Funk, Matt (2009): On the Truly Noncooperative Game of Island Life: Introducing a Unified Theory of Value & Evolutionarily Stable Island Economic Development Strategy. Forthcoming in: University of Prince Edward Island (31. December 2009): pp. 1-113.
Download (9MB) | Preview
This discourse offers a solution to The Problem of Sustainable Economic Development on islands. This hypothesis offers a foundational, sub-game solution to The Island Survival Game, a counterintuitive, dominant economic development strategy for ‘islands’ (and relatively insular states). This discourse also tables conceptual building blocks, prerequisite analytical tools, and a guiding principle for The Earth Island Survival Game, a bounded delay supergame which models The Problem of Sustainable Economic Development at the global level. We begin our exploration with an introduction to The Principle of Relative Insularity, a postulate which informs ESS for ‘island’ and ‘continental’ players alike. Next, we model ‘island’ economic development with two bio-geo-politico-economic models and respective strategies: The Mustique Co. Development Plan, and The Prince Edward Island Federal-Provincial Program for Social and Economic Advancement. These diametrically opposed strategies offer an extraordinary comparative study. One island serves as a highly descriptive model for The Problem of Sustainable Economic Development; the other model informs ESS. The Island Survival Game serves as a remarkable learning tool, offering lessons which promote Darwinian fitness, resource holding power, self-sufficiency, and cooperative behaviour, by illuminating the illusive path toward sustainable economic development.
|Item Type:||MPRA Paper|
|Original Title:||On the Truly Noncooperative Game of Island Life: Introducing a Unified Theory of Value & Evolutionarily Stable Island Economic Development Strategy|
|Keywords:||Non-cooperative games, evolutionary game theory, relative insularity, islands, tragedy of the commons, sustainable economic development, resource holding power, evolutionarily stable strategy, long distance dispersal|
|Subjects:||O - Economic Development, Technological Change, and Growth > O1 - Economic Development
O - Economic Development, Technological Change, and Growth > O1 - Economic Development > O13 - Agriculture; Natural Resources; Energy; Environment; Other Primary Products
C - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods > C7 - Game Theory and Bargaining Theory > C72 - Noncooperative Games
|Depositing User:||Matt Funk|
|Date Deposited:||08. Dec 2009 07:19|
|Last Modified:||12. Feb 2013 11:36|
1. Mullen W (2009) 1 Birthday, but 2 Incredible Lives: Influence of Charles Darwin, Abraham Lincoln Strong as their Bicentennial Nears. The Chicago Tribune. Sunday, 8 February 2009. Section 2.
2. Campbell J (1949) The Hero with a Thousand Faces (Bollingen Foundation, Princeton).
3. Popper K (1994) In Search of a Better World (Routledge, London).
4. Oppenheimer R (1955) The Open Mind (Simon & Schuster, New York).
5. Descartes R (1637) Discourse on the Method of Rightly Conducting the Reason, and Seeking Truth in the Sciences. 1901 Ed (Dunne, Washington).
6. Funk M (2009) On the Truly Noncooperative Game of Life on Earth: In Search of the Unity of Nature & Evolutionary Stable Strategy. Announced in NEP: Resource Economics 2009-08-08, and NEP: Cognitive & Behavioural Economics 2009-08-08, MPRA: http://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/17280/
7. Botton A (2000) The Consolations of Philosophy. 2001 Ed (Vintage, New York).
8. LANL (2008) LALP-08-824 - Energy Security Overview 04 08 (Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos).
9. Kersh R (2001) Dreams of a More Perfect Union (Cornell Univ Press, Ithaca).
10. Dawkins R (1976) The Selfish Gene (Oxford Univ Press, Oxford).
11. Stigler G (1982) The Process and Progress of Economics. J of Pol Econ 91:529-545.
12. Goethe J (1810) Theory of Colours. 1840 English Ed (Murray, London)
13. Linnean Society (2009) The Linnean Society of London (The Linnean Society, London).
14. Wade N (2009) Darwin, Ahead of His Time, Is Still Influential. The Chicago Tribune. February 9, 2009.
15. Shiro O (2005) A Man with No Talents: Memoirs of a Tokyo Day Laborer (Cornell Univ Press, Ithaca).
16. Popper K (1999) All Life is Problem Solving (Routledge, London).
17. Darwin C (1859) On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life (Murray, London).
18. Darwin C (1871) The Descent of Man and Selection in Relation to Sex (Murray, London).
19. Hawking S (2008) Stephen hawking: Asking Big Questions About the Universe (TED, New York).
20. Rand A (1957) Atlas Shrugged (Random House, New York).
21. Zona S (2007) Long-Distance Dispersal and the Loss of Dispersibility.
22. Silva M (1998) Allometric scaling of body length: Elastic or geometric similarity in mammalian design. Journal of Mammalogy, 79:20-32.
23. Silva M, et al. (2001) Effects of body mass, climate, geography, and census area on population density of terrestrial mammals. Global Ecology and Biogeography 10:469-485.
24. Silva M, Downing J (1994) Allometric scaling of minimal mammal densities. Conservation Biology 8:732-743.
25. Silva M, Downing J (1995) The allometric scaling of density and body mass: A nonlinear relationship for terrestrial mammals. The American Naturalist 145:704-727.
26. Popper K (1983) Realism and the Aim of Science (Routledge, London).
27. Helferich G (2004) Humboldt's Cosmos: Alexander von Humboldt and the Latin American Journey that Changed the Way We See the World (Gotham, New York).
28. Sokal A (1996) Transgressing the Boundaries: Toward a Transformative Hermeneutics of Quantum Gravity. Social Text 46:217-252.
29. Sokal A (1996) A Physicist Experiments with Cultural studies (NYU, New York).
30. Sokal A (1996) Transgressing the Boundaries: An Afterword. Dissent 43:93-99.
31. Sokal A (2008) Beyond the Hoax: Science, Philosophy, and Culture (Oxford Univ Press, New York).
32. Rowbottom D, Aiston S (2006) The Myth of 'Scientific Method' in Contemporary Educational Research. Journal of Philosophy of Education 40:137-156.
33. Hardin G (1998) Extensions of “The Tragedy of the Commons.” Science 280: 682-683.
34. Schabas M (2005) The Natural Origins of Economics 2007 Ed (Univ of Chicago Press, Chicago).
35. Orr A (2005) The genetic basis of reproductive isolation: insights from Drosophilia. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 102:6522-6526.
36. Darwin C, Wallace A (1858) The Darwin-Wallace Paper. By Charles Darwin, Esq., FRS, FLS, & FGS, and Alfred Wallace, Esq. Communicated by Sir Charles Lyell, FRS, FLS, and J.D. Hooker, Esq, FLS, &c. The Darwin-Wallace paper was read before the Linnean Society July 1st 1858 and published in Proceedings Vol 3 1858. pp 45-62. In the original paper as published by the Linnean Society: Pages 45-46 consists of a letter of introduction by Charles Lyell and Joseph D. Hooker. Pages 46-50 consists of an Extract from an unpublished Work on Species, by C. Darwin, Esq., consisting of a portion of a Chapter entitled, On the Variation of Organic Beings in a state of Nature; on the Natural Means of Selection; on the Comparison of Domestic Races and true Species. Pages 50-53 consists of an Abstract of a Letter from C. Darwin, Esq., to Prof. Asa Gray, Boston, U.S., September 5th 1857. Pages 53-62 consists of the manuscript On the Tendency of Varieties to depart indefinitely from the Original Type By Alfred Russel Wallace (This latter known as The Ternate Paper of 1858).
37. Funk M (2008) On the Problem of Connectivity: The Value of Relative Insularity. A seminar delivered 11 June 2008, 1:00 PM, at the Åland International Institute of Comparative Island Studies Annual Conference, “Islands of Competence: Branding Identities in a Globalized World,” Parliamentary Building, Mariehamn, Åland (AICIS, Åland).
38. Funk, Matt (2008): On the Problem of Sustainable Economic Development: A Theoretical Solution to this Prisoner's Dilemma. 2008 AICIS Conference Proceedings, ”Islands of Competence: Branding Identities in a Globalized World”, pp. 1-117. Published online at: http://www.aicis.ax/images/stories/pdf/mattfunkpaper3.pdf (Åland International Institute of Comparative Island Studies, Åland).
39. Funk M (forthcoming). On the Problem of Human Survival: In Search of a Better World — A Unified Theory of Value & Evolutionary Stable Strategy.
40. AICIS (2008) Åland International Institute of Comparative Island Studies (AICIS, Mariehamn).
41. Eriksson et al. (2007) A sense of coherence and health. Salutogenesis in a societal context: Åland, a special case? Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health 61:684-688.
42. LANL (1993) Oppenheimer's Better Idea: Ranch School Becomes Arsenal of Democracy (LANL, Los Alamos). 4 3. Funk M (2009) Funk Island Trust (Funk Island).
44. New Hampshire (1945) Legislation enacted May 10th 1945.
45. Nickens (2008) A Cry From the North: The Boreal Forest is a Sportsman’s Paradise with Millions of Ducks and Some of the Planets Largest Populations of Fish and Game. It Could be Changed Forever in a Generation. Field & Stream CXIII:80-84 ; 94-95.
46. Alpine Conference Ministers (1989) Convention on the Protection of the Alps (Alpine Convention Signatory Nations, Berchtesgaden). Page 69 of 113
47. Fairmont Hotels & Resorts (2008) The Fairmont Southhampton (Fairmont, Toronto).
48. Mearsheimer J (2001) The Tragedy of Great Power Politics (Norton, New York).
49. Funk Island (2008) Funk Island Ecological Reserve (Newfoundland & Labrador Government, Deer Lake).
50. Wallace A (1881) Island Life 1892 Ed (Macmillan, London).
51. Tourtellot J (2007) Places Rated: 111 Islands. Nat Geo Travel November/December:108-127.
52. Nicholson D (2003) Hallberg-Rassy 43, Malö 41, Najad 460: Make way for the Swedes: From a Single Swedish Isle come three great boats: the Hallberg-Rassy 43, the Malö 41, and the Najad 460. Cruising World. May 2003.
53. Demetrius L, Ziehe M (1984) The measurement of darwinian fitness in human populations. Proc of the Royal Soc of London B 222:33-50.
54. Mayr E (2004) What Makes Biology Unique (Cambridge Univ Press, Cambridge).
55. Nettle D, Pollet T (2008) Natural Selection on Male Wealth in Humans. The Amer Naturalist 172:658-666.
56. OED (2007). Oxford English Dictionary. Entry: Insular. [ad. L. insular-is, f. insula island: see AR. Cf. F. insulaire.]
57. Biagini E, Hoyle B, eds., (1999) Insularity and Development: International Perspectives on Islands (Pinter, London).
58. Kostopoulou S (1999) Transport Network Access Degrees of Insularity. In Biagini E, Hoyle B, eds., Insularity and Development: International Perspectives on Islands (Pinter, London).
59. Pinder D, Edwards J (1999) Island Locations and Economic Advantage: the Case of UK Energy Systems. In Biagini E, Hoyle B, eds., Insularity and Development: International Perspectives on Islands (Pinter, London). 60. Gould S (2002) The Structure of Evolutionary Theory (Harvard Univ Press, Cambridge).
61. Hayek F (1974) Banquet Speech (Nobel Foundation, Stockholm).
62. Goldsmith F (1973) The Ecologist's Role in Development for Tourism. Bio J Linn Soc 5:265-287.
63. Hayek F (1945) The Use of Knowledge in Society. The Amer Econ Rev 35:519-530).
64. Humboldt A, Bonpland A (1814) Personal Narrative of Travels to the Equinoctial Regions of the New Continent (Longman, London).
65. Llewelyn-Davies, et al. (1970) Mustique Developmet Plan (The Mustique Co., Mustique).
66. Popper K (1974) Unended Quest. 2002 Ed (Routledge, London).
67. Funk M (2008) On the Value of Relative Insularity. Department of Island Studies Seminar. April 24th, 2008. 2:00 to 3:30 PM. The event program noted: Topic: Which ‘eco’? Comparing and Contrasting the ‘development’ of Barbados and Mustique. Epidemiology Classroom - 220 South (UPEI, Charlottetown).
68. Funk M (2009) On the Extinction of Species by Means of Insularity Lost, or The Law Which Regulates the Struggle for Life: Lessons from Mustique. International Development Week presentation. 2 February 2009, 1:30 PM, Atlantic Veterinary College, Lecture Theatre A (UPEI, Charlottetown).
69. Funk M (2009) Solving Island Problems with Island Solutions: Amplification-by-Compression, Complex Systems, & Cultural Evolution. Guest lecture presentation for IST 604, Research Methods & Designs in Island Studies, Main 311, 26 January 2009, 6:00 PM (UPEI, Charlottetown).
70. Funk M (2008) On the Extinction of Species by Means of Insularity Lost: Lessons from Prince Edward Island. 20 November 2008. Seminar presented to the Department of Biology, 26 November 2008, 3:00 PM (UPEI, Charlottetown).
71. Funk M (2008) On the Problem of Islandness. Seminar presented to the Faculty of Arts, 11 March 2008, 11:00 AM. The event program noted: “A Theory of Value based upon relative insularity is introduced by outlining its various aspects as they affect Mustique. The island’s positive features, which have altered its isolation and peripherality into economic assets, will be discussed” (UPEI, Charlottetown).
72. Funk M (2008) Problem Solving on Islands: Valuable & Timeless Lessons from Alfred Russel Wallace & Charles Darwin. Two lectures delivered to Global Issues students on 26 November 2008, at 3:00 PM & 5:00 PM (UPEI, Charlottetown).
73. Funk M (2007) On the Problem of Breathing, Eating, & Drinking Poison—An Introduction to Problem Solving, Nobility of Purpose under Adverse Circumstances, and the Search for Truth with Karl Popper. A guest-lecture delivered to Masters of Island Studies students, 7 January 2008 (UPEI, Charlottetown).
74. Funk M (2009) On the Problem of the Hedgeless Hedgefunds of Sleepy Hollow: An Evolutionary Stable Solution in an Open Letter to Kenneth Griffin (MPRA, Munich).
75. Funk M (2007) On the Problem of Breathing, Eating, & Drinking Poison—An Introduction to Problem Solving, Nobility of Purpose under Adverse Circumstances, and the Search for Truth with Karl Popper. Announced in NEP: Cognitive & Behavioural Economics 2009-04-14, and NEP: History & Philosophy of Economics 2009-04-13 (MPRA, Munich).
76. Funk M (2008) On the Problem of Vague Terms: A Glossary of Clearly Stated Assumptions & Careful, Patient, Descriptions (MPRA, Munich).
77. Funk M (2008) On the Problem of Sustainable Economic Development III: A Survival Guide for People who Live on Small Islands, including the Inhabitants of the Small Island of Earth. An Open Letter to President George W. Bush. Dated 4 July 2008, mailed via FEDEX 26 July 2008 from The Union League Club, Room 1602, Chicago, IL, 60604, USA. Delivered at The White House, 12:25 PM, 29 July 2008, signed for by J. Casey (MPRA, Munich).
78. Baldacchino G, Funk M (2008) A Search for a Measure of the Quality of Life on Prince Edward Island: An Inter-Provincial ‘Cost of Living’ Inquiry (MPRA, Munich).
79. Russell B (1928) Sceptical Essays (Allen & Unwin, London).
80. North D (2005) Corporate Leadership in an Uncertain World (The Conference Board, Inc., New York).
81. Story J (1840) A Familiar Exposition of the Constitution of the United States. 1997 Ed (Regency Gateway, Lake Bluff).
82. Hawking S (2002) On the Shoulders of Giants: The Great Works of Physics and Astronomy (Running Press, Philadelphia).
83. Swift J (1706) Thoughts on Various Subjects, Moral and Diverting. 1886 Ed (Cassell, London).
84. Einstein A (1940) Statement on Behalf of Bertrand Russell. Letter to Morris Raphael Cohen, professor emeritus of philosophy at the College of the City of New York, March 19, 1940 (Public Domain).
85. Linnean Society (1802) Charters and Bye-laws (The Linnean Society, London).
86. Frey B (2000) Why Economists Disregard Economic Methodology (Institut für Empirische Wirtschaftsforschung, Zürich).
87. Blaikie P, Brookfield H (1987) Land degradation and society (Methuen, London).
88. Taleb N (2001) Fooled by Randomness (TEXERE, New York).
89. Mayr, E (2001) Philosophical Foundations of Darwinism. Proc of the Amer Phil Soc 145:488-495.
90. Darwin C, et al. (1849) A Manual of Scientific Enquiry; : Prepared for the use of Her Majesty's Navy : and Adapted for Travellers in General (Murray, London). Page 70 of 113
91. Jentzsch G (1963) Some Thoughts on the Theory of Cooperative Games - RM3398. Introduction by Rubenstein A (RAND, Santa Monica).
92. Selten R (1980) A Note on Evolutionarily Stable Strategies in Asymmetric Animal Conflicts. J Theor Biol 84:93-101.
93. Maynard Smith J (1982) Evolution and the Theory of Games (Cambridge Univ Press, New York).
94. Selten R (1994) Multistage Game Models and Delay Supergames (Nobel Foundation, Stockholm).
95. Nash J (1953) Two-Person Cooperative Games. Econometrica 21:128-140.
96. Nash J (1950) Equilibrium Point in n-Person Games. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 36:48–49.
97. Nash J, Kuhn H (2009) John F. Nash, Senior Research Mathematician, and Harold W. Kuhn, Professor of Mathematical Economics, Emeritus, Discuss the early days of Game Theory in Fine Hall. 16 April 16 2009 (Princeton Univ Press, Princeton).
98. Kuhn H (1994) The Work of John Nash in Game Theory (Nobel Foundation, Stockholm).
99. Holt C, Roth A (2004) The Nash equilibrium: A perspective. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 101:3999-4000.
100. Neumann J, Morgenstern O (1944) Theory of games and Economic Behaviour. 60th Anniversary Ed (Princeton Univ Press, Princeton).
101. Kalisch G, et al. (1952) Some Experimental n-Person Games - RM948 (RAND, Santa Monica).
102. Tucker A (1950) A two person dilemma (Stanford).
103. Hayek F (1952) The Sensory Order: An Inquiry into the Foundations of Theoretical Psychology (Univ of Chicago Press, Chicago).
104. Steele G (2002) Hayek’s Sensory Order Theory & Psychology 12.
105. Feynman R (1994) Six Easy Pieces (Helix, New York).
106. Dommen E, Hein P, eds. (1985) States, Microstates and Islands (Croom Helm, London).
107. Russell P (1993) Constitutional Edyssey: Can Canadians Become a Sovereign People. 2nd Ed, revised and updated to cover the making and breaking of the Charlottetown Accord (Univ of Toronto Press, Toronto).
108. Lincoln A (1863) The Gettysburg Address.19 November 1863 (Library of Congress, Washington).
109. Barton W (1930) Lincoln at Gettysburg: What He Intended to Say ; What he Said; What He Was Reported to Have Said; What He Wished He Had Said First Ed, Union League Club library (Bobbs-Merrill, Indianapolis).
110. ULC (2009) The Lincoln Collection (The Union League Club library, Chicago).
111. Strachan J, Vigilance C, eds. (2008) Sustainable Development in Small Island Development States: Issues and Challenges (Commonwealth Secretariat, London).
112. Baldacchino G (2006) Warm versus Cold Water Island Tourism: A Review of Policy Implications. Island Studies J 1:183-200).
113. Milinski, M et al. (2008) The Collective-Risk Social Dilemma and the Prevention of Simulated Dangerous Climate Change. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 105:2291-2294.
114. Gore A (2006) An Inconvenient Truth: The Planetary Emergency of Global Warming and What We Can Do About It (Rodale, New York).
115. Begley L (1993) Crossing that Bridge: A Critical Look at the PEI Fixed Link (Ragweed, Charlottetown).
116. Baldacchino G (2007) Fixed links and the engagement of islandness: reviewing the impact of the Confederation Bridge. The Canadian Geographer 51:323-336.
117. Baldacchino G, et. al, eds., (2007) Bridging Islands: The Impact of Fixed Links (Acorn Press, Charlottetown).
118. Baldacchino et. al., eds (1998) Competing Strategies of Socio-Economic Development for Small Islands (IIS, Charlottetown).
119. Hunter M, Corbin C (2007) ‘Built for Going Away’ : The Canso Causeway Epic, in Three Acts: 67-84. In Baldacchino G, eds., Bridging Islands: The Impact of Fixed Links (Acorn Press, Charlottetown).
120. Semple E (1911) Influences of Geographic Environment (Constable, London).
121. Calderon R (2000) The epidemiology of chemical contaminants of drinking water. Food and Chemical Toxicology 38:S13-S20.
122. Huff D (2009) Corporate Knights magazine releases Canada's first Green Provincial Report Card.. . BC claims title as Greenest Province; Ontario is #2; Nunavut is #3; PEI pulls up the rear; Alberta edges out Quebec (Corporate Knights, Toronto).
123. MacDougall G (2008) Minding the canary in the mine. The Guardian August 2.
124. Schneider G (2007) We need action now to address nitrate problem. The Guardian June 6.
125. Beaulier S, Caplan B (2007) Behavioral Economics and Perverse Effects of the Welfare State. Kyklos 60:485-507.
126. Weale D (1991) Islandness. Island Journal, Maine, Island Institute, 8:81-82.
127. MacDonald E (2007) Bridge Over Troubled Waters: The Fixed Link Debate. In Baldacchino G, et. al, eds., Bridging Islands: The Impact of Fixed Links (Acorn Press, Charlottetown).
128. Weibull J (2002) What Have we Learned from Evolutionary Game Theory So Far? (Institute for International Economic Studies, Stockholm).
129. Arnason R, et al., (1995) The North Atlantic fisheries : successes, failures and challenges. (IIS, Charlottetown).
130. Benson V, et al. (2006). Spatial analysis of land use impact on ground water nitrate concentrations. Journal of environmental quality 35:421-432.
131. Sesser S (2008) Galapagos Under Siege: The remote islands are known for exotic wildlife and a prehistoric landscape. Why a growing flock of well-meaning ecotourists is posing a new threat. The Wall Street Journal January 5-6:W1,W6-W7.
132. Richardson, B (1975) The Over-development of Carriacou. Geographical Review, 65:390-399.
133. CIA (2009) World Factbook (Central Intelligence Agency, Langley).
134. Doumenge F (1998) Considerations for Small Island Development Today. 337-346. In Baldacchino G, Greenwood, R eds., Competing Strategies of Socio-Economic Development for Small Islands (IIS, Charlottetown).
135. Treverton G, Jones S (2005) Measuring National Power (RAND, Santa Monica).
136. Thomas W (1963) The Variety of Physical Environments among Pacific Islands. In Fosberg F, National Academies of Sciences, eds. (1970) Man's Place in the Island Ecosystem (Bishop Museum, Honolulu).
137. George C, et. al. (2007) CERMES Technical Report No . 13: An environmental assessment of the accommodation sector in the Grenadine Islands (CERMES, Barbados).
138. Jenkins D, Bobrow J (1985) St. Vincent and the Grenadines: A Plural Country (Norton, London).
139. Mattai, I Mahon R (2006) CERMES Technical Report No . 15: Review and Interpretation of Environmental and Sustainable Development Legislation for the Grenadines Islands (CERMES, Barbados).
140. Bartmann B (1996) Salt Water Frontiers: Jurisdiction as a Resource for Small Islands. Keynote address to the Annual Conference of the Institute of Island Studies (IIS, Charlottetown).
141. Humboldt A (1807) Aspects of Nature in Different Lands and Climates; with Scientific Elucidations (Lean & Blanchard, Philadelphia).
142. Humboldt A (1814) Researches Concerning the Institutions and Monuments of the Ancient Inhabitants of America (Longman, et al. London). Page 71 of 113 143. Humboldt A (1811) Political Essay on the Kingdom of New Spain (AMS, New York).
144. Humboldt A (1817) Des lingnes isothermes et de la distribution de la chaleur sur le globe. (Perronneau, Paris).
145. Humboldt A (1845) Cosmos: A Sketch of the Physical Description of the Universe (Harper & Brothers, Philadelphia).
146. Steinberg P (2007) Bridging the Florida Keys: 123-138. In Baldacchino G, eds., Bridging Islands: The Impact of Fixed Links (Acorn Press, Charlottetown).
147. Walsh D, Jones, M (2007) Finding the Links: Structure & Agency on Twillingate and Fogo Islands: 85-104. In Baldacchino G, eds., Bridging Islands: The Impact of Fixed Links (Acorn Press, Charlottetown).
148. Fielding R (2007) Tourism, Links, & Islandness of Florida’s Gulf Coast: 139-160. In Baldacchino G, eds., Bridging Islands: The Impact of Fixed Links (Acorn Press, Charlottetown).
149. Kallgard A (2007) Sweden, Islands, & Bridges: 251-260. In Baldacchino G, eds., Bridging Islands: The Impact of Fixed Links (Acorn Press, Charlottetown).
150. Guay L (2007) Two Islands in the St. Lawrence River: One bridged; one unbridged: 1-5-122. In Baldacchino G, eds., Bridging Islands: The Impact of Fixed Links (Acorn Press, Charlottetown).
151. Funk, M (2008) The Funk Line. Funkislandorg (Youtube.com).
152. Carmichael H (2006) The Grand Cascapedia River: A History. Vol. I (Anesha, North Salem).
153. Pearse P (1988) Property Rights and the Development of Natural Resource Policies in Canada. Canadian Public Policy 14:307-320.
154. Neff J (2006) Katahdin: An Historic Journey (AMC Books, Boston).
155. Silliker B (2002) Saving Maine: An Album of Conservation Success Stories (Down East Books, Camden).
156. Fielding R (2005) Islandness, Fixed-Links, and Tourism Along Florida’s Gulf Coast. A Master’s Thesis (Univ of Montana, Missoula).
157. Day G, ed. (2009) Roque Island. Blue Water Sailing 39.
158. Taft H, et al. (2002) A Cruising Guide to the Maine Coast. 4th Ed (Diamond Pass, Peaks Island).
159. Conrad J (1915) Victory: An Island Tale (Doubleday, Garden City).
160. AtKisson A (2009) Islands of Desire - An Essay on Sustaining Island Economies in a Globalized World.
161. AtKisson Group (2009) Homepage (AtKisson, Boston).
162. Hayek F (1974) The Pretense of Knowledge. Amer Econ Rev 79:3-7.
163. Frankfurt H (2005) On Bullshit (Princeton Univ Press, Princeton).
164. Frost R (1920) The Road Not Taken. Mountain Interval (Holt, New York).
165. Renatus F (390) De Re Militari (Griffin, London).
166. Desha S (1922) Kamehameha and his Warrior Kekuhaupi'o (Kamehameha Schools, Honolulu).
167. Einstein A (1939) Letter to F.D. Roosevelt, President of the United States. Dated: August 2nd, 1939 (Public Domain).
168. Fowler C (2006) Fairmount Minerals: Elevating our focus on People, Planet, and Prosperity (Fairmount Minerals, Chardon).
169. Dillard R (2004) The Hedgeweek Interview: Randall Dillard, Partner, Liongate Capital Management. Private Equity Wire. Monday, 1 November 2004 (Global Fund Media, Ltd., London).
170. Bergin B (2004) Loyal to the Land: The Legendary Parker Ranch (Univ of Hawai’i, Press Honolulu).
171. Whitney D (2008) Hidden History of New Hampshire (The History Press, Charleston).
172. Smith A (1776) An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations (Strahan & Cadell, London).
173. Turner T (2008) Call Me Ted (Grand Central, New York).
174. Bailey D (2005) Identification and Creation of Optimum Habitat Conditions for Livestock. Rangeland Ecology & Management 58:109-118.
175. Hardin G (1968) The Tragedy of the Commons. Science 162:1243-1248.
176. Hayek F (1960) The Constitution of Liberty (Routledge, London).
177. Quammen D (1996) The Song of the Dodo: Island Biogeography in an Age of Extinctions (Schribner, New York).
178. Monbiot (2005) Bring on the Apocalypse (Atlantic Books, London).
179. Bailey K (2007) Magic bullet: When it comes to hunting big game in Canada, is there one rifle calibre that can do it all? Outdoor Canada. May:30.
180. Petzal D (2008) The Rebirth of the .30/06: Why the 102-year old cartridge has taken on new life. Field & Stream November:21-22.
181. US DoS (2009) Travel Warnings (Bureau of Consular Affairs, Washington).
182. ICC (2009) Piracy Prone Areas and Warnings (ICC Commercial Crime Services, London).
183. Bray A, ed. (2009) Piracy: A growing menace. Yachting World 161:56-65.
184. Melotto R, ed. (2009) Worst year ever for piracy. Practical Boat Owner 510:8.
185. Chowdhury S (2008) Disinfection byproducts in Canadian drinking waters: Risk and cost assessment. J Hazard Mater May 23.
186. Simpson K, Hayes K (1998). Drinking water disinfection byproducts: an Australian perspective. Water Research 32:1522-1528.
187 Huang X, et al. (2006) Consumption Advisories for Salmon Based on Risk of Cancer and Noncancer Health Effects. Environmental Research 101:263-274.
188. Howard D (2008) Rescue Me! Backpacker 10:77-81 ; 106-107.
189. Schuyler G, Veltmeyer H (1987) Rethinking Caribbean Development (IEC, Halifax).
190. Gold E, et al. (1982) Problems of Development and Ocean Management in the Eastern Caribbean : Economic, Legal, Environmental and Planning Aspects: Proceedings of an International Seminar held in Kingstown, St. Vincent and the Grenadines, West Indies, May 11-13, 1981. (Dalhousie, Halifax).
191. Berry R (2009) Hooker and Islands. J Lin Soc 96:462–48.
192. Wisniewski R (1979) The Rise and Fall of the Hawaiian Kingdom (PBE, Honolulu).
193. Sobel D (1995) Longitude: The True Story of a Lone Genius Who Solved the Greatest Scientific Problem of His Time (Walker, New York).
194. Author Unknown (c. 1000 AD) The Vinland Sagas : the Norse Discovery of America Magnússon M, Pálsson H Trans. 1965 Ed (Penguin Books, London).
195. Dempster N (1981) HRH Princess Margaret: A Life Unfulfilled (Quartet, London).
196. Telegraph (2003) Lord Latymer. Telegraph 12:03AM GMT 15 Nov 2003.
197. The Mustique Co. (2008) Management Team (The Mustique Co., Mustique, SVG).
198. Jagger M (2008) A Taste of Mustique (Macmillan, Oxford).
199. Rand A (1969) The Romantic Manifesto: A Philosophy of Literature (Penguin, New York).
200. Kaufman C (2002) Adaptation. A screenplay based upon Orlean S (1994), The Orchid Thief (Saxon, Los Angeles).
201. Laxness H (1955) Nobel Banquet Speech (Nobel Foundation, Stockholm).
202. Hemingway E (1970) Islands in the Stream (Scribner’s, New York).
203. Slocum J (1900) Sailing Alone Around the World. 1948 Ed Intro by Ransome A (Fletcher & Sons, Norwich). Page 72 of 113
204. Linnean Society (2009) The Linnean Vol. 25, No. 2:1-49.
205. Grant P, Grant R (2008) How and Why Species Multiply: The Radiation of Darwin’s Finches (Princeton Univ Press, Princeton).
206. Carlquist S (2009) Intercontinental Dispersal (Carlquist, Santa Barbara).
207. Carlquist S (2009) Disspersal to Islands (Carlquist, Santa Barbara).
208. Carlquist S (2009) Loss of Dispersibility on Islands (Carlquist, Santa Barbara).
209. Carlquist S (1983) Intercontinental Dispersal. Sonderbd Naturwiss Ver Hamburg 7:37-47.
210. Carlquist S (1974) Island Biology (Columbia Univ Press New York).
211. Carlquist S (1970) Hawaii: A Natural History : Geology, Climate, Native Flora and Fauna Above the Shoreline.
212. Carlquist S (1965) Island Life: A Natural History of the Islands of the World (Natural History Press, New York).
213. Taylor, Smith (2007) Introduction to a symposium held in honour of Dr Carlquist, Tuesday 10 July 2007 (Botany & Plant Biology Joint Congress, Chicago).
214. Mallet J (2009) Galton Laboratory.
215. Rousseau J (1783) Confessions (Publisher unknown, Paris).
216. Miller H (1957) The Books in My Life (New Directions, New York).
217. Funk M (forthcoming). The Principles of Economics & Evolution: A Survival Guide for People who Live on Small Islands, Including the Inhabitants of the Small Island of Earth. An Open Letter to U.S. President Barack Obama.
218. Hayek F, Bartley W (1988) The Fatal Conceit: The Errors of Socialism (Routledge, London).
219. Wallace A (1855) On the Law Which has Regulated the Introduction of New Species. Ann and Mag of Nat History 16:184-195.
220. The Linnean Society (2008) Membership of the Linnean Society of London (Linnean Society, London).