mifflin Co. 406 pages.
- - - . (1998). Unweaving the rainbow : science, delusion and the appetite for wonder. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co.
- - - . (1995). A river out of eden: a darwinian view of life. New York: Basic Books. 172 pages.
- - - . (1985). The blind watchmaker (1st ed.). New York: Norton. 1. The paradox has often been noted that the first edition of The Origin of Species makes a better case than the sixth. This is becuase Darwin felt obliged, in his later editions, to respond to contemporary criticisms of the fist edition, criticisms which now seem so dated that the replies to them merely get in the way, and inplaces even mislead (p xvi).
- - - . (1982). The extended phenotype : the gene as the unit of selection. Oxford Oxfordshire ; San Francisco: Freeman.
- - - . (1976). The selfish gene. 30th anniversary edition (2006) with a new introduction by Richard Dawkins, and the original introductions from both 1st and 2nd editions.
DOD. (2001). Joint Publication 1-02 Department of defense dictionary of military and associated terms (JP 1-02). 12 April 2001 (As Amended Through 04 March 2008).
Eastern Caribbean Natural Area Management Program, Putney, A. D., Caribbean Conservation Association, & University of Michigan. School of Natural Resources. (1980). Survey of conservation priorities in the Lesser Antilles ... preliminary data atlas. St. Croix, U.S.V.I.: The Program.
Einstein, A. (1954). Ideas and opinions : Based on mein weltbild. New York: Crown Publishers.
- - - . (1939). Letter to F.D. Roosevelt, President of the United States. Dated: August 2nd, 1939. Public Domain.
Ekelund, R. B., & Hébert, R. F. (1997). A history of economic theory and method (4th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.
Engle, R. F. (2003). RISK AND VOLATILITY: ECONOMETRIC MODELS AND FINANCIAL PRACTICE.
Faber, M., Manstetten, R., & Proops, J. L. R. (1995). On the conceptual foundations of ecological economics: A teleological approach. Ecological Economics, 12(1), 41-54.
Faber, M., & Proops, J. L. R. (1993). Natural resource rents, economic dynamics and structural change: a capital theoretic approach. Ecological Economics, 8(1), 17-44.
Fehr, E., & Fischbacher, U. (2004). Third-party punishment and social norms. Evolution and Human Behavior, 25(2), 63-87.
Fehr, E., & Rockenbach, B. (2004). Human altruism: economic, neural, and evolutionary perspectives. Current Opinion in Neurobiology, 14(6), 784-790.
Fehr, E., & Schmidt, K. M. (1999). A Theory Of Fairness, Competition, and Cooperation*. Quarterly Journal of Economics, 114(3), 817-868.
Fehr, E., & Fischbacher, U. (2004). Social norms and human cooperation. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 8(4), 185-190.
Fehr, E., & Gachter, S. (2000). Fairness and retaliation: the economics of reciprocity, Journal of Economic Perspectives, Volume 14, number 3, summer 2000, pp 159-181.
Fischer, G., & Encontrre, P. (1998). In Baldacchino G., Greenwood R.(Eds.), The economic disadvantages of island developing countries: Problems of smallness, remoteness and economies of scale. Charlottetown: IIS, UPEI.
Fosberg, F. R., & 20 National Academy of Sciences. (1970). Man's place in the island ecosystem; a symposium. Honolulu: Bishop Museum Press.
Frey, B., Benesch, C., & Stutzer, A. (2005). Does watching tv make us happy? Journal of Economic Psychology, 28(3), 283-313.
Frey, B. S. (1983). Democratic economic policy : a theoretical introduction. New York: St. Martin's Press.
Frey, B. S. (1997). Not just for the money : an economic theory of personal motivation. Cheltenham, UK ; Brookfield, Vt.: Edward Elgar Pub.
Frey, B. S. (2000). Why Economists Disregard Economic Methodology. Institut für Empirische Wirtschaftsforschung, Universität Zürich. 1. The advent of wide spread internet publishing reduces the stifling impact of the refereeing process on the papers accepted and submitted to journals. Economics scholars are less bound to devote a large part of their time and effort on formalisms. They have more leeway to concentrate on matters of content. This greater freedom also improves the chances that the advice and suggestions proposed by economic methodologists are put into practice, provided they are of practical use for research. The dominance of orthodoxy is reduced. But at the same time the competition between papers is intensified, so that only methodological concerns held to be useful by practical economists have an impact on the profession (p 9).
Frey, B. S. (2002). Publishing as Prostitution? Choosing Between One‘s Own Ideas and Academic Failure. Published in: Public Choice Vol. 116, 2003, 205-223: Institut für Empirische Wirtschaftsforschung, Universität Zürich. Abstract: Survival in academia depends on publications in refereed journals. Authors only get their papers accepted if they intellectually prostitute themselves by slavishly following the demands made by anonymous referees without property rights on the journals they advise. Intellectual prostitution is neither beneficial to suppliers nor consumers. But it is avoidable. The editor (with property rights on the journal) should make the basic decision of whether a paper is worth publishing or not. The referees only give suggestions on how to improve the paper. The author may disregard this advice. This reduces intellectual prostitution and produces more original publications.
Frey, B. S. (2007). Evaluierungen, Evaluierungen ... Evaluitis. Perspektiven Der Wirtschaftspolitik, 8(3) 207-220. Abstract: In the sciences the outside evaluation of past performances of universities, faculties, departments, research groups and of individuals has become more and more frequent, nearly incessant. It could be said that the sciences are afflicted with Evaluitis, a creeping and widespread illness. Besides the obvious costs that arise for those being evaluated and for those doing the evaluation there are additional costs that weigh heavily but are usually disregarded: incentives are distorted systematically and ossification is promoted. Furthermore, the whole decision approach is wrongly conceived. For these reasons there are too many and too thorough evaluations. A useful alternative is an appropriate design of institutions guiding incentives and a careful selection of persons - who thereafter should be free to pursue their tasks.
Frey, B. S., & Eichenberger, R. (1992). The Political economy of stabilization programmes in developing countries. Paris: OECD Development Centre.
Frey, B., & Bohnet, I. (1997). Identification in democratic society. Journal of Socio-Economics, 26(1), 25-38. Abstract: Identification increases cooperation and fairness (“other-regarding” behaviour) in Prisoner's Dilemma and Dictator Games. While identification explains all the difference in behaviour in nonstrategic interactions, face-to face communication further raises cooperation in strategic settings. This “cooperation-increasing” effect must be traded-off against the “equality-decreasing” effect of communication. Allowing for partial communication only—which prevails in large number settings—our experimental results indicate that discussion produces unequal distributions of outcomes to the disadvantage of those excluded from the interaction. Substituting identification for communication is relevant in democracy for all distributive questions and for public good type settings if equality is valued higher than a partial increase of “other-regardedness.”
Frey, B. S., & Stutzer, A. (2000). Happiness, Economy and Institutions. The Economic Journal, 110(466), 918-938. Abstract: Institutional factors in the form of direct democracy (via initiatives and referenda) and federal structure (local autonomy) systematically and sizeably raise self-reported individual well-being in a cross-regional econometric analysis. This positive effect can be attributed to political outcomes closer to voters' preferences, as well as to the procedural utility of political participation possibilities. Moreover, the results of previous microeconometric well-being functions for other countries are generally supported. Unemployment has a strongly depressing effect on happiness. A higher income level raises happiness, however, only to a small extent.
Fuller, S. (2003). Kuhn vs. Popper. Cambridge, UK: Icon Books, Ltd.
Funk, M. (2008a). On the Problem of Sustainable Economic Development I: The Funk-Zweikampf Solution to this Prisoner's Dilemma Introducing a Unified Theory of Value for the Biological and Social Sciences in an Open Letter to the Åland International Institute of Comparative Island Studies. AICIS. Published online 8 June 2008: http://www.aicis.ax/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=6&Itemid=18
- - - . (2008b). On the Problem of Connectivity: Branding Insularity. A seminar delivered 11 June 2008, 1:00 p.m., at the Åland International Institute of Comparative Island Studies 2nd Annual Conference, “Islands of Competence: Branding Identities in a Globalized World”, The Parliamentary Building, Mariehamn, Åland.
- - - . (2007a). On the problem of hollywood economics: de vany's error—george lucas knows something. FIND Working paper. Abstract: Hayek (1991) lamented the difficulty in distinguishing between economics and excrement, and Hemingway (1958) noted “The most essential gift for a good writer is a built-in, shock-proof, bullshit detector.” In this spirit and within the context of Frankfurt's (2004) Theory of Bullshit, this paper constructs a bullshit detector for economics. This apparatus is carefully calibrated to detect the Seven Deadly Sins of 'Hollywood Economics': Hubris, Intellectual Dishonesty, Greed, Mathematical Mania, Physics Fetishes, Conditions of Emptiness, and Sunspots. We trace the philosophical and methodological origin of these traits to its source, The Problem of Induction, then illustrate with examples from Plato to the present, including detailed analysis from the illuminating cases of Long Term Capital Management and William Stanley Jevons' sunspot theory. Furthermore, we demonstrate the contemporary effectiveness of this apparatus by detecting hereto undetected economic bullshit, namely Arthur de Vany's (2004) Hollywood Economics: How Extreme Uncertainty Shapes the Film Industry. In the process, we falsify de Vany's 'Nobody knows anything' theory and advance our replacement theory: George Lucas knows something.
- - - . (2007b). On the problem of global warming: a brief history of a new & unpopular theory in an open letter to john gillis. FIND working paper. Abstract: Funk's (forthcoming) theory of The Problem of Global Warming forwards the hypothesis that 'global warming' is not in fact limited to ecological distress induced through the consumption of superheating fossil fuels—but that is merely a single symptom of far more significant problems, which stem from the Problem of Induction. This paper traces the history, evolution, and development of this new and unpopular theory.
- - - . (2007c). On the problem of dependent people: natural resource valuation errors in atlantic canadian island jurisdictions. FIND working paper.
- - - . (2006d). Personal Correspondence. -----Original Message----- From: Matt Funk <Mfunk@upei.ca> To: Doherty, Peter Sent: Sun Oct 28 20:44:21 2007 Subject: Thomas Kuhn & Karl Popper
Greetings Dr Doherty....I am researching a theory that the rejection of Karl Popper's logic and methods and general acceptance (in a popular sense) of Thomas Kuhn's logic and methods have been detrimental to science, especially social sciences such as economics. Nearly a dozen Nobel Laureates have thanked Popper and acknowledged his great influence upon their work: most notably, of course, is F.A. von Hayek's Sveriges Riksbank Prize Lecture and, perhaps the most notable example in your field may be revealed in Eccles' Nobel biography. I have only been able to discover one Nobel Laureate who acknowledged Kuhn's influence and, curiously, this noble individual (whom of course is you!) acknowledged both Popper and Kuhn: "I was influenced early on by reading Arthur Koestler and Edward de Bono, and more recently by the writings of Karl Popper and Thomas Kuhn." So, naturally, I'm very curious to know if, after nearly a decade, the balance of this influence or your opinions regarding these two philosophers of science has changed? I thank you very much for your time and consideration regarding this matter, as I am inclined to believe the long-term prospects of human survival may hang in the balance to the ultimate answer to this debate. Any words of wisdom you are able to offer on this topic would be greatly appreciated. Sincerely...Matt Funk --- From:Doherty, Peter To:Mfunk@upei.ca Date:10/28/07 11:58 pm Subject: Re: Thomas Kuhn & Karl Popper A long time since I've read either. Popper's views re falsification of a null hypothesis seem correct to me. Much of the world's worst science is done by people who are determined to prove a point. Kuhn's idea of the paradigm shift is spot on.
Peter C. Doherty, Department of Immunology, St Jude Children's Research Hospital, 332 North Lauderdale, Memphis TN 38105 Tel 901-495-3470 Fax 901-495-3107 also at: email@example.com
- - - . (forthcoming). On the problem of global warming: a solution for william funk, albert gore and richard branson. 1156 pages. Abstract: This exhaustive manuscript presents a solution to The Problem of Global Warming. Our discovery concludes that, contrary to popular opinion, “The Problem of Global Warming,” is not ecological distress due to the superheating of the Earth, it is merely a single symptom of far more significant, inter-related problems, which are synonymous to The Problem of Sustainable Economic Development.
Georgescu-Roegen, N. (1977). What thermodynamics and biology can teach economists. Atlantic Economic Journal, 5(1), 13-21.
- - - . (1971). The Entropy Law and the Economic Process. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.
Girvan, N., Unicef, & Consortium Graduate School of Social Sciences. (1997). Poverty, empowerment and social development in the Caribbean. Kingston, Jamaica: Canoe Press University of the West Indies.
Gold, E., Letalik, N. G., Mitchell, C. L., & 20 Dalhousie Ocean Studies Programme. (1982). Problems of development and ocean management in the Eastern Caribbean : economic, legal, environmental and planning aspects : proceedings of an international seminar held in Kingstown, St. Vincent and the Grenadines, West Indies, May 11-13, 1981. Halifax: Dalhousie Ocean Studies Programme.
Gold, R. E. (2001). SHIELD: a comprehensive earth-protection architecture. Advances in Space Research, 28(8), 1149-1158. Abstract: The greatest natural threat to the long-term survivability of mankind is an asteroid or comet impact with the Earth. SHIELD is an architectural concept for a comprehensive Earth defense system designed to discover, catalog, calculate orbits of near-Earth objects, and to deflect potential impactors. SHIELD consists of Sentries, Soldiers, and an Earth Control Center. Sentries are spacecraft designed to search and locate NEOs of all types. Sentries maximize the lead-time for a potential impact, which simplifies the task of the Soldiers to deflect the object. Sentry spacecraft determine the orbit of each object, and compare it with the onboard database of known NEOs. The results are kept in a distributed space-Earth database. Soldier spacecraft deflect or disperse the potential impactor. Several mitigation methods have been compared by their specific impulse. Each technique requires some development to be feasible. These techniques can be categorized into “rendezvous” in which the Soldier physically lands on the NEO and “intercept”. The required number of Soldiers and their locations has been examined. SHIELD has clearly shown that an Earth-protection system is practical and that a full system could be built within a few years. Indeed, very capable Sentries can be launched today.
Goldsmith, F. B. (1973). The ecologist's role in development for tourism: a case study in the Caribbean. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 5(3), 265-287. Abstract: Ecologists are increasingly in demand to provide both background information to development and to conduct validatory studies prior to funding. This paper describes an advisory study conducted on the Caribbean island of Mustique prior to development for tourism. It is argued that the ecologist uses biological as well as physical indicators to assess suitability of different areas for development and to anticipate possible problems. In this study the primary environmental determinants and biological and human factors have been interpreted to identify the distribution and degree of seriousness of exposure, erosion potential and water yield and quality. The compatibility of physical and ecological factors with different categories of proposed development have been assessed, and maps of vegetation, soil and exposure transferred onto gridded overlays. The use of these overlays combined with a consideration of the compatibilities permitted the degree of restraint to the various categories of development to be presented in map form. The problems that are likely to be encountered as a result of development are discussed, and finally it is suggested that the development be subjected to regular ecological monitoring.
Goodall, J. (1971). In the shadow of man. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
Gordon, H. S. (1954). The economic theory of a common-property resource: The Fishery. The Journal of Political Economy, 62(2), 124-142.
Gorman, M. (1979). How many species? Island Ecology, London, Chapman and Hall, pp. 22-32.
Gould, S. J. (2002). The structure of evolutionary theory. Cambridge, Mass.: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press.
- - - . Ever since Darwin : reflections in natural history (1st ed.). New York: Norton.
Gowdy, J. M. (2007). Toward an experimental foundation for benefit-cost analysis. Ecological Economics, 63(4), 649-655.
- - - . (2006). Evolutionary theory and economic policy with reference to sustainability. Journal of Bioeconomics, Volume 8:1-19, 2006-04-23.
- - - . (2005a). Sustainability and collapse: what can economics bring to the debate? Global Environmental Change Part A, 15(3), 181-183.
- - - . (2005b). Toward a new welfare economics for sustainability. Ecological Economics, 53(2), 211-222.
- - - . (1996). The future of the environment: Ecological economics and technological change : Faye Duchin and Glenn-Marie Lange, with Knut Thonstad and Annemarth Idenburg, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1994. Ecological Economics, 19(2), 191-192.
Gowdy, J. M., & Erickson, J. (2005). Ecological economics at a crossroads. Ecological Economics, 53(1), 17-20.
Gowdy, J. M., & Ferreri Carbonell, A. (1999). Toward consilience between biology and economics: the contribution of Ecological Economics. Ecological Economics, 29(3), 337-348.
Gowdy, J. M., & Howarth, R. B. (2007). Sustainability and benefit–cost analysis: Theoretical assessments and policy options. Ecological Economics, 63(4), 637-638.
Gowdy, J. M., & Mayumi, K. (2001). Reformulating the foundations of consumer choice theory and environmental valuation. Ecological Economics, 39(2), 223-237.
Gowdy, J. M., & McDaniel, C. N. (1995). One world, one experiment: addressing the biodiversity—economics conflict. Ecological Economics, 15(3), 181-192.
Greenwood, R. (1998). Dependency and Development in Prince Edward Island, a chapter from Competing strategies of socio-economic development for small islands. Charlottetown, P.E.I.: IIS, UPEI. Grant, P. R., & Royal Society. Discussion Meeting. (1998). Evolution on islands. Oxford ; New York: Oxford University Press. Gray, A. M. (1989). Warfighting. MCDP 1. 1997 edition with introduction by C. C. Krulak, General, U.S. Marine Corps, Commandant of the Marine Corps. DISTRIBUTION: 142 000006 00.
Greenleaf S. S., and Kremen, C. (2006). Wild bees enhance honey bees’ pollination of hybrid sunflower. Published online on August 29, 2006, 10.1073/pnas.0600929103 |PNAS | September 12, 2006 | vol. 103 | no. 37 | 13890-13895. Greenleaf: Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544; and Kremin: Department of Environmental Science, Policy, and Management, University of California, 137 Mulford Hall, #3114, Berkeley, CA 94720. Edited by Pamela A. Matson, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, and approved July 19, 2006 (received for review February 3, 2006) 13890–13895. Abstract: Pollinators are required for producing 15–30% of the human food supply, and farmers rely on managed honey bees throughout the world to provide these services. Yet honey bees are not always the most efficient pollinators of all crops and are declining in various parts of the world. Crop pollination shortages are becoming increasingly common. We found that behavioral interactions between wild and honey bees increase the pollination efficiency of honey bees on hybrid sunflower up to 5-fold, effectively doubling honey bee pollination services on the average field. These indirect contributions caused by interspecific interactions between wild and honey bees were more than five times more important than the contributions wild bees make to sunflower pollination directly. Both proximity to natural habitat and crop planting practices were significantly correlated with pollination services provided directly and indirectly by wild bees. Our results suggest that conserving wild habitat at the landscape scale and altering selected farm management techniques could increase hybrid sunflower production. These findings also demonstrate the economic importance of interspecific interactions for ecosystem services and suggest that protecting wild bee populations can help buffer the human food supply from honey bee shortages.
Photo: A wild, native bee (Svastra obliqua expurgata) forages on a sunflower. Honey bees that interact with wild, native bees are up to five times more efficient in pollinating sunflowers. Protecting wild bees may help buffer the human food supply from reduced pollination resulting from honey bee shortages. Conservation measures for wild bees include maintaining and restoring natural habitats and adopting bee-friendly farming practices. Image courtesy of Sarah S. Greenleaf.
GREHAN, J. (2001). Biogeography and evolution of the Galapagos: integration of the biological and geological evidence. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 74(3), 267-287.
Grossman, L. S. (1998). The political ecology of bananas : contract farming, peasants, and agrarian change in the eastern Caribbean. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press. Hagen, E., & Hammerstein, P. (2006). Game theory and human evolution: A critique of some recent interpretations of experimental games. Theoretical Population Biology, 69(3), 339-348. Abstract: Economists and psychologists have been testing Nash equilibrium predictions of game theory models of human behavior. In many instances, humans do not conform to the predictions. These results are of great interest to biologists because they also raise questions about well-known ESS models of cooperation. Cooperation in certain one-shot, anonymous interactions, and a willingness to punish others at a net cost to oneself are some of the most intriguing deviations from standard theory. One proposed explanation for these results that is receiving increasing attention invokes the cultural group selection of ‘other regarding’ social norms. We critically review this explanation. We conclude that experimental results reveal limits in two implicit models of cognitive structure commonly employed by economists and evolutionary biologists.
Haldane, J. B. S. 1932. The causes of evolution. London: Longman.
Hammerstein, P. 1994. Darwinian adaptation, population genetics and the streetcar theory of evolution. Journal of Mathematical Biology, in press.
Hammerstein, P., and R. Selten. 1994. Game theory and evolutionary biology. In Handbook of game theory with economic applications, vol. 2, edited by R. J. Aumann, and S. Hart, 929 - 993. Amsterdam: Elsevier.
Hardin, G. (1968). The tragedy of the commons. Science 162, 1243-1248.
Hardin, G. (1998). Extensions of “The tragedy of the commons.” Science 280: 682-683.
Härdling, R. (2007). Fairness evolution in the ultimatum game is a function of reward size. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 246(4), 720-724.
Hauert, C. (2006). Spatial effects in social dilemmas. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 240(4), 627-636. Abstract: Social dilemmas and the evolutionary conundrum of cooperation are traditionally studied through various kinds of game theoretical models such as the prisoner's dilemma, public goods games, snowdrift games or by-product mutualism. All of them exemplify situations which are characterized by different degrees of conflicting interests between the individuals and the community. In groups of interacting individuals, cooperators produce a common good benefitting the entire group at some cost to themselves, whereas defectors attempt to exploit the resource by avoiding the costly contributions. Based on synergistic or discounted accumulation of cooperative benefits a unifying theoretical framework was recently introduced that encompasses all games that have traditionally been studied separately (Hauert, Michor, Nowak, Doebeli, 2005. Synergy and discounting of cooperation in social dilemmas. J. Theor. Biol., in press.). Within this framework we investigate the effects of spatial structure with limited local interactions on the evolutionary fate of cooperators and defectors. The quantitative effects of space turn out to be quite sensitive to the underlying microscopic update mechanisms but, more general, we demonstrate that in prisoner's dilemma type interactions spatial structure benefits cooperation—although the parameter range is quite limited—whereas in snowdrift type interactions spatial structure may be beneficial too, but often turns out to be detrimental to cooperation.
Hauert, C., Michor, F., Nowak, M., & Doebeli, M. (2006). Synergy and discounting of cooperation in social dilemmas. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 239(2), 195-202.
Hawken, P. (1994) The ecology of commerce. Collins.
Hawken, P., Lovins, A., & Lovins, H. (2000) Natural capitalism: creating the next industrial revolution. Back Bay Books.
Hawking, S.W. (2008). TED. Stephen hawking: Asking big questions about the universe. Recorded February 2008.
- - - . (1988). A brief history of time : from the big bang to black holes. Toronto ; New York: Bantam Books.
Hawking, S.W., & Shiga, D. (2008). Stephen hawking calls for moon and mars colonies. NewScientist.com. Posted: 23:56 21 April 2008.
Hayek, F. A. von. (1982). Law, legislation and liberty : A new statement of the liberal principles of justice and political economy. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.
- - - . (1979). The counter-revolution of science : studies on the abuse of reason (2nd ed.). Indianapolis: Liberty Press.
- - - . (1974a). Sveriges Riksbank Prize Banquet Speech, December 10, 1974. Nobel.org.
- - - . (1974b). The pretense of knowledge. Sveriges Riksbank Prize Lecture. Nobel.org
- - - . (1970). The use of knowledge in society. Menlo Park, Calif.: Institute for Humane Studies, Inc.
- - - . (1960). The constitution of liberty (1978 ed.). London: Routledge.
- - - . (1945). The Use of Knowledge in Society. The American Economic Review, 35(4), 519-530. The peculiar character of the problem of a rational economic order is determined precisely by the fact that the knowledge of the circumstances of which we must make use never exists in concentrated or integrated form, but solely as the dispersed bits of incomplete and frequently contradictory knowledge which all the separate individuals possess. The economic problem of society is thus not merely a problem of how to allocate “given” resources if “given” is taken to mean given to a single mind which deliberately solves the problem set by these “data.” It is rather a problem of how to secure the best use of resources known to any of the members of society, for ends whose relative importance only these individuals know. Or, to put it briefly, it is a problem of the utilization of knowledge not given to anyone in its totality. This character of the fundamental problem has, I am afraid, been rather obscured than illuminated by many of the recent refinements of economic theory, particularly by many of the uses made of mathematics (pp 519-520).
- - - . (1944). The road to serfdom (2001 ed.). London ; New York: Routledge Classics.
- - - . (1944). Scientism and the Study of Society. Part II. Economica, 11(41), 27-39.
- - - . (1943a). Scientism and the Study of Society. Part I Economica, 10(37), 34-63.
- - - . (1943b). The Facts of the Social Sciences. Ethics, 54(1), 1-13.
- - - . (1941). The Counter-Revolution of Science. Economica, 8(29), 9-36.
- - - . (1934). Carl Menger. Economica, 1(4), 393-420.
- - - . (1933). The Trend of Economic Thinking. Economica, (40), 121-137. Hayek, F. A., Bartley, W. W., & Kresge, S. (1991). The trend of economic thinking : Essays on political economists and economic history. University of Chicago Press. 1. It is the fact that in [economics] no knowledge can be regarded as established once and for all, and that, in fact, knowledge once gained and spread is often, not disproved, but simply lost and forgotten…. The reason why in our field knowledge can be so lost is, of course, that is never established by experiment, but can be acquired only by following a rather difficult process of reasoning…. The result is that in economics you can never establish a truth once and for all but have always to convince every generation anew (p 38).
Hayek, F. A., & Bartley, W. W. (1988). The fatal conceit : the errors of socialism. London: Routledge.
Hayek, F. A., Kresge, S., Wenar, L., & von Hayek, F. A. (1994). Hayek on Hayek : an autobiographical dialogue. University of Chicago Press. Hector, A., & Bagchi, R. (2007). Biodiversity and ecosystem multifunctionality. Vol 448, 12 July 2007, doi:10.1038/nature05947. Helferich, G. (2004). Humboldt's cosmos : Alexander von Humboldt and the Latin American journey that changed the way we see the world. New York: Gotham Books.
Hess, C. (2000). "Is There Anything New Under the Sun? A Discussion and Survey of Studies on New Commons and the Internet." Presented at "Constituting the Commons: Crafting Sustainable Commons in the New Millenium", the Eighth Conference of the International Association for the Study of Common Property, Bloomington, Indiana, USA, May 31-June 4.
Hitchens, C. (2007). God is not great: how religion poisons everything Twelve Books Published May 1, 2007, Hardcover.
Hofbauer, J., & Weibull, J. (1996). Evolutionary Selection against Dominated Strategies. Journal of Economic Theory, 71(2), 558-573. Holm, P., Jón Þ. Þór, & Starkey, D. J. (1996). The North Atlantic fisheries, 1100-1976 : national perspectives on a common resource. Reykjavik: North Atlantic Fisheries History Association.
Hume, D. (1739). A Treatise of human nature: being an attempt to introduce the experimental method of reasoning into moral subjects.
Ignatieff, M. (2004). Political ethics in the age of terror: the lesser evil. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press.
Isaacson, W. (2007). The World Needs More Rebels Like Einstein How nonconformity, not rote learning, unlocked his genius.
Jarvis, D. I., Brown, A. H. D., Cuong, P. H., Collado-Panduro, L., Latournerie- Moreno, L., Gyawali S., Tanto, T., Sawadogo, M., Mar, Istvan., Sadiki, M., Thi-Ngoc Hue, N., Arias-Reyes, L., Bajracharya, D. J., Castillo, F., Rijal, D., Belqadi, L., Rana, R., Saidi, S., Ouedraogo, J., Zangre, R., Rhrib, K., Chavez, J. L., Schoen, D., Sthapit, B., De Santis, P., Fadda, C., & Hodgkin, T. (2008). A global perspective of the richness and evenness of traditional crop-variety diversity maintained by farming communities. “Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America”. PNAS. Published online on March 24, 2008, 10.1073/pnas. 0800607105 PNAS | April 8, 2008 | vol. 105 | no. 14 | 5326-5331. Communicated by Hans R. Herren, Millennium Institute, Arlington, VA, January 26, 2008 (received for review July 18, 2007). Abstract: Varietal data from 27 crop species from five continents were drawn together to determine overall trends in crop varietal diversity on farm. Measurements of richness, evenness, and divergence showed that considerable crop genetic diversity continues to be maintained on farm, in the form of traditional crop varieties. Major staples had higher richness and evenness than nonstaples. Variety richness for clonal species was much higher than that of other breeding systems. A close linear relationship between traditional variety richness and evenness (both transformed), empirically derived from data spanning a wide range of crops and countries, was found both at household and community levels. Fitting a neutral "function" to traditional variety diversity relationships, comparable to a species abundance distribution of "neutral ecology," provided a benchmark to assess the standing diversity on farm. In some cases, high dominance occurred, with much of the variety richness held at low frequencies. This suggested that diversity may be maintained as an insurance to meet future environmental changes or social and economic needs. In other cases, a more even frequency distribution of varieties was found, possibly implying that farmers are selecting varieties to service a diversity of current needs and purposes. Divergence estimates, measured as the proportion of community evenness displayed among farmers, underscore the importance of a large number of small farms adopting distinctly diverse varietal strategies as a major force that maintains crop genetic diversity on farm. Jarvie, I. C., & Pralong, S. (1999). Popper's Open society after fifty years. London ; New York: Routledge. 1. In intellectual circles Popper was very much admired. But because The Open Society and Its Enemies was hostile to so much academic pretension it was treated less than respectfully by those in the various specialties upon whose turf it trod (p 6). 2. In 1950, Popper went to Harvard to deliver the prestigious William James lectures. During his time in the States he appears to have given a talk at the University of Chicago, where Strauss taught. Strauss told Voegelin that the talk “was very bad,” “the most washed-out, lifeless positivism” (Emberly and Cooper 1993: 67), and inquired of his opinion of Popper. Voegelin replied with a vicious letter. He reports having reluctantly read Popper because so many people insist his Open Society is a masterpiece. His judgment is that the book is “impudent, dilettantish crap. Every single sentence is a scandal . . .” (ibid.). Noting that Popper takes the concept of open society from Bergson, he comments that Bergson did not develop it “for the sole purpose that the coffeehouse scum might have some-thing to botch.” Voegelin believed that Bergson would have thought that “Popper’s idea of the open society is ideological rubbish” (ibid.). Voegelin is only just getting started. He accuses Popper of “impertinent disregard for the achievements in this particular problem area [the history of political thought]” (Emberly and Cooper 1993: 68) and of being unable to reproduce accurately the ideas of Plato and Hegel. Popper is “a primitive ideological brawler.” Voegelin then strings more epithets together, “a failed intellectual,” “rascally impertinent, loutish; in terms of technical competence as a piece in the history of thought, it is dilettantish, and as a result is worthless” (Emberley and Cooper 1993: 67). The reader astonished at this undignified diatribe needs to remember that in the book in question Popper is vehement about the duty to think for oneself and not to defer to the authority of experts. Strauss and Voegelin agree on the opposite, and on the duty of the enlightened elite to defend standards. Strauss had said he was willing to keep Voegelin’s remarks to himself. Voegelin concludes: “It would not be suitable to show this letter to the unqualified. Where it concerns its factual contents, I would see it as a violation of the vocational duty you identified, to support this scandal through silence” (Emberly and Cooper 1993: 69). Following this invitation, Strauss showed the letter to Kurt Riezler, “who was thereby encouraged to throw his not inconsiderable influence into the balance against Popper’s probable appointment here [in the US]. You thereby helped to prevent a scandal.” With hindsight one might think that the scandal is that someone who had dared to challenge the traditional Germanic learning, the worship of the great men, the enemies of science and Enlightenment, is not met out in the open with argument, but is disposed of b