Van Hear, Nicholas and Brubaker, Rebecca and Bessa, Thais (2009): Managing mobility for human development: the growing salience of mixed migration. Published in: Human Development Research Paper (HDRP) Series , Vol. 20, No. 2009
Download (626kB) | Preview
In the analysis of migration a basic distinction is often made between those who chose to move and those who are forced to – that is, between ‘voluntary’ and ‘forced’ migrants. This distinction is maintained in the policy world, where the governance of international migration is shaped by the conceptual distinction between ‘voluntary’ and ‘forced’ migration as mutually exclusive categories. In reality of course the distinction is far from clear-cut. Migration can be ‘mixed’ in several senses: motivations may be mixed at the point of making the decision to move, when there are often combinations of choice and compulsion in play; people may travel with others in mixed migratory flows; motivations may change en route; and people may find themselves in mixed communities during their journeys or at their destination. This paper explores the connections between mixed migration and human development, understood as the expansion of capabilities and choice (Sen 1999). It first clarifies some of the key concepts in the migration discourse, particularly the role of choice and compulsion in migration, before exploring the emergence of the notions of ‘mixed migration’ and the ‘migration-asylum nexus’ in the policy arena. The paper then turns to some of the manifestations of ‘mixed migration’ and the conditions migrants encounter in such migration streams. It next considers how mixed migration and migration policies – or ‘migration governance’ -- encounter one another. Finally, some policy conclusions are drawn from the evidence presented, pointing to the idea that the transnational practices that arise from mixed migration may constitute a ‘durable solution’ in settings of conflict and displacement.
|Item Type:||MPRA Paper|
|Original Title:||Managing mobility for human development: the growing salience of mixed migration|
|Keywords:||mixed migration, force and choice, refugees, migration policy, development|
|Subjects:||Z - Other Special Topics > Z1 - Cultural Economics; Economic Sociology; Economic Anthropology
O - Economic Development, Technological Change, and Growth > O1 - Economic Development > O15 - Human Resources; Human Development; Income Distribution; Migration
|Date Deposited:||12. Dec 2009 08:10|
|Last Modified:||15. Feb 2013 19:16|
Association Marocaine d‟Etudes et de Recherches sur les Migrations (AMERM) 2008. Survey of the Flux of Sub-Saharan Immigrants in Morocco. Rabat: AMERM.
Bakewell, O with H. de Haas, S. Castles, S. Vezzoli and G. Jonsson, 2009. South-south migration and human development: reflections on African experiences. Human Development Research Paper 2009/07 April 2009. UNDP: New York.
Boswell, C. 2003. The „external dimension‟ of EU immigration and asylum policy. International Affairs, 79, 3 619-638.
Bourdieu, P. 1986. The forms of capital, in Handbook of theory and research for the sociology of education. Ed J Richardson. New York: Greenwood Press.
Bourdieu, P. 1987. What makes a social class? On the theoretical and practical existence of groups. Berkeley Journal of Sociology, 22, 1-17. (cited in Fine 2001, check original)
Bourdieu, P and Wacquant, L. 1992. An invitation to reflexive sociology. Cambridge: Polity.
Castles, S. and Van Hear, N. 2005. Developing DFID's Policy Approach to Refugees and Internally Displaced Persons. Report to the Conflict and Humanitarian Affairs Department. Oxford: Refugee Studies Centre.
Crisp, J. 2008. Beyond the nexus: UNHCR‟s evolving perspective on refugee protection and international migration. UNHCR Policy Development and Evaluation Service, New Issues in Refugee Research, Research paper 155, Geneva: UNHCR.
Frelick, B. 2008. Stuck in a Revolving Door. Human Rights Watch, November 26, 2008.
de Haas, H. 2005. Morocco: From Emigration Country to Africa‟s Migration Passage to Europe. Migration Information Source, Washington DC: Migration Policy Institute. www.migrationinformation.org/Profiles/display.cfm?ID=339
de Haas, H. 2006. Trans-Saharan Migration to North Africa and the EU: Historical Roots and Current Trends, Migration Information Source, November 2006. Washington DC: Migration Policy Institute.
Helsinki Citizens Assembly (HCA) 2007. Unwelcome Guests: The Detention of Refugees in Turkey‟s “Foreigners‟ Guesthouses”, Helsinki Citizens Assembly: Refugee Advocacy & Support Program, November, 2007. website: http://www.hyd.org.tr/?pid=610
Jacobsen, K. 2005. The Economic Life of Refugees, Bloomfield, CT: Kumarian Press.
McDowell, C. 1996. A Tamil asylum diaspora: Sri Lankan migration, settlement and politics in Switzerland. Oxford: Berghahn.
Monsutti, A. 2005. War and Migration: Social networks and economic strategies of the Hazaras of Afghanistan New York and London: Routledge. The Morning Leader 01 02 06, Colombo, Sri Lanka.
Richmond, A. 1994. Global Apartheid: Refugees, Racism and the New World Order. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Sen, A. 1999. Development as Freedom. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Stepputat, F. 2004. Dynamics of return and sustainable reintegration in a „mobile livelihoods‟ perspective. Working Paper, Copenhagen: Danish Institute for International Studies
UN General Assembly (UNGA) 2002. Agenda for Protection: Addendum UN General Assembly 2002. Executive Committee of the High Commissioner‟s Programme, 53rd session. A/AC.96/965/add 1 26 June, New York: UN.
UN General Assembly (UNGA) 2003. Strengthening the capacity of the Office of the UN High Commissioner for Refugees to carry of its mandate, Note by the Secretary-General. A/58/410, 3 October 2003.
UNHCR 1995. The state of the world’s refugees: in search of solutions. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
UNHCR/ILO 2001. The Asylum-Migration Nexus: Refugee protection and migration perspectives from ILO. Presented to the UNHCR Global Consultations on International Protection June, Geneva: UNHCR.
UNHCR 2001. Global Consultations on International Protection, 2nd meeting. Refugee Protection and migration control: perspectives from UNHCR and IOM EC/GC/01/11 31 May Geneva: UNHCR.
UNHCR 2003. Towards comprehensive solutions for Afghan displacement after 2005. UNHCR.
UNHCR 2006a. Addressing Mixed Migratory Movements: A 10-Point Plan of Action June 2006. Geneva: UNHCR.
UNHCR 2006b. The High-Level dialogue on International Migration and Development: UNHCR'S observations and recommendations. 28 June 2006. Geneva: UNHCR.
UNHCR 2006c. The State of the World's Refugees: Human Displacement in the New Millennium. Oxford: Oxford University Press
UNHCR 2007a. UNHCR, refugee protection and international migration, Geneva: UNHCR January 2007.
UNHCR 2007b. Refugee protection and durable solutions in the context of international migration. High Commissioner‟s Dialogue on Protection Challenges, Discussion Paper, UNHCR/DPC/2007 19 November 2007
UNHCR 2007c. Finding durable solutions for refugees and displacement for the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan. UNHCR, April 2007.
Van Hear, N. 1998. New diasporas: the mass exodus, dispersal and regrouping of migrant communities, London: Routledge/University College London Press.
Van Hear, N. 2002. Sustaining societies under strain: remittances as a form of transnational exchange in Sri Lanka and Ghana. in New approaches to migration: transnational communities and the transformation of home, edited by K Koser and N Al-Ali, London and New York: Routledge, 2002, 202--223.
Van Hear, N. 2003. From „durable solutions‟ to „transnational relations‟: home and exile among refugee diasporas. UNHCR Evaluation and Policy Analysis Unit, New Issues in Refugee Research, Working Paper 83, Geneva: UNHCR.
Van Hear, N. 2006a. „I went as far as my money would take me‟: conflict, forced migration and class‟, in F Crepeau et al eds. Forced migration and global processes: a view from forced migration studies, Lanham MA: Lexington/Rowman and Littlefield, 2006, 125-158.
Van Hear, N. 2006b. Refugees in diaspora: from durable solutions to transnational relations, Refuge, 23, 1. Van Hear, N 2009. The rise of refugee diasporas. Current History, Vol 108, no 717, April 2009.
Van Hear, N. and Nyberg Sørensen, N. 2003. The migration-development nexus. Geneva: International Organisation for Migration.