Fryer, Roland G. and Levitt, Steven D. and Kahn, Lisa and Spenkuch, Jörg L. (2010): The Plight of Mixed Race Adolescents.
Download (1463Kb) | Preview
Over the past 40 years, the fraction of mixed race black-white births has increased nearly nine-fold. There is very little empirical evidence on how these children fare relative to their single-race counterparts. This paper describes basic facts about the behaviors and outcomes of black-white mixed race individuals. As one might expect, on a host of background and achievement characteristics as well as adult outcomes, mixed race individuals fall in between whites and blacks. When it comes to engaging in risky and anti-social adolescent behavior, however, mixed race adolescents are stark outliers compared to both blacks and whites. We argue that these behavioral patterns are most consistent with a two-sector Roy model, in which mixed race adolescents – not having a predetermined peer group – engage in more risky behaviors to be accepted.
|Item Type:||MPRA Paper|
|Original Title:||The Plight of Mixed Race Adolescents|
|English Title:||The Plight of Mixed Race Adolescents|
|Keywords:||mixed race; biracial; black white race; adolescent behavior|
|Subjects:||J - Labor and Demographic Economics > J0 - General > J01 - Labor Economics: General
J - Labor and Demographic Economics > J1 - Demographic Economics > J15 - Economics of Minorities and Races; Non-labor Discrimination
|Depositing User:||Jörg L. Spenkuch|
|Date Deposited:||08. Jun 2010 13:44|
|Last Modified:||12. Feb 2013 17:41|
Anderson, Margaret L., and Fienberg, Stephen E., 1999, Who Counts? The Politics of Census-Taking in Contemporary America? Russel Sage, New York.
Antonovsky, Aaron, 1956, “Toward a Refinement of the ‘Marginal Man’ Concept,” Social Forces, 35, 57-62.
Arcidiacono, Peter, Bayer, Patrick J. and Hizmo, Aurel, 2010, “Beyond Signaling and Human Capital: Education and the Revelation of Ability,” Forthcoming in AEJ: Applied Microeconomics.
Arrow, Kenneth, 1973, “The Theory of Discrimination,” in Discrimination in Labor Markets, Orley Ashenfelter and Albert Rees eds. Princeton University Press, p. 3-33.
Aspinall, Peter, J. 1997, “The Conceptual Bias of Ethnic Group Terminology and Classifications,” Social Science & Medicine, 45, 689-698.
Aspinall, Peter J., 2003, “The Conceptualisation of and Categorisation of Mixed Race/Ethnicity in Britain and North America: Identity Options and the Role of the State,” International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 27, 269-296.
Austen-Smith, David, and Fryer, Roland G., 2005, “An Economic Analysis of ‘Acting White’,” Quarterly Journal of Economics, 120, 551-583.
Becker, Gary S., 1957, The Economics of Discrimination, University of Chicago Press, Chicago.
Berman, Eli, 2000, “Sect, Subsidy, and Sacrifice: An Economist's View of Ultra-Orthodox Jews,” Quarterly Journal of Economics, 115, 905-953.
Bernheim, Douglas B., 1994, “A Theory of Conformity,” Journal of Political Economy, 102, 841-877.
Bodenhorn, Howard, 2003, “The Complexion Gap: The Economic Consequences of Color Among Free African Americans in the Rural Antebellum South,” In Advances in agricultural economic history, vol. 2, ed. K. D. Kauffman. Amsterdam: Elsevier Science.
Bodenhorn, Howard, and Ruebeck, Christopher S., 2003, “The Economics of Identity and the Endogeneity of Race,” NBER Working Paper 9962.
Bodenhorn, Howard, and Ruebeck, Christopher S., 2007, “Colourism and African–American Wealth: Evidence from the Nineteenth-Century South,” Journal of Population Economics, 20, 599-620.
Brunsma, David L., 2005, “Interracial Families and the Racial Identification of Mixed-Race Children: Evidence from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Survey,” Social Forces, 84, 1131-1157.
Choi, Y., T.W. Harachi, M.R. Gillmore, and R. Catalano, 2006, “Are Multiracial Adolescents at Greater Risk? Comparison of Rates, Patterns, and Correlates of Substance Use and Violence between Monoracial and Multiracial Adolescents,” American Journal of Orthopsychiatry 76(1) 86-97.
Conley, Dalton, 2001, Honky. Vintage: New York.
Cohn, David, 1944, “How the South Feels,” Atlantic Monthly, January, 47-51.
Davis, F. James, 1991, Who is Black? Ones Nation's Definition, Pennsylvania State University Press, University Park, PA.
Fryer, Roland G., 2007a, “Guess Who's Been Coming to Dinner? Trends in Interracial Marriage over the 20th Century,” Journal of Economic Perspectives, 21, 71-90.
Fryer, Roland G., 2007b, “A Model of Social Interactions and Endogenous Poverty Traps,” Rationality and Society, 19, 335-366.
Fryer, Roland G., and Jackson, Matthew O., 2008, “A Categorical Model of Cognition and Biased Decision Making,” B.E. Journal of Theoretical Economics, 8, Article 6.
Fryer, Roland G., Kahn, Lisa, Levitt, Steven D., and Spenkuch, Jörg L., 2008, “The Plight of Mixed Race Adolescents,” NBER Working Paper No. 14192.
Goldberg, Milton M., 1941, “A Qualification of the Marginal Man Theory,” American Sociological Review, 6, 52-58.
Golovensky, David I., 1952, “The Marginal Man Concept: An Analysis and Critique,” Social Forces, 30, 333-339.
Green, Arnold W., 1947, “A Re-Examination of the Marginal Man Concept,” Social Forces, 26, 167-171.
Hahn, Robert A., Truman, Benedict I., and Barker, Nancy D., 1996, “Identifying Ancestry: The Reliability of Ancestral Identification in the United States by Self, Proxy, Interviewer, and Funeral Director,” Epidemiology, 7, 75-80.
Harris, David R., 2002 “Does It Matter How We Measure? Racial Classification and the Char- acteristics of Multiracial Youth,” In The New Race Question, edited by J. Perlmann and M. C. Waters, Russell Sage, New York.
Harris, David R., and Sim, Joseph J., 2002, “Who Is Multiracial? Assessing the Complexity of Lived Race,” American Sociological Review, 67, 614-627.
Harris, David R., and Thomas, Justin L., 2002, “The Educational Costs of Being Multiracial: Evidence from a National Survey of Adolescents,” PSC Research Report No. 02-0521.
Hill, Mark E., 2000, “Color Differences in the Socioeconomic Status of African American Men: Results of a Longitudinal Study,” Social Forces,” 78, 1437-1460.
Hoffman, Frederick, 1896, Race, Traits and Tendencies of the American Negro, Macmilan, New York.
Jonas, Kimball (2003). Group Quarters Enumeration. Census 2000 Evaluation E.5, US Census Bureau.
Kao, Grace, 1999, “Racial Identity and Academic Performance: An Examination of Biracial Asian and African Youth,” Journal of Asian American Studies, 2, 223-249.
Keith, Verna M., and Herring, Cedric, 1991, “Skin Tone and Stratification in the Black Community,” American Journal of Sociology, 97, 760-778.
Lang, Kevin and Manove, Michael, 2008, "Education and Labor-Market Discrimination," Forthcoming in American Economic Review.
Lee, Sharon M, 1993, “Racial Classifications in the U.S. Census: 1890-1990,” Ethnic and Racial Studies, 16, 75-94.
Moran, Rachel, 2003, The Regulation of Race and Romance, University of Chicago Press, Chicago.
Park, Robert E., 1928, “Human Migration and the Marginal Man,” American Journal of Sociology, 33, 881-893.
Park, Robert E., 1931, “Mentality of Racial Hybrids,” American Journal of Sociology, 36, 534-551.
Romano, Reene, 2003, Race Mixing: Black-White Marriage in Postwar America, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA.
Roy, Andrew D., 1951 “Some Thoughts on the Distribution of Earnings,” Oxford Economic Papers, 3, 135-46.
Reubeck, Christopher, Averett, Susan, and Bodenhorn, Howard, 2009, “Acting White or Acting Black: Mixed-Race Adolescents’ Identity and Behavior,” The B.E. Journal of Economic Analysis and Policy, 9.
Stonequist, Everett V., 1935, “The Problem of the Marginal Man,” American Journal of Sociology, 41, 1-12.
Stonequist, Everett V., 1937, The Marginal Man: A Study in Personality and Culture Conflict, Charles Scribener's Sons, New York.
Suskind, Ron, 1999, A Hope in the Unseen: An American Odyssey from the Inner City to the Ivy League, Broadway: New York.
Telles, Edward E., Lim, Nelson, 1998, “Does it Matter Who Answers the Race Question? Racial Classification and Income Inequality in Brazil,” Demography, 35, 465-474.
Wilson, Anne, 1984, “'Mixed Race' Children in British Society: Some Theoretical Considerations,” The British Journal of Sociology, 35, 42-61.
Xie, Yu, Goyette, Kimberly, 1997, “The Racial Identification Biracial Children with One Asian Parent: Evidence from the 1990 Census,” Social Forces, 76, 547-570.