Gupta, Rupayan (2008): The Effect of Opportunity Cost and Pacifism on Protests in Occupied Regions.
Download (209kB) | Preview
This paper examines how the opportunity costs of the leaders of a national protest movement, and the intrinsic pacifism of the occupier, affect the nature of the movement against occupation. A two-stage game is modeled, in which a protest leader and the external occupier fight over the control of the population of an occupied region. The occupier can choose a level of force to punish the leader and other participants of the protest movement. The leaders of the protest can actively convert the populace to protest. The findings of this paper indicate that under certain circumstances leaders who have a greater opportunity cost of leading protests may be more active, compared to leaders with lower opportunity costs. Further, the former may be able to lead a movement with more mass support. This paper also characterizes equilibria where a less pacifist occupier can actually de-escalate the conflict with the protestors. The characteristics of the population residing in the occupied region, the nature of punishment that is being meted out to the protestors, and the structure of enforcement costs that lead to these outcomes, are discussed in the paper.
|Item Type:||MPRA Paper|
|Original Title:||The Effect of Opportunity Cost and Pacifism on Protests in Occupied Regions|
|Keywords:||Conflict; Protest; Revolt|
|Subjects:||D - Microeconomics > D7 - Analysis of Collective Decision-Making > D74 - Conflict; Conflict Resolution; Alliances
H - Public Economics > H5 - National Government Expenditures and Related Policies > H56 - National Security and War
|Depositing User:||Rupayan Gupta|
|Date Deposited:||21. Jul 2010 12:46|
|Last Modified:||17. Feb 2013 17:41|
Becker, G.S. Crime and Punishment: An economic approach, The Journal of Political Economy, Vol. 76, Issue 2, 1968, 169-217.
Esteban, J, & Ray, D. Conflict and distribution, Journal of Economic Theory, Vol. 87, 1999, 379-415.
Garfinkel, M. & Skaperdas, S. (eds.). The political economy of conflict and appropriation, Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge, UK, 1996.
Ghosh, K.C. Chronological Dictionary of India's Independence, Revised and Edited by Subhas Bhattacharya, Sahitya Samsad Press, Calcutta, 1998.
Grossman, H.I. A general equilibrium model of insurrections, The American Economic Review, Vol. 81, Sep. 1991, 912-921.
Grossman, H.I. Kleptocracy and Revolutions, Oxford Economic Papers 51, 1999, 267-83.
Gupta, R. Some Factors Affecting Independence Movements: An Overview, Working Paper, California State University Bakersfield, March 2007.
Harris, C. Existence and characterization of perfect equilibrium in games of perfect information, Econometrica, Vol. 53, No. 3., May, 1985, 613-628.
Hartley, K. & Sandler, T. (eds.). Handbook of Defense Economics, Vol. 1, Elsevier, 1995.
Hirshleifer, J. The macrotechnology of conflict, Journal of Conflict Resolution, Vol. 44, Dec. 2000, 773-792.
Kuran, T. Sparks and prairie fires -- A theory of unanticipated political revolution, Public Choice, April 1989, 41-74.
Mookherjee D. & Png, I.P.L. Marginal Deterrence in Enforcement of Law, The Journal of Political Economy, Vol.102, Issue 5, 1994, 1039-1066.
Roemer, J.E. Rationalizing revolutionary ideology, Econometrica, Jan. 1985, 85-108.
Sandler, T. Collective Action, The University of Michigan Press, 1992.
Sandler, T & Hartley, K. (eds.). The Economics of Conflict (Vols. I - III), International Library of Critical Writings in Economics, Elgar, Cheltenham, 2004.
Sarkar, S. Modern India: 1885-1947, McMillan Press, 2001.
Sharma, R.K. (ed.). History of Indian National Movement: 1857-1947, Sonali Publications, 2005.
Skaperdas, S. Contest success functions, Economic Theory, Vol. 7, 1996, 283-290.
Available Versions of this Item
- The Effect of Opportunity Cost and Pacifism on Protests in Occupied Regions. (deposited 21. Jul 2010 12:46) [Currently Displayed]