Noland, Marcus and Haggard, Stephan (2009): Repression and punishment in North Korea: survey evidence of prison camp experiences.
Download (241kB) | Preview
The penal system has played a central role in the North Korean government’s response to the country’s profound economic and social changes. Two refugee surveys—one conducted in China, one in South Korea—document its changing role. The regime disproportionately targets politically suspect individuals, particularly those involved in market-oriented economic activities. Levels of violence and deprivation do not appear to differ substantially between the infamous political prison camps, penitentiaries for felons, and labor camps used to incarcerate individuals for misdemeanors, including economic crimes. Substantial numbers of those incarcerated report experiencing deprivation with respect to food as well as public executions and other forms of violence. This repression appears to work; despite substantial cynicism about the North Korean system, refugees do not report signs of collective action aimed at confronting the regime.
Such a system may also reflect ulterior motives. High levels of discretion with respect to arrest and sentencing and very high costs of detention, arrest and incarceration encourage bribery; the more arbitrary and painful the experience with the penal system, the easier it is for officials to extort money for avoiding it. These characteristics not only promote regime maintenance through intimidation, but may facilitate predatory corruption as well.
|Item Type:||MPRA Paper|
|Original Title:||Repression and punishment in North Korea: survey evidence of prison camp experiences|
|Keywords:||North Korea; corruption; prison camps; refugees|
|Subjects:||F - International Economics > F2 - International Factor Movements and International Business > F22 - International Migration
P - Economic Systems > P3 - Socialist Institutions and Their Transitions > P37 - Legal Institutions; Illegal Behavior
P - Economic Systems > P3 - Socialist Institutions and Their Transitions
|Depositing User:||Marcus Noland|
|Date Deposited:||10. Oct 2009 05:34|
|Last Modified:||12. Feb 2013 01:01|
Amnesty International. 2000. Persecuting the Starving: The Plight of North Koreans Fleeing to China. London.
Amnesty International. 2001. Human Rights in China in 2001 – A New Step Backwards. London.
Amnesty International. 2004. Starved of Rights: Human Rights and the Food Crisis of the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea. London. Available at web.amnesty.org
Chang, Yoonok, Stephan Haggard, Marcus Noland. 2008. “Migration Experiences of North Korean Refugees: Survey Evidence from China,” Working Paper 08-04. Washington: Peterson Institute.
Chang, Yoonok, Stephan Haggard, and Marcus Noland. 2009. “Exit Polls: Refugee Assessment of North Korea’s Transition,” Journal of Comparative Economics. 37:2 144-50.
Cooper, Abraham (2005), “Toxic Indifference to North Korea,” Washington Post, 26 March.
Database Center for North Korean Human Rights. 2008. White Paper on North Korean Human Rights Statistics 2007. Seoul: Database Center for North Korean Human Rights.
Demick, Barbara (2004), “North Korea’s Use of Chemical Torture Alleged,” Los Angeles Times, 3 March.
Haggard, Stephan and Marcus Noland. 2007. Famine in North Korea: Markets, Aid, and Reform. New York: Columbia University Press.
Haggard, Stephan and Marcus Noland. 2009a. “Reform from Below: Institutional and Behavioral Change in North Korea,” Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization, forthcoming.
Haggard, Stephan and Marcus Noland. 2009b.”North Korean Political Attitudes: Evidence from a Refugee Survey,”
Han, In Sup. 2006. “The 2004 Revision of Criminal Law in North Korea: A Take-Off?” Santa Clara Journal of International Law 5, 1: 122-133.
Harden, Blaine. 2009. “N. Korea’s Hard-Labor Camps: On the Back Burner,” Washington Post, July 20.
Hawk, David. 2003. The Hidden Gulag. Washington: US Committee for Human Rights in North Korea.
Hunter, Helen-Louise. 1999. Kim Il-song’s North Korea. Santa Barbara: Greenwood.
Kang, Chol-hwan. 2002. The Aquariums of Pyongyang. New York: Basic Books.
Korea Institute for National Unification (KINU). 2009. White Paper on Human Rights in North Korea 2009. Seoul: KINU.
Kurlantzick, Joshua, and Jana Mason (2006), ‘North Korean Refugees: The Chinese Dimension’, in: The North Korean Refugee Crisis: Human Rights and International Response, Washington: US Committee for Human Rights in North Korea, pp. 34-52
Lankov, Andrei. 2007. North of the DMZ : Essays on Daily Life in North Korea. Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland & Company.
Lee, Keumsoon. 2006. The Border-Crossing North Koreans: Current Situations and Future Prospects. Studies Series 06-05. Seoul: Korean Institute for National Unification.
Martin, Bradley and Hideko Takayama. 2008. “North Korean Women Fight Back as Kim Orders Them Out of Markets,” Bloomberg at http://www.bloomberg.com/apps/news?pid=20601109&refer=home&sid=aIL0fcgH66G4# (May 28).
Muico, Norma Kang. 2007. Forced Labor in North Korean Prison Camps. London: Anti-Slavery International.
Noland, Marcus. 2000. Avoiding the Apocalypse: The Future of the Two Koreas. Washington, DC: Institute for International Economics.
United Nations Population Fund, 2009. Preliminary Results of the 2008 census of population of the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea conducted on 1-15 October, 2008. On file with authors.