Palacios, Robert and Whitehouse, Edward (2006): Civil-service pension schemes around the world. Published in: Social Protection Discussion Paper
Download (429Kb) | Preview
There are separate pension schemes for civil servants (and often for other public-sector workers) in about half of the world’s countries, including some of the largest developing economies, such as Brazil, China and India. In the higher-income, OECD countries, spending on pensions for public-sector workers makes up one quarter of total pension spending. In less developed countries, this proportion is usually higher. Yet, very little has been written on the design and reform of civil-service pension plans, especially when compared with the voluminous literature on national pension programs. This paper provides the first, detailed cross-country comparison of the terms and conditions of national and public-sector pension schemes. Civil-service schemes are typically more generous than national pension programs. Analysis of current pension spending shows that pensions for public-sector workers are a bigger burden on the government budget in developing countries than they are in higher-income economies.
|Item Type:||MPRA Paper|
|Original Title:||Civil-service pension schemes around the world|
|Keywords:||pensions; civil service; retirement|
|Subjects:||H - Public Economics > H5 - National Government Expenditures and Related Policies > H55 - Social Security and Public Pensions
H - Public Economics > H8 - Miscellaneous Issues > H83 - Public Administration; Public Sector Accounting and Audits
|Depositing User:||Edward Whitehouse|
|Date Deposited:||23. Apr 2009 03:20|
|Last Modified:||12. Feb 2013 14:28|
Akerlof, G. and Katz, L. (1989), ‘Workers’ trust funds and the logic of wage profiles’, Quarterly Journal of Economics, vol. 104.
Allen, S.G., Clark, R. and McDermed, A. (1988), ‘Job mobility, older workers and the role of pensions’, Research on Aging, vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 459-471.
Allen, S.G., Clark, R. and McDermed, A. (1993), ‘Pensions, bonding and lifetime jobs’, Journal of Human Resources, vol. 28, no. 3, pp. 463-481.
Anderson, D. (1997a), ‘Protecting the early leaver’, in OECD, Civil Service Pensions Schemes, SIGMA (Support for Improvement in Government and Management in Central and Eastern Europe) Papers no. 10, Paris.
Anderson, D. (1997b), ‘The true cost of early retirement schemes’, in OECD, Civil Service Pensions Schemes, SIGMA (Support for Improvement in Government and Management in Central and Eastern Europe) Papers no. 10, Paris.
Demarco, G., Disney, R.F., Palacios, R.J., Pallares-Miralles, M. and Whitehouse, E.R. (2001), ‘Building a secure, sustainable and modern retirement-income system in Senegal’, Ministry of Finance, Dakar.
Dilnot, A.W., Disney, R.F., Johnson, P.G. and Whitehouse, E.R. (1994), Pensions Policy in the UK: An Economic Analysis, Institute for Fiscal Studies, London.
Disney, R.F. (1995), ‘Occupational pension schemes: prospects and reform in the UK’, Fiscal Studies, vol. 16, pp. 19-39.
Disney, R.F. (1996), Can We Afford to Grow Older? A Perspective on the Economics of Ageing, MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass.
Disney, R.F. and Gosling, A. (1998), ‘Does it Pay to Work in the Public Sector?’, Fiscal Studies, vol. 19, no. 4, pp. 347-374.
Disney, R.F. and Whitehouse, E.R. (1994), ‘Choice of private pension and pension benefits in Britain’, Working Paper no. 94/2, Institute for Fiscal Studies, London.
Disney, R.F. and Whitehouse, E.R. (1996), ‘What are occupational pension entitlements worth in Britain?’, Economica, vol. 63, pp. 213-238.
Ekebrand, S. (1997), ‘Pension systems for civil servants’, in OECD, Civil Service Pensions Schemes, SIGMA (Support for Improvement in Government and Management in Central and Eastern Europe) Papers no. 10, Paris.
Funke, K. and G. Stadtmann (2004), ‘The Operations of a Pension Fund after the East Asian Crisis: The Thai Experience’, Asian Economic Journal.
Ge Yanfeng et al. (2003), ‘Research into the reform of the pension system in State Institutions and Public Service Units in China : One Scheme Design’, Foreign Languages Press, China.
Ghilarducci, T. (1992), Labor’s Capital: The Economics and Politics of Private Pensions, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Press, Cambridge.
Gustman, A.L. and Steinmeier, T.L. (1989), ‘An analysis of pension benefit formulas, pension wealth and incentives from pensions’, Research in Labor Economics, vol. 10, pp. 53-106.
Gustman, A.L. and Steinmeier, T.L. (1992), ‘The stampede towards defined-contribution pension plans: fact or fiction?’, Industrial Relations, vol. 31, no. 2, pp. 361-369.
Gustman, A.L. and Steinmeier, T.L. (1993), ‘Pension portability and labor mobility: evidence from the Survey of Income and Program Participation’, Journal of Public Economics, vol. 50, pp. 299-323.
Gustman, A.L. and Steinmeier, T.L. (1995), Pension Incentives and Job Mobility, W.E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research, Kalamazoo, Michigan.
Hannah, L. (1986), Inventing Retirement: The Development of Occupational Pensions in Britain, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Henley, A., Disney, R.F. and Carruth, A. (1994), ‘Job tenure and asset holdings’, Economic Journal, vol. 104, pp. 238-249.
Him, E.T. (2003), ‘Aspectos relevantes del sistema de ahorro y capitalizacion de pensiones de los servidores publicos’, paper prepared for the VIII Congreso Internacional del CLAD sobre la Reforma del Estado y de la Administración Publica, Panama, October.
Hustead, E. and Hustead, T. (1999), ‘Federal retirement systems’, in What Can Public Pension Plans Teach Us? Lessons for the Public and Private Sector, Wharton School, University of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
Ippolito, R. (1991), ‘Encouraging long tenure: wage tilt or pensions’, Industrial and Labor Relations Review, vol. 44, no. 3.
Ippolito, R. (1995), ‘Toward explaining the growth of defined-contribution plans’, Industrial Relations, vol. 34, no. 1, pp. 1-20.
Kanjanaphoomin, N. (2004), ‘Pension fund, provident fund and social security system in Thailand’, paper presented at International Conference on Pensions in Asia, Tokyo, Japan, February.
Keenay, G. and Whitehouse, E.R. (2002a), ‘The role of the personal tax system in old-age support: a survey of 15 countries’, Discussion Paper no. 02/07, Centre for Pensions and Superannuation, University of New South Wales, Sydney.
Keenay, G. and Whitehouse, E.R. (2002b), ‘Taxing pensioners’, in OECD, Taxing Wages, Paris.
Keenay, G. and Whitehouse, E.R. (2003a), ‘The role of the personal tax system in old-age support: a survey of 15 countries’, Fiscal Studies, vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 1-21.
Keenay, G. and Whitehouse, E.R. (2003a), ‘Financial resources and retirement in nine OECD countries: the role of the tax system’, Social, Employment and Migration Working Paper no. 8, OECD, Paris.
Kotlikoff, L.J. and Wise, D.A (1987), ‘The incentive effects of private pension plans’, in Bodie, Z., Shoven, J.B. and Wise, D.A. (eds), Issues in Pension Economics, University of Chicago Press for National Bureau of Economic Research.
Kruse, D.L. (1995), ‘Pension substitution in the 1980s: why the shift to defined contribution?’ Industrial Relations, vol. 34, no. 2, pp. 218-240.
Lazear, E. (1979), ‘Why is there mandatory retirement?’, Journal of Political Economy, vol. 87, pp. 1261-1284.
Lazear, E. (1981), ‘Agency, earnings profiles, productivity and hours restrictions’, American Economic Review, vol. 71, pp. 606-620.
Lazear, E. (1985), ‘Incentive effects of pensions’, in Wise, D. (ed.), Pensions, Labor and Individual Choice, University of Chicago Press for National Bureau of Economic Research.
Lazear, E. and Moore, R.L. (1988), ‘Pensions and turnover’, in Bodie, Z., Shoven, J.B. and Wise, D.A. (eds), Financial Aspects of the United States Pension Scheme, University of Chicago Press for National Bureau of Economic Research.
Lidbury, C. (1999), ‘From redundancy to new employment: the Swedish experience with "workforce adjustments”’, OECD, Paris.
McCormick, B. and Hughes, G. (1984), ‘The influence of pensions on job mobility’, Journal of Public Economics, vol. 23, pp. 183-206.
Mitchell, O.S. (1982), ‘Fringe benefits and labor mobility’, Journal of Human Resources, vol. 17, pp. 286-298.
OECD (1997), ‘Civil service pension schemes’ SIGMA (Support for Government and Management in Central and Eastern Europe) Policy Brief no. 2, Paris.
OECD (2003), ‘Funded Pension Schemes for Government Workers: Proposal for Study’, Working Party on Private Pensions, Paris.
OECD (2004a), ‘Monitoring the future implications of today’s pension policies’, Paris. OECD (2004b), Revenue Statistics, Paris.
Palacios, R.J. and Pallares-Miralles, M. (2000), ‘International patterns of pension provision’, Pension Reform Primer series, Social Protection Discussion Paper no. 0009, World Bank, Washington, D.C.
Piggott, J. and Whitehouse, E.R. (2001), Pensions in Paradise: Modernising the Mauritian Retirement-Income System, Ministry of Finance, Port Louis.
Roberts, A. (2003), ‘In the Eye of the Storm? Societal Aging and the Future of Public Service Reform’, Public Administration Review, November/December 2003, Vol. 63, No. 6.
Schiavo-Campo, S., de Tommaso, G. and Mukherjee, A. (1997a), ‘Government employment and pay in global perspective: a selective synthesis of international facts, policies and experience’, Policy Research Working Paper no. 1771, World Bank, Washington, D.C.
Schiavo-Campo, S., de Tommaso, G. and Mukherjee, A. (1997b), ‘An international statistical survey of government employment and wages’, Policy Research Working Paper no. 1806, World Bank, Washington, D.C.
Schiller, B.R. and Weiss, R.D. (1979), ‘The impact of private pensions on firm attachment’, Review of Economics and Statistics, vol. 61, pp. 369-380.
Schreitmueller, R. (1988), ‘The Federal Employees Retirement System Act of 1986’, Transactions of Society of Actuaries, vol. 40, Part I.
United Kingdom, H.M. Treasury (2000), Review of Ill-Health Retirement in the Public Sector, London.
United States, General Accounting Office (1999), ‘State Pension Plans: Similarities and Differences between Federal and State Designs’, GAO, Washington D.C., 1999.
Viscusi, W.K. (1985), ‘The structure of uncertainty and the use of pensions as a mobility-reduction device’, in Wise, D. (ed.), Pensions, Labor and Individual Choice, University of Chicago Press for National Bureau of Economic Research.
Vordring, H. and Goudswaard, K. (1997), ‘Indexation of public pension benefits on a legal basis: some experiences in European countries’, International Social Security Review, vol. 50, no. 3, pp. 31-44.
Whitehouse, E.R. (2004a), ‘Analysis of pension entitlements across countries: High-Income OECD countries (vol. I)’, Pension Reform Primer series, Social Protection Discussion Paper, World Bank, Washington, D.C., forthcoming.
Wolf, D.A. and Levy, F. (1984), ‘Pension coverage, pension vesting and the distribution of job tenures’, in Aaron H.J. and Burtless, G.T. (eds), Retirement and Economic Behavior, Brookings Institution, Washington, D.C.
World Bank (1995), ‘Bureaucrats in Business: the Economics and Politics of Government Ownership’, Oxford University Press.
World Bank (1998), ‘Report and Recommendation of the President of the IBRD on a Proposed Public Policy Reform Adjustment Loan in the Amount of US$61 million to the Republic of Panama’, Report No. P7263 PAN, Central America Country Management Unit, Latin America and the Caribbean Region, Washington D.C..
World Bank (2001) ‘India: The Challenge of Old Age Income Security, Report No. 22034-IN, Finance and Private Sector Development, Washington D.C..