Fritsch, Michael and Stützer, Michael (2008): The Geography of Creative People in Germany. Published in: International Journal of Foresight and Innovation Policy , Vol. 5, No. 1-3 (2009): pp. 7-23.
Download (874Kb) | Preview
It has been argued that creativity is an important source of regional growth. This article investigates the geography of people in creative occupation in Germany. The population share of the creative class as well as of bohemians and artists is relatively high in larger cities, but smaller places and rural regions may also have a considerable proportion of people with a creative job. While ethnical and cultural diversity and a high level of public supply in health care and education can explain the distribution of creative people, employment opportunities seem to play only a minor role. A high share of creative occupations seems to be conducive to regional growth; however, the exact nature of this relationship is still unclear.
|Item Type:||MPRA Paper|
|Original Title:||The Geography of Creative People in Germany|
|Keywords:||creativity; entrepreneurship; innovation; regional development|
|Subjects:||O - Economic Development, Technological Change, and Growth > O1 - Economic Development
O - Economic Development, Technological Change, and Growth > O1 - Economic Development > O18 - Urban, Rural, Regional, and Transportation Analysis; Housing; Infrastructure
L - Industrial Organization > L2 - Firm Objectives, Organization, and Behavior > L26 - Entrepreneurship
|Depositing User:||Dr. Michael Stützer|
|Date Deposited:||12. Apr 2010 02:05|
|Last Modified:||12. Feb 2013 03:27|
Andersen, K.V. and Lorenzen, M. (2005) The Geography of the Danish Creative Class: A Mapping and Analysis. Copenhagen, Denmark: Copenhagen Business School. Available at: http://www.kreativeklasse.dk/index.php?id=75.
Arora, A., Florida, F., Gates, G.J. and Kamlet, M. (2000) Human Capital, Quality of Place, and Location, Working Paper, H.J. Heinz III School of Public Policy. Pittsburg, PA: Carnegie Mellon University. Available at: http://www.heinz.cmu.edu/~florida/.
Audretsch, D.B. (1995) Innovation and Industry Evolution. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Boschma, R. and Fritsch, M. (2007) ‘Creative class and regional growth empirical evidence from eight European countries’, Jena Economic Research Papers 066–2007, Friedrich Schiller University and Max Planck Institute of Economics Jena, Germany.
Desrochers, P. (2001) ‘Local diversity, human creativity and technological innovation’, Growth and Change, Vol. 32, pp.326–354.
Elias, P. (1997) ‘Occupational classification (ISCO 88): concepts, methods, reliability, validity and cross-national comparability’, Labour Market and Social Policy Occasional Papers No. 20, Paris: OECD.
Feldman, M. (2000) ‘Location and innovation: the new economic geography of innovation, spillovers, and agglomeration’, in G. Clark, M. Gertler, and M. Feldman (Eds), The Oxford Handbook of Economic Geography (pp.373–394). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
Florida, R.L. (2003) ‘Entrepreneurship, creativity and regional economic growth’, in D.M. Hart (Ed.), The Emergence of Entrepreneurship Policy: Governance, Start-ups, and Growth in the US Knowledge Economy. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Florida, R.L. (2004) The Rise of the Creative Class (revised paperback edition). NewYork, NY: Basic Books.
Florida, R. and Gates, G. (2001) Technology and Tolerance: The Importance of Diversity on High Technology Growth. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution.
Fritsch, M. (2008) ‘How does new business formation affect regional development? Introduction to the special issue’, Small Business Economics, Vol. 30, pp.1–14.
Fritsch, M. and Brixy, U. (2004) ‘The establishment file of the german social insurance statistics’, Schmollers Jahrbuch/Journal of Applied Social Science Studies, Vol. 124, pp.183–190.
Fritsch, M. and Stuetzer, M. (2007) ‘Die Geografie der Kreativen Klasse in Deutschland (“The Geography of the Creative Class in Germany”)’, Raumforschung und Raumordnung, Vol. 65, pp.15–29.
Glaeser, E.L. (2004) Review of Richard Florida´s The Rise of the Creative Class. Availabla at: http://www.creativeclass.org/acrobat/GlaeserReview.pdf (16.03.2006).
Haak, C. (2005) ‘Künstler zwischen selbstständiger und abhängiger Erwerbsarbeit’, Schmollers Jahrbuch – Journal of Applied Social Science Studies, Vol. 125, pp.573–595.
Jacobs, J. (1970)‘The Economy of Cities. New York, NY: Vintage Book.
Jacobs, J. (1985) Cities and the Wealth of Nations. New York, NY: Vintage Book.
Klepper, S. and Sleeper, S.D. (2005) ‘Entry by spinoffs’, Management Science, Vol. 51, pp.1291–1306.
Lang, R. and Danielsen, K. (2005) ‘Review roundtable: cities and the creative class’, Journal of the American Planning Association, Vol. 71, pp.203–220.
Lee, S.Y., Florida, R. and Acs, Z. (2004) ‘Creativity and entrepreneurship: a regional analysis of new firm formation’, Regional Studies, Vol. 38, pp.879–891.
Lee, S.Y., Florida, R. and Gates, G. (2002) Innovation, Human Capital, and Creativity, Working Paper, Carnegie Mellon University.
Lucas, R.E. (1988) ‘On the Mechanics of Economic Development’, Journal of Monetary Economics, Vol. 22, pp.3–42.
Markusen, A. (2006) ‘Urban Development and the Politics of a creative class: evidence from the study of artists’, Environment and Planning A, Vol. 38, pp.1921–1940.
Markusen, A. and King, D. (2003) ‘The artistic dividend: the hidden contributions of the arts to the regional economy’, Project on Regional and Industrial Economics. Minneapolis, MN:University of Minnesota. http://www.hhh.umn.edu/img/assets/6158/artistic_dividend.pdf
Romer, P. (1986) ‘Increasing returns and long-run growth’, Journal of Political Economy, Vol. 84, pp.1002–1037.
Romer, P. (1993) ‘Economic growth’, in D.R. Henderson (Ed.), The Fortune Encyclopedia of Economics, New York, NY: Time Warner Books.
Schumpeter, J.A. (1912) Die Theorie wirtschaftlicher Entwicklung, Leipzig, Germany: Duncker and Humblot.
Schumpeter, J.A. (1934) The Theory of Economic Development. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Wennekers, S. and Thurik, R. (1999) ‘Linking entrepreneurship and economic growth’, Small Business Economics, Vol. 13, pp.27–55.