Shafaeddin, Mehdi (2009): NAMA as a Tool of De-industrialization of Africa.
Download (127kB) | Preview
The author argues in this chapter that trade liberalization in Africa during the last couple of decades has led to de-industrialization, slow growth of GDP, low level of investment, growing trade deficits, particularly in food items, in many African countries. This has been the case despite some improvement in recent years due to increases in the price of primary commodities. Drawing also on the experience of successful industrializers as well as failures of premature trade liberalization in low-income countries in recent decades, he further refers to pitfalls in negotiations on NAMA in WTO against the interest of African countries. Discussing the proposals made by developed countries on NAMA, he argues that if they are agreed upon, the structure of production and exports of African countries would be locked in primary commodities, resource based activities and at best low-skill labour intensive products and assembly operation. Finally, he outlines conditions for industrialization of Africa and the required changes in international trade rules in a way to become conducive to growth and upgrading of the industrial activities of the continents.
|Item Type:||MPRA Paper|
|Original Title:||NAMA as a Tool of De-industrialization of Africa|
|English Title:||NAMA as a Tool of De-industrialization of Africa|
|Keywords:||Africa, WTO, trade policy, NAMA nogotiation|
|Subjects:||F - International Economics > F0 - General > F00 - General
F - International Economics > F1 - Trade > F13 - Trade Policy; International Trade Organizations
F - International Economics > F1 - Trade > F10 - General
O - Economic Development, Technological Change, and Growth > O1 - Economic Development > O10 - General
F - International Economics > F5 - International Relations and International Political Economy > F53 - International Agreements and Observance; International Organizations
F - International Economics > F5 - International Relations and International Political Economy > F51 - International Conflicts; Negotiations; Sanctions
|Depositing User:||Mehdi Shafaeddin|
|Date Deposited:||06. May 2009 14:22|
|Last Modified:||13. Feb 2014 19:28|
References Akyuz, Y. (2005), “The WTO negotiations and Industrial Tariffs: What is at Stake for Developing countries? (Third World Network, Geneva)
Amsden, A. H. (1989), Asia's Next Giant, South Korea and Late Industrialization (New York, Oxford University Press).
Bouet, A.,Mevel,S.and Orden,D.(2007), “”More or less Ambition in the Doha Round: Winners and Losers from Trade Liberalisation with a Development Perspective”, The World Economy:1253-80.
Chang, Ha-Joon (2005) Why Developing Countries Need Tariffs; How WTO NAMA Negotiation could Deny Developing Countries’ Right to Future, South Centre, Geneva. Chenery, H and Syrqin,N.(1985), Pattern of Development 1950-1970 (Oxford University Press, Oxford).
Cline, R. W. (1983), Trade Policy and Economic Welfare (Oxford, Clarendon Press).
Das, B.L. (2005), The Current Negotiations in WTO, Options, Opportunities and Risks for Developing Countries (Geneva, Zed Books and TWN):34 and 36.
Easterly, W(2001), “The Lost Decades: Developing countries’ stagnation in spite of Policy Reform 1980-1998, Journal of Economic Growth,no.6,June,135-57.
Easterly, W(2002), “what did Structural Adjustment Adjust? The Association of Policies and Growth with Repeated IMF and World Bank Adjustment Loan”, Centre for Global Development, Working Paper no.11.October. Gallagher,K. and Shafaeddin,M.(2008). “The Evolution of Value Added in Assembly Operations; the Case of China and Mexico”; http://www.insouth.org/index.php?option=com_publicationz2&publicationz2 Task=publicationz2Details&publicationz2Id=210&Itemid=77
Gomery, R. E. and Baumol, W. J. (2000), Global Trade and Conflicting National Interests (Massachusetts, Massachusetts Institute of Technology).
Helleiner, G. K.(2005) "Markets, Politics and globalization: Can the Global Economy be Civilized?", 10th Raul Prebisch Lecture, Geneva, UNCTAD.
Khor, M. and Yen, G.C. (2005), “The WTO Negotiation on Non-Agricultural Market Access: A Development Perspective” a paper presented to a Workshop on NAMA organized by TWN, Geneva,9 May 2005 :10-12 for details.
Oxfam (2008), “Partnership or Power?, How Europe should bring development into trade deals with African, Caribbean,and Pacific countries, (Oxfam International, Oxford)
Shafaeddin (1995), "The impact of trade liberalization on export and GDP growth in Least Developed Countries",UNCTAD Review, 1995, pp1-16, reprinted in H. Singer, N.Hatti and R. Tandon (ed.), Trips and the Uruguay Round, New World Series, Vol. 15, Indus Publishing co.
Shafaeddin,(1996)"Risks of marginalisation of Africa in international trade", the Journal of Developed Society, vol. XII, No.2, 1996, pp 254-274.
Shafaeddin (2005.a), Is Industrial Policy Relevant in the 21st Century (Kuwait, Arab Planning Institute reprinted by TWN): 9-14.
Shafaeddin, M (2005.b). “Towards an Alternative Perspective on Trade and Industrial Policies”, Development and Change, 36.6:1143-1162.
Shafaeddin, M.(2005.c), Trade Policy at the Crossroads; the Recent Experience of Developing Countries, Palgrave, Macmillan.
Shafaeddin (2006.a), “Does Trade Openness favour or Hinder Industrialization and development”, a paper presented to the technical group meeting of Intergovernmental Group of 24 on International monetary affairs, Geneva, United nations, 16-17 march 2006, available at www.g24.org/msha0306.pdf Shafaeddin (2006.b), “Beware of NAMA’s Slippery Slope to Industrialization”, SUNS, 15 June available at http://www2.unine.ch/webdav/site/irene/shared/documents/SUNS15- Shafaeddin.pdf
South Centre (2007), Comments to the Chairman’s Draft NAMA Modalities, Analytical Note, SC/AN/TDP/MA/7 (Geneva, South Centre).
Sundaram,J.K. and Arnim,R.(2008), “Econmic Liberalization and Constraints to Development in Sub- Saharan Africa”, DESA, Working Paper No.67, ST/ESA/2008(DWP/67).
SUNS (South -North Development Monitor, various issues.
UNCTAD (2008.a), Handbook of Statistics,(New York and Geneva, United Nations)
UNCTAD( 2008.b), The Least developed Countries Report 2008 (New York and Geneva, United Nations)
UNCTAD (2008.c), Economic development in Africa, 2008; Export Performance Following Trade Liberalization: Some Pattern and Policy Perspectives ((New York and Geneva, United Nations).
Wade, R. (2005), “What Strategies Are Viable for Developing Countries Today? The World Trade Organization and Shrinking of Development Space” in Gallagher K.P(ed) (2005), Putting Development First, the importance of Policy Space in the WTO and IFIs, (London and New York, ZED Books): 80-101, particularly p.89.
Wade, R. (2006),”How to Change the WTO and Global Policy on Trade and Investment: Gaining Acceptance of “Open Economy Industrial Policy” by Hoisting Neo- liberalism on its Own Petard”; Note for Princeton conference on “Normative and Empirical Evaluation of global Governance”, Feb.16-18, Revised 4 March.
Wade, (2007), “Does trade liberalization promote economic prosperity”, in Haas,P. and Hirs, J. (2007), Controversies in Globalization, (Congressional Quarterly Press). Williamson, J.(ed.) (1990) “ Latin American Adjustment: How Much Has Happened? (Washington, D.C., Institute of International economics) World Bank (2000), World Development Indicators (Washington D.C., The World Bank)
World Bank (2008), World Development Indicators (Washington D.C., The World Bank).
WTO (2004), [July Package ]Doha Work Programme, Decision Adopted by the General Council on 1 August 2004, (Geneva, WTO).
WTO (2005), Doha Work Programme, Draft Ministerial Declaration, Ministrial Conference, Sixth Session, Hong Kong, 13-18 December 2005, document No. WT/MIN(05)/W/3/Rev.2 (Geneva, WTO).
WTO (2007), Chairman’s Introduction to draft NAMA Modalities,17 july, document no. JOB(07) 125.
WTO (2008.a), Draft modalities for Non-Agricultural Market Access, 8 February, document no. TN/MA/W/103 (Geneva,WTO)
WTO (2008.b), Draft modalities for Non-Agricultural Market Access, second revision, 20 May, document no. TN/MA/W/103/Rev. 1 (Geneva,WTO)
WTO (2008.c), Draft modalities for Non-Agricultural Market Access, Third revision, 10 July, document no. TN/MA/W/103/Rev. 2 (Geneva,WTO)