Bögenhold, Dieter and Fachinger, Uwe (2010): How Diverse is Entrepreneurship? Observations on the social heterogeneity of self-employment in Germany.
Download (617Kb) | Preview
The discussion on entrepreneurship often treats entrepreneurs as agents of ideas of economic change and growth. Entrepreneurs are considered to serve as potential multipliers delivering individual and social wealth and prosperity. In that context entrepreneurship has been treated as a rather homogenous category, internal differences were not in the focus of academic talk. In public policy discourse entrepreneurship and the labour market category of self-employment are often used interchangeably. Images and interpretation of self-employment are mostly based on comparison of self-employment with other categories of wage or salary dependent labour market groups. This way self-employed people prove to become an averaged one-type figure. The proposed paper wants to highlight the other side of economic and social reality: the heterogeneity of self-employment. Referring to empirical data for the case of Germany the argumentation intends to illuminate different levels of social and economic integration of self-employed people. Working parameters and firm sizes, economic sectors of activity, income patterns, working hours and biographies have diversified and became increasingly heterogeneous so that further discussion is ultimately provoked: Which entrepreneurship are we talking about when talking entrepreneurship? Where are links between different fractions of the category of self-employment compared to each other and to other socio-economic groups? The contribution must be regarded as a theoretical and empirical task to connect entrepreneurship with debate on innovation, culture and finance.
|Item Type:||MPRA Paper|
|Original Title:||How Diverse is Entrepreneurship? Observations on the social heterogeneity of self-employment in Germany|
|Keywords:||self-employment; heterogeneity; entrepreneurship|
|Subjects:||D - Microeconomics > D0 - General > D01 - Microeconomic Behavior: Underlying Principles
J - Labor and Demographic Economics > J2 - Demand and Supply of Labor > J23 - Labor Demand
|Depositing User:||Uwe Fachinger|
|Date Deposited:||05. Jul 2010 17:34|
|Last Modified:||07. Jan 2014 22:35|
Asheim, B., and L. Coenen (2005): Knowledge Bases and Regional Innovation Systems: Comparing Nordic Clusters. Research Policy 34: 1173-90.
Asheim, B., L. Coenen, and J. Vang (2006): Face-to-Face, Buzz and Knowledge Bases: Socio-spatial Implications for Learning, Innovation and Innovation Policy. Working Paper, Universities of Lund, Aalborg and Oslo.
Audretsch, David B (2002): Entrepreneurship: A Survey of the Literature. Research under Commission of the Commission of the European Union, Enterprise Directorate General, Brussels: Commission of the European Union.
Audretsch, David B (2007): The Entrepreneurial Society. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Audretsch, D. B., and R. Thurik (2001): Linking Entrepreneurship to Growth. OECD Science, Technolo-gy, and Industry Working Papers 2001/2. OECD Publishing.
Audretsch, David B., Oliver Falck, Maryann P. Feldman, and Stefan Heblich (2008): The Lifecycle of Regions. CEPR Discussion Paper 6757, Centre for Economic Policy Research.
Baumol, William J. (1990): Entrepreneurship: Productive, Unproductive, and Destructive. Journal of Political Economy 98,5: 893-921.
Baumol, William J., Robert E. Litan, and Carl J. Schramm (2007): Good Capitalism, Bad Capitalism and the Economics of Growth and Prosperity. Yale: Yale University Press.
Benneworth, P (2004): In what sense ‘regional development?’Entrepreneurship, underdevelopment and strong tradition in the periphery. Entrepreneurship and Regional Development 16: 439-58.
Bjerke, Bjorn (2007): Understanding Entrepreneurship. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.
Blanchflower, D.A (2000): Self-Employment in OECD Countries. Labour Economics 7: 471-505.
Blaschke, Christina M. / Freddolino, Paul P. / Mullen, Erin E. (2009): Ageing and Technology: A Review of the Research Literature, in: British Journal of Social Work 39,4: 641-656.
Block, Joern H., and Marcus Wagner (2006): Necessity and Opportunity Entrepreneurs in Germany: Characteristics and Earnings Differentials. MPRA Paper No. 610, Munich Personal RePEc Archive. http://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/610/1/MPRA_paper_610.pdf.
Bögenhold, Dieter (1995): Selbständige Erwerbsarbeit in sozial- und wirtschaftshistorischer Perspek-tive. In Neue Unternehmen: Interdisziplinäre Beiträge zur Gründungsforschung, ed. Jürgen Schmude, 11-23. Heidelberg: Physica Verlag.
Bögenhold, Dieter (2004 a): Entrepreneurship: Multiple Meanings and Consequences. International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Innovation Management 4,1: 3-10.
Bögenhold, Dieter (2004 b): Creative Destruction and Human Resources: A Labor Market Perspective on Firms and Human Actors. Small Business Economics 22,3-4: 165-177.
Bögenhold, Dieter, and Uwe Fachinger (2007): Micro-firms and the Margins of Entrepreneurship: The Restructuring of the Labour Market. The International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Innovation 8: 281-293.
Bögenhold, Dieter, Uwe Fachinger, and Réne Leicht (2001): Entrepreneurship, Self-Employment, and Wealth Creation. The International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Innovation 2: 81-91.
Böheim, René, and Ulrike Muehlberger (2006): Dependent Forms of Self-Employment in the UK: I-dentifying Workers on the Border between Employment and Self-Employment. IZA Discussion Pa-per No. 1963, Institute for the Study of Labor.
Brown, Sarah, Lisa Farrell, and Mark N. Harris (2008): Modelling the Incidence of Self-Employment: Individual and Employment Type Heterogeneity. Sheffield Economic Research Paper Series SERP Number 2008010, University of Sheffield.
Budig, Michelle J (2006): Intersections on the Road to Self-Employment: Gender, Family and Occupa-tional Class. Social Forces 84: 2223-2238.
Cochran, Thomas C. (1960): Cultural Factors in Economic Growth. Journal of Business History 20,4: 515-530.
Davidsson, Per, and Benson Honig (2003): The role of social and human capital among nascent entre-preneurs. Journal of Business Venturing 18,3: 301–331.
Davidsson, Per, Frederic Delmar, and Johan Wiklund (2006): Entrepreneurship as growth; growth as entrepreneurship. In Entrepreneurship and the Growth of Firms, eds. Per Davidsson, Frederic Delmar, and Johan Wiklund, 21-37. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.
Eberhardt, Birgid / Fachinger, Uwe / Henke, Klaus-Dirk (2009): Better Health and Ambient Assisted Li-ving (AAL) from a global, regional and local economic perspective. Diskussionspapier 2009/3, Ber-lin: Wirtschaftswissenschaftliche Dokumentation – Fakultät VII – Technische Universität Berlin.
Engerman, Stanley, and Kenneth L. Sokoloff (2005): Institutional and Non-Institutional Explanations of Economic Differences. In: Handbook of Institutional Economics, eds. Claude Menard and Mary M. Shirley, 639-65. Berlin: Springer.
European Commission (2006): Creating an Innovative Europe. Report of the Independent Expert Group on R&D and Innovation appointed following the Hampton Court Summit and chaired by Mr. Esko Aho. Luxembourg:
Galor, Oded (2006): From Stagnation to Growth: Unified Growth Theory. In Handbook of Economic Growth, eds. Philippe Aghion and Steven Durlauf, 171-293. Amsterdam: Elsevier.
Gartner, W. B. (1985): A conceptual framework for describing the phenomenon of new venture crea-tion. Academy of Management Review 10,4: 696-706.
Grilo, Isabel, and Roy Thurik (2005a): Entrepreneurial Engagement Levels in the European Union. In-ternational Journal of Entrepreneurship Education 3,2: 143-68.
Grilo, Isabel, and Roy Thurik (2005b): Latent and Actual Entrepreneurship in Europe and the US: So-me Recent Developments. International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal 1,1: 441-59.
Göggel, Kathrin, Johannes Gräb, and Friedhelm Pfeiffer (2007): Selbständigkeit in Europa 1991-2003. Empirische Evidenz mit Länderdaten. Jahrbücher für Nationalökonomie und Statistik 227: 153-167.
Henke, Klaus-Dirk / Martin, Karl (2009): Health as a Driving Economic Force, in: Kickbusch, Ilona (Hrsg.): Policy Innovation for Health. Heidelberg: Springer, 95-124.
Henrekson, Magnus, and Jesper Roine (2005): Promoting Entrepreneurship in the Welfare State. Working Paper, The Research Institute of Industrial Economics, IUI.
Kaiserfeld, Thomas (2005): A Review of Theories of Invention and Innovation. Working Paper. Royal Institute of Technology Stockholm.
Kalleberg, Arne L. (2009). Precarious Work – Insecure Workers: Employment Relations in Transition. American Sociological Review 74: 1-22.
Karlsson, Charlie (2007): Clusters, Functional Regions and Cluster Policies. Working Paper 84, Jönköping, CESIS.
Kirzner, Israel (1973): Competition and Entrepreneurship. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Kirzner, Israel (1985): Discovery and the Capitalist Process. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Knight, Genevieve, and Stephen McKay (2000): Lifetime Experiences of Self-Employment. Policy Stu-dies Institute, Department of Social Security, Research Report 120, Leeds.
Koetter, Michael, and Michael Wedow (2008): Does Regional Redistribution Spur Growth?. Economic Studies Discussion Paper 28, Deutsche Bundesbank.
Krugman, Paul (1991): Geography and Trade. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Luber, Silvia (2003): Berufliche Selbständigkeit im Wandel. Frankfurt a.M.: Peter Lang Publishers.
Mugler, Josef, Matthias Fink, and Stephan Loidl (2006): Erhaltung und Schaffung von Arbeitsplätzen im ländlichen Raum. Wien: Manz.
Müller, Walter, and Arum Richard (2004): Self-Employment Dynamics in Advanced Economies. In The Reemergence of Self-Employment: A Comparative Study of Self-Employment Dynamics and Social Inequality, eds. Richard Arum and Walter Müller, 1-35. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Munro, John (2006): Entrepreneurship in Early-Modern Europe (1450-1750). An Exploration of Some Unfashionable Themes in Economic History. Working Paper 30, Institute for Policy Analysis, Uni-versity of Toronto.
Nohria, Nitin, and Robert G. Eccles, eds. (1995): Networks and Organizations. Structure, Form, and Action. Boston: Harvard Business School Press.
Parker, Simon C (2004): The Economics of Self-Employment and Entrepreneurship. Cambridge: Cam-bridge University Press.
Porter, Michael E. (1990): The Competitive Advantage of Nations. New York: Free Press.
Porter, Michael E (2000: Attitudes, Values, Beliefs, and the Microeconomics of Prosperity. In Culture Matters. How Values Shape Human Progress, eds. Lawrence E. Harrison and Samuel P. Huntington, 14-27. New York: Basic Books.
Ronen, Joshua. (1989): The Rise and Decay of Entrepreneurship: A Different Perspective. The Journal of Behavioral Economics 18: 167-84.
Shane, Scott (2003): A General Theory of Entrepreneurship. The Individual-Opportunity Nexus, Chel-tenham: Edward Elgar.
Shane, Scott, V. Venkataraman (2000): The Promise of Entrepreneurship as a Field of Research. Academy of Management Review 25,1: 217-226.
Sainsbury, Roy, Naomi Finch, and Anne Corden (2006): Self-employment and retirement. The Univer-sity of York, Department for Work and Pensions, Research Report No. 395.
Schumpeter, Joseph A. (1963): The Theory of Economic Development. New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Schumpeter, Joseph A. (1947): Capitalism, Socialism and Democracy. London: Allen & Unwin.
Scott, John (2007): Social Network Analysis, London: Sage.
Stam, Erik (2008): Entrepreneurship and Innovation Policy. Jena Economic Research Paper, 006-2008, Friedrich Schiller University and the Max Planck Institute of Economics, Jena.
Statistisches Bundesamt (Hrsg.) (2009): Mikrozensus. Bevölkerung und Erwerbstätigkeit. Stand und Entwicklung der Erwerbstätigkeit. Band 2: Deutschland, 2008. Fachserie 1, Reihe 4.1.1, 4.1.1. Wiesbaden: Statistisches Bundesamt.
Stegbauer, Christian (2008): Netzwerkanalyse und Netzwerktheorie. Ein neues Paradigma in den So-zialwissenschaften. Wiesbaden: VS-Publishers.
Stern, Scott, Michael E. Porter, and Jeffrey L. Furman (2000): The Determinants of National Innovati-ve Capacity. Working Paper 7876, National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER).
Uunk, Wilfred, Bogdan W. Mach, and Karl Ulrich Mayer (2005): Job Mobility in the Former East and West Germany: The Effects of State-Socialism and Labor Market Composition. European Sociologi-cal Review 21,4: 393-408.
Verheul, Ingrid, André van Stel (2007). Entrepreneurial Diversity and Economic Growth. Scales Re-search Paper ERS-2007-070-ORG, Zoetermeer.
Westlund, Hans (2006): The Social Capital of Regional Dynamics: A Policy Perspective, University of Tokyo. Working Paper F 423, Center for International Research on the Japanese Economy.