Vadlamannati, Krishna Chaitanya (2009): Testing The Effects of Economic, Social, and Political Globalization on Human Rights in Africa.
Download (165Kb) | Preview
The relationship between globalization and human rights remains highly controversial in African context. Neoliberals argue that globalization lead to growth and development generating respect for human rights. While skeptics contend that globalization process always tends to be ‘exclusive of poor’ increasing inequality leading to social unrest and economic insecurity. This leads to domestic violence and conflicts, allowing governments to resort to repressive measures. We unpack both these arguments and test several dimensions of human rights under the conditions of globalization. Previous studies have examined this issue for global sample with single indicators, such as trade openness and FDI. We however make use of Axel Dreher’s comprehensive measure of globalization index capturing the extent of globalization along the three dimensions of economic, political, and social globalization, to assess the propositions. Using the sample of 33 African countries for the period 1981 – 2005, our findings reveal a strong positive association between globalization and government respect for basic human rights, political terror scale. In contrast to the arguments of dependency school of thought, we also find positive relationship between disaggregated components of globalization and government respect for human rights. Of particular interest is that these results are reiterated for a sample of 28 Sub-Saharan African countries.
|Item Type:||MPRA Paper|
|Original Title:||Testing The Effects of Economic, Social, and Political Globalization on Human Rights in Africa|
|Keywords:||Globalization; Human rights, Africa.|
|Subjects:||F - International Economics > F1 - Trade > F15 - Economic Integration
O - Economic Development, Technological Change, and Growth > O5 - Economywide Country Studies > O55 - Africa
|Depositing User:||Krishna Chaitanya Vadlamannati|
|Date Deposited:||30. May 2009 18:25|
|Last Modified:||14. Feb 2013 08:49|
Abouharb, M. Rodwan & David Cingranelli (2004): Human Rights & Structural Adjustment: Importance of Selection, in Sabine C. Carey & Steven C. Poe (eds.) Understanding Human Rights Violations: New Systematic Studies, Ashgate Publishing: Aldershot, England.
Apodaca, Clair (2001): Global Economic Patterns and Personal Integrity Rights after the Cold War, International Studies Quarterly 45 (4), pp. 587–602.
Barro, R. and Sala-i-Martin, X. (1995): Economic Growth (New York: McGraw Hill).
Blanton, Shannon Lindsey (1999): Instruments of Security or Tools of Repression? Arms Imports & Human Rights Conditions in Developing Countries, Journal of Peace Research 36 (2), pp. 233-244
Barbieri, K & Rafael R (2005): Globalization & Civil War, Journal of Politics 67(4), pp. 1228–1248
Beck, N. (2001): Time-series cross-section data: What have we learned in the past few years? Annual Review of Political Science, 4, pp. 271-293.
Blinder, A. (2006): Off shoring: The Next Industrial Revolution?, Foreign Affairs.
Barbieri, Katherine (1996): Economic Interdependence: A Path to Peace or a Source of Interstate Conflict? Journal of Peace Research, 33(1), pp. 29–49.
Bhagwati, Jagdish (2004): In Defence of Globalization. Princeton: Princeton University.
Carey, S. and S. Poe (2004): Human Rights Research and the Quest for Human Dignity’ in S. Carey and S. Poe (eds.) (2004) Understanding Human Rights Violations: New Systematic Studies (Aldershot: Ashgate), pp. 3-15
Cingranelli, David L. & David L. Richards (1999): Measuring Level, Pattern & Sequence of Government Respect for Physical Integrity Rights, International Studies Quarterly, 43(2), pp. 407–417
Crossett, B (1997): A New Credo: Make Money, Nor War, in J.M. Lindsay (ed.) Perspectives: Global Issues, Boulder, Colo: Course wise.
De Haan, Jakob, Lundstrom, S & Sturm, Jan (2006): Market Oriented Institutions & Policies & Economic Growth: A Critical Survey, Journal of Economic Surveys, 20(2), pp. 157 - 191.
Dreher, Axel, Noel Gaston & Pim Martens (2008): Measuring Globalization, Gauging its Consequences, New York: Springer De Soysa, Indra & Helga Malmin Binningsbø (2008): Devil's Excrement or Social Cement? Oil Wealth and Repression, 1980–2004, International Social Science Journal (forthcoming).
Edwards, Sebastian, (1998): Openness, Productivity and Growth: What Do We Really Know?, Economic Journal, 108(447), pp. 383-98.
Frankel, J & Romer, D (1999): Does trade cause growth? American Economic Review, 89(3), pp. 379–399.
Frank, A. G (1979): Dependent Accumulation and Underdevelopment, New York, Monthly Review Press.
Friedman, Thomas L (1999): The Lexus and the Olive Tree: Understanding Globalization. New York: Anchor Books.
Fearon, James D. & David D. Laitin (2003): Ethnicity, Insurgency & Civil War, American Political Science Review, 97 (1), pp. 1–16
Franklin J (1997): IMF Conditionality, Threat Perception & Political Repression: A Cross-National Analysis, Comparative Political Studies, 30, pp. 576 – 606.
Gleditsch Nils Petter, Peter Wallensteen, Mikael Eriksson, Margareta Sollenberg & Håvard Strand (2002): Armed Conflict 1946–2001: A New Dataset’, Journal of Peace Research, 39(5): 615–637.
Gibney, Mark & Dalton, Matthew (1997): The Political Terror Scale, Policy Studies and Developing Nations, 4, pp. 73-84.
Giavazzi, Francesco & Tabellini, Guido (2005): Economic and political liberalizations, Journal of Monetary Economics, 52, pp. 1297–1330.
Henisz, Witold J (2000): The Institutional Environment for Multilateral Investment, Journal of Law, Economics and Organization, 16 (2), pp. 334–364.
Harms, Philipp & Heinrich Ursprung (2002): Do Civil and Political Repression Really Boost Foreign Direct Investments?, Economic Inquiry 40 (4), pp. 651–663.
Harrigan, Jane & Mosley, Paul (1991): Evaluating the Impact of World Bank Structural Adjustment Lending: 1980-87, in Contemporary Issues in European Development Aid, Gower Publishing Co Ltd.
Jakobsen, Jo & Indra de Soysa (2006): Do Foreign Investors Punish Democracy? Theory and Empirics, 1984–2001, Kyklos, 59 (3), pp. 383–410.
Jacobsen, Monika S. (1996): Peace and Prosperity, or Democratic Chaos?, Internasjonal Politikk, 54(2), pp. 237–254.
Kamenka, E. (1970): Concepts of Political Revolution in G.A. Kelly & C.W. Brown (eds.) Struggles in State: Sources & Patterns of World Revolution. New York: John Wiley.
Krugman, P. (2007): Trade and Inequality, Revisited, available online at http://www.voxeu.org/index.php?q=node/261
Landman, Todd, (2006): Holding the Line: Human Rights Defenders in the Age of Terror, British Journal of Politics and International Relations, 8, pp. 123-147
Londregan, John B & Keith T. Poole (1996): Does High Income Promote Democracy? World Politics, (49), pp. 1-30.
La Porta, R., Lopez-de-Silanes, F., Shleifer, A. & Vishny, R.W (1998): Law and finance, Journal of Political Economy 106(6), pp. 1113–1155.
Li, Quan, and Adam Resnick (2003): Reversal of Fortunes: Democratic Institutions and FDI Inflows to Developing Countries, International Organization 57, pp. 175–211.
Marshall, Monty, G & Keith Jaggers (2002): Polity IV Project: Political Regime Characteristics and Transitions, 1800-2000. College Park: University of Maryland, Accessed from: http://www.cidcm.umd.edu/inscr/polity/
Milner, Wesley T., David Leblang, and Steven C. Poe (2004): Providing Subsistence Rights: Do States Make a Difference? - In Systematic Study of Human Rights, (eds.) Sabine Carey and Steven C. Poe. Burlington, VT: Ashgate. pp. 110-24.
Meyer W. H (1996): Human Rights & MNCs: Theory versus Quantitative Analysis, Human Rights Quarterly, 18, pp. 368 – 397.
Mc Laren L. M (1998): The Effect of IMF Austerity Programs on Human Rights Violations: An Exploratory Analysis of Peru, Argentina & Brazil. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Midwest Political Science Association, Chicago.
Milner, Wesley T., Steven C. Poe & David Leblang (1999): Security Rights, Subsistence Rights, & Liberties: Theoretical Survey of Empirical Landscape, Human Rights Quarterly, 21(2), pp. 403-443.
Mousseau, Michael (2002): Market Civilization and Its Clash With Terror." International Security, 27 (3), pp. 5–29.
Neumayer, Eric. (2005): Do International Human Rights Treaties Improve Respect for Human Rights? Journal of Conflict Resolution, 49(6), pp. 925-953 Poe, Steven C. & C. Neal Tate (1994): Repression of Human Rights to Personal Integrity in the 1980s: A global Analysis, American Political Science Review, 88(4), pp. 853–872.
Poe, Steven C.; Neal Tate & Linda C. Keith (1999): Repression of Human Right to Personal Integrity Revisited: A Global Cross-National Study Covering the Years 1976-1993, International Studies Quarterly, 43, pp. 291–313.
Poe, Steven P., Sabine C. Carey & Tanya C. Vazquez (2001): How are these pictures Different? A quantitative comparison of US State Department & Amnesty International human rights reports, 1976-1995, Human Rights Quarterly, 23(3), pp. 650-677.
Rodrik, D (1994): The rush to free trade in the developing world: Why so late? Why now? Will it last? in: Haggard, S., Webb, S. (Eds.), Voting for Reform: Democracy, Political Liberalization & Economic Adjustment. Oxford Univ. Press, Oxford.
Rodríguez, F. and Rodrik, D. (2000): Trade policy and economic growth: a sceptics guide to cross-national evidence, in Ben Bernanke & Kenneth Rogoff (eds.) NBER Macroeconomics Annual 2000, pp. 261– 324. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press.
Richards, David L. Ronald D. Gelleny & David H. Sacko (2001): Money with a Mean Streak? Foreign Economic Penetration and Government Respect for Human Rights in Developing Countries, International Studies Quarterly, 45(2), pp. 219–239.
Ross Michael L (2004): How Do Natural Resources Influence Civil War? Evidence from Thirteen Cases, International Organization 58, pp. 35–67.
Ross, Michael (2008): Oil, Islam, and Women, American Political Science Review, 102 (1), pp. 107-123.
Rodrik, Dani (1998): Why Do More Open Economies Have Bigger Governments? Survival, 35, pp. 27 – 47.
Sen, Amartya (1999): Development as Freedom, Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Sachs, Jeffrey & Warner, Andrew (1995): Economic Reforms and the Process of Global Integration, Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, pp. 1-118.
Stiglitz J & Squire L (1998): International Development: Is It Possible? Foreign Policy, 110, pp. 138-151.
Vreeland, James Raymond (2002): The effect of IMF programs on labor, World Development, 30(1), pp. 21-139.
White, H. (1980): A Heteroskedasticity Consistent Covariance Matrix Estimator & a Direct Test of Heteroskedasticity, Econometrica, (48), pp. 817-838.