Ahmed, Naeem and Hyder, Kalim (2006): Gender Inequality and Trade Liberalization: A Case Study of Pakistan. Published in: Forman Journal of Economics Studies , Vol. 2, No. 1 (December 2006): pp. 28-38.
Download (225Kb) | Preview
The main focus of this study is to explore the impact of trade liberalization on gender inequalities in Pakistan. The overall gender inequality based on three dimensions, including labour market, education and health facilities are analyzed in this paper using data from 1973 to 2005. Exports and imports to GDP ratio, per capita GDP, and number of girls’ school to number of boys’ school ratio are identified as important determinants of overall gender inequality in Pakistan and gender inequality in labor market of Pakistan. Further, gender inequality in education attainment is explained by per capita GDP, number of girls’ school to number of boys’ school ratio and number of female teachers per school.
|Item Type:||MPRA Paper|
|Original Title:||Gender Inequality and Trade Liberalization: A Case Study of Pakistan|
|Keywords:||Gender inequality; discrimination; trade liberalization; determinants; Pakistan|
|Subjects:||J - Labor and Demographic Economics > J1 - Demographic Economics > J16 - Economics of Gender; Non-labor Discrimination|
|Depositing User:||Mahmood ul Hasan Khan|
|Date Deposited:||15. Jul 2009 02:21|
|Last Modified:||13. Feb 2013 04:58|
Aisha Ghaus-Pasha, and Abu Nasar, 1999, “Gender Inequality in Developing Countries: A Case Study of Pakistan,” Research Report 24, Social Policy and Development Centre.
Amartya Sen 1995, “Gender Inequality and Theories of Justice,” Women, Culture, and Development: A Study of Women Capabilities, World Institute for Developing Economic Research.
Augusto Lopez-Claros and Saadia Zahidi 2005, “Women’s Empowerment: Measuring the Global Gender Gap,” World Economic Forum 2005.
Baker, Gary S. 1957, 1971, “The Economics of Discrimination,” Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.
Hafiz A. Pasha 1994, “Cost Effectiveness in Primary Education: A Study of Pakistan,” Pakistan Development Review, 33(4), Part 2 Winter 1994, 1167-78.
Jeemol Unni 2004, “Globalization and Securing Rights of Women Informal Workers in Asia,” Journal of Human Development, Vol. 5, No.3, November 2004
Marzia Fontana 2003, “The Gender Effects of Trade Liberalization in Developing Countries: A Review of the Literature,” Discussion Paper 101, Department of Economics University of Sussex.
Mariza Fontana and Yana van der Meulen Rodgers 2005, “Gender Dimensions in the Analysis of Macro-Poverty Linkages,” Development Policy Review, 2005, 23(3): 333-349.
Matthias Busse and Christian Spielmann 2005, “Gender Inequality and Trade,” Discussion Paper 308, Hamburgisches Walt-Wirtschafts-Archiv (HWWA)
Nilufer Cagatay and Korkuk Erturk 2004, “Gender and Globalization a Macroeconomic Perspective,” Working Paper No. 19, Policy Integration Department World Commission on the Social Dimension of Globalization.
Oostendorp, Remco. 2002, “Does Globalization Reduce the Gender Wage Gap”, Economic and Social Institute, Free University of Amsterdam.
Sandra E. Black, Elizabeth Brainerd, 2002, “Importing Equality? The Impact of Globalization on Gender Discrimination,” Working Paper 9110, National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER)
Seguino, Stephanie. 2000, “Gender Inequality and Economic Growth: A Cross-Country Analysis,” World Development, Special Issue on Growth, Trade, Finance and Gender Inequality, July, 28(7): 1211-1230.
Tzannatos, Zafiris. 1999, “Women and Labour Market Changes in the Global Economy: Growth Helps, Inequalities Hurt and Public Policy Matters,” World Development, March, 27(3), 551-69.
United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), 1996, “Human Development Report 1996.”
Wood, Adrian. 1991, “North-South Trade and Female Labour in Manufacturing: An Asymmetry”, Journal of Development Studies 27(2)