Iwata, Hiroki and Okada, Keisuke (2010): Greenhouse gas emissions and the role of the Kyoto Protocol.
Download (99Kb) | Preview
Our study empirically investigates the effects of the Kyoto Protocol’s quantified emission limitation or reduction commitments on various greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions such as CO2, CH4, N2O and other greenhouse gases, consisting of HFCs, PFCs and SF6. These GHG emissions are considered to be the main source of global warming issues and 39 countries approved to meet the commitments by ratifying the Kyoto Protocol. Our empirical analysis is based on the STIRPAT model, the stochastic version of the IPAT model, using the data of 119 countries in 1990, 1995, 2000 and 2005. Our main findings are that the effects of the commitments to the Kyoto Protocol (1) are significantly negative for the cases of CO2 and CH4 emissions, (2) are not significant for the case of N2O emissions and (3) are significantly positive for the case of other greenhouse gas emissions. These results have important policy implications for global warming issues.
|Item Type:||MPRA Paper|
|Original Title:||Greenhouse gas emissions and the role of the Kyoto Protocol|
|Keywords:||Greenhouse gas emissions; Kyoto Protocol; Sustainability; IPAT; Panel data|
|Subjects:||Q - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics > Q5 - Environmental Economics > Q56 - Environment and Development; Environment and Trade; Sustainability; Environmental Accounts and Accounting; Environmental Equity; Population Growth
O - Economic Development, Technological Change, and Growth > O1 - Economic Development > O19 - International Linkages to Development; Role of International Organizations
Q - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics > Q5 - Environmental Economics > Q54 - Climate; Natural Disasters; Global Warming
|Depositing User:||Keisuke Okada|
|Date Deposited:||25. Apr 2010 02:05|
|Last Modified:||12. Feb 2013 15:21|
Arrow, K., Dasgupta, P., Goulder, L., Daily, G., Ehrlich, P., Heal, G., Levin, S., Mäler, K.-G., Schneider, S., Starrett, D. and Walker, B. (2004) Are we consuming too much?, Journal of Economic Perspectives, 18, 147-172.
Blundell, R. and Bond, S. (1998) Initial conditions and moment restrictions in dynamic panel data models, Journal of Econometrics, 87, 115-143.
Cole, M. A. and Neumayer, E. (2004) Examining the impact of demographic factors on air pollution, Population and Environment, 26, 5-21.
Cramer, J. C. (1998) Population growth and air quality in California, Demography, 35, 45-56.
den Elzen, M. G. J., Höhne, N., Brouns, B., Winkler, H. and Ott, H. E. (2007) Differentiation of countries' future commitments in a post-2012 climate regime: an assessment of the "South-North Dialogue" Proposal, Environmental Science & Policy, 10, 185-203.
den Elzen, M., Lucas, P. and van Vuuren, D. (2005) Abatement costs of post-Kyoto climate regimes, Energy Policy, 33, 2138-2151.
Dietz, T. and Rosa, E. A. (1997) Effects of population and affluence on CO₂ emissions, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 94, 175-179.
Ehrlich, P. R. and Holdren, J. P. (1971) Impact of population growth, Science, 171, 1212-1217.
Grunewald, N. and Martínez-Zarzoso, I. (2009) Driving factors of carbon dioxide emissions and the impact from Kyoto Protocol, CESifo working paper No.2758.
Hamilton, K and Clemens, M. (1999) Genuine savings rates in developing countries, World Bank Economic Review, 13, 333-356.
Holtz-Eakin, D. and Selden, T. M. (1995) Stoking the fires? CO₂ emissions and economic growth, Journal of Public Economics, 57, 85-101.
IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) (2007a) Climate change 2007: the physical science basis. Contribution of working group I to the fourth assessment report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. [Solomon, S., Qin, D., Manning, M., Chen, Z., Marquis, M., Averyt, K. B., Tignor, M. and Miller, H. L. (eds.)], Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA.
IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) (2007b) Climate change 2007: impacts, adaptation and vulnerability. Contribution of working group II to the fourth assessment report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, [Parry, M. L., Canziani, O. F., Palutikof, J. P., van der Linden, P. J. and Hanson, C. E. (eds.)], Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.
IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) (2007c) Climate change 2007: mitigation of climate change. Contribution of working group III to the fourth assessment report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. [Metz, B., Davidson, O. R., Bosch, P. R., Dave, R. and Meyer, L. A. (eds.)], Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA.
Khalil, M. A. K. (1999) Non-CO₂ greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, Annual Review of Energy and the Environment, 24, 645-661.
Martínez-Zarzoso, I., Bengochea-Morancho, A. and Morales-Lage, R. (2007) The impact of population on CO₂ emissions: evidence from European countries, Environmental and Resource Economics, 38, 497-512.
Rao, S. and Riahi, K. (2006) The role of non-CO₂ greenhouse gases in climate change mitigation: long-term scenarios for the 21st century, Energy Journal, Multi-Greenhouse Gas Mitigation and Climate Policy Special Issue, 177-200.
Reilly, J., Prinn, R., Harnisch, J., Fitzmaurice, J., Jacoby, H., Kicklighter, D., Melillo, J., Stone, P., Sokolov, A. and Wang, C. (1999) Multi-gas assessment of the Kyoto Protocol, Nature, 401, 549-555.
Sato, M., Samreth, S. and Yamada, K. (2009) A simple numerical study on sustainable development with genuine saving, ISER discussion paper No.728, The Institute of Social and Economic Research, Osaka University.
Shafik, N. (1994) Economic development and environmental quality: an econometric analysis, Oxford Economic Papers, 46, 757-773.
Shi, A. (2003) The impact of population pressure on global carbon dioxide emissions, 1975-1996: evidence from pooled cross-country data, Ecological Economics, 44, 29-42.
Soytas, U., Sari, R. and Ewing, B. T. (2007) Energy consumption, income, and carbon emissions in the United States, Ecological Economics, 62, 482-489.
Swinton, J. R. and Sarkar, A. (2008) The benefits of the Kyoto Protocol to developing countries, Environment, Development and Sustainability, 10, 731-743.
van Steenberghe, V. (2005) Carbon dioxide abatement costs and permit price: exploring the impact of banking and the role of future commitments, Environmental Economics and Policy Studies, 7, 75-107.
van Vuuren, D. P., Eickhout, B., Lucas, P. L. and den Elzen, M. G. J. (2006) Long-term multi-gas scenarios to stabilize radiative forcing - exploring costs and benefits within an integrated assessment framework, Energy Journal, Multi-Greenhouse Gas Mitigation and Climate Policy Special Issue, 201-233.
Velders, G. J. M., Fahey, D. W., Daniel, J. S., McFarland, M. and Andersen, S. O. (2009) The large contribution of projected HFC emissions to future climate forcing, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 106, 10949-10954.
Waggoner, P. E. and Ausubel, J. H. (2002) A framework for sustainability science: a renovated IPAT identity, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 99, 7860-7865.
World Bank (2009) World Development Indicators 2009, World Bank, Washington. DC, USA.
York, R. (2005) Kyoto Protocol participation: a demographic explanation, Population Research and Policy Review, 24, 513-526.
York, R., Rosa, E. A. and Dietz, T. (2003) STIRPAT, IPAT and ImPACT: analytic tools for unpacking the driving forces of environmental impacts, Ecological Economics, 46, 351-365.
Zahran, S., Kim, E., Chen, X. and Lubell, M. (2007) Ecological development and global climate change: a cross-national study of Kyoto Protocol ratification, Society and Natural Resources, 20, 37-55.