Kverndokk, Snorre and Rose, Adam (2008): Equity and justice in global warming policy. Published in: International Review of Environmental and Resource Economics , Vol. 2, No. 2 (October 2008): pp. 135-176.
Download (208kB) | Preview
Many countries are implementing or at least considering policies to counter increasingly certain negative impacts from climate change. An increasing amount of research has been devoted to the analysis of the costs of climate change and its mitigation, as well as to the design of policies, such as the international Kyoto Protocol, post-Kyoto negotiations, regional initiatives, and unilateral actions. Although most studies on climate change policies in economics have considered efficiency aspects, there is a growing literature on equity and justice.
Climate change policy has important dimensions of distributive justice, both within and across generations, but in this paper we survey only studies on the intragenerational aspect, i.e.., within a generation. We cover several domains including the international, regional, national, sectoral and inter-personal, and examine aspects such as the distribution of burdens from climate change, climate change policy negotiations in general, implementation of climate agreements using tradable emission permits, and the uncertainty of alternatives to emission reductions.
|Item Type:||MPRA Paper|
|Original Title:||Equity and justice in global warming policy|
|English Title:||Equity and justice in global warming policy|
|Keywords:||Economics of climate change, intragenerational equity, distributive justice|
|Subjects:||D - Microeconomics > D6 - Welfare Economics > D63 - Equity, Justice, Inequality, and Other Normative Criteria and Measurement
D - Microeconomics > D6 - Welfare Economics > D62 - Externalities
Q - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics > Q0 - General > Q00 - General
H - Public Economics > H4 - Publicly Provided Goods > H41 - Public Goods
H - Public Economics > H2 - Taxation, Subsidies, and Revenue > H23 - Externalities; Redistributive Effects; Environmental Taxes and Subsidies
|Depositing User:||Snorre Kverndokk|
|Date Deposited:||27. Aug 2010 07:48|
|Last Modified:||17. Feb 2013 19:08|
Akerlof, G. and R. Kranton (2000): Economics and Identity, Quarterly Journal of Economics, 115: 716-753.
Akerlof, G. and R. Kranton (2005): Identity and the Economics of Organizations, Journal of Economic Perspectives, 19: 9-32.
Aldy, J. and R. Stavins (2007): Architecture for Agreement: Addressing Global climate Change in a Post-Kyoto World. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Anthoff, D., C. Hepburn and R. S. Tol (2007): Equity Weighting and the Marginal Damage Costs of Climate Change, Nota di lavoro 43.2007, Fondazione Eni Enrica Mattei, Milan.
Anthoff, D. and R. S. Tol (2007): On International Equity Weights and National Decision Making on Climate Change, Nota di lavoro 55.2007, Fondazione Eni Enrica Mattei, Milan.
Arrow, K. J. (1970): Social Choice and Individual Values, Yale University Press.
Arrow, K. J., W. R. Cline, K.-G. Mäler, M. Munasinghe, R. Squitieri and J. E. Stiglitz (1996): Intertemporal Equity, Discounting and Economic Efficiency, chapter 4 in Climate Change 1995: Economic and Social Dimensions of Climate Change, Contribution of Working Group III to the Second Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.
Aune, F. R., S. Kverndokk, L. Lindholt and K. E. Rosendahl (2007): Profitability of fossil fuel production under different instruments in international climate policies, Climate Policy, 7: 60-72.
Azar, C. (1999): Weight Factors in Cost-Benefit Analysis of Climate Change, Environmental and Resource Economics, 13: 249-268.
Barker, T. and J. Kohler (1998): Equity and Ecotax Reform in the EU: Achieving a 10% Reduction in CO2 Emissions Using Excise Duties, Environmental Fiscal Reform Working Paper No. 10, University of Cambridge.
Barker, T., I. Bashmakov, A. Alharthi, M. Amann, L. Cifuentes, J. Drexhage, M. Duan, O. Edenhofer, B. Flannary, M. Grubb, M. Hoogwijk, F. I. Ibitoye, C. J. Jepma, W. A. Pizer and K. Yamaji (2007): Mitigation from a cross-sectoral perspective, chapter 11 in Climate Change 2007: Mitigation, Contribution of Working Group III to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.
Barrett, S. (2005): The theory of international environmental agreements, chapter 28 in K.-G. Mäler and J. R. Vincent (eds.): Handbook of Environmental Economics, Volume 3, Elsevier B.V., Amsterdam.
Barrett, S. (2008): The Incredible Economics of Geoengineering, Environmental and Resource Economics, 39: 45-54.
Bastianoni, S., F. M. Pulselli and E. Tiezzi (2004): The problem of assigning responsibility for greenhouse gas emissions, Ecological Economics, 49: 253-257.
Bovenberg, A. L. and L. H. Goulder (2000): Neutralizing Adverse Impacts of CO2 Abatement Policies: What Does it Cost?, in C. E. Carraro and G. E. Metcalf (eds.), Behavorial and Distributional Effects of Environmental Policy. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Bovenberg, A. L,, L. Goulder and D. Gurney (2005): Efficiency Costs of Meeting Industry-Distributional Constraints under Environmental Permits and Taxes, RAND Journal of Economics, .
Bowen, W. (2002): An Analytical Review of Environmental Justice Research: What do We Really Know?, Environmental Management 29: 3-15.
Boyd, R., K. Krutilla and W. Viscusi (1995): Energy Taxation as a Policy Instrument to Reduce CO2 Emissions: A Net Benefit Analysis, Journal of Environmental Economics and Managemen,29: 1-24.
Brekke, K. A., H. Lurås and K. Nyborg (1996): Allowing disagreement in evaluations of social welfare, Journal of Economics, 63: 303-24.
Brekke, K. A, S. Kverndokk and K. Nyborg (2003): An economic model of moral motivation, Journal of Public Economics, 87: 1967-1983.
Brekke, K. A. and O. Johansson-Stenman (2008): The Behavioral Economics of Climate Change, invited paper submitted to Oxford Review of Economic Policy.
Brown, D. (2002): American Heat: Ethical Problems with the United States’ Response to Global Warming. New York; Rowman and Littlefield.
Brown, D. et al. (2005): White Paper on the Ethical Dimensions of Climate Change, Collaborative Program on the Ethical Dimensions of Climate Change, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA.
Burtraw, D., K. Palmer, R. Bharvirkar and A. Paul (2001): The Effect of Allowance Allocation on the Cost of Carbon Emissions Trading. Discussion paper 01-30, Resources for the Future, Washington, DC.
Bye, B. S. Kverndokk and K. E. Rosendahl (2002): Mitigation costs, distributional effects, and ancillary benefits of carbon policies in the Nordic countries, the UK, and Ireland, Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change, 7(4): 339-366.
Böhringer, C. and C. Helm (2008): On the fair division of greenhouse gas abatement costs, Resource and Energy Economics, 30: 260-276.
Camerer, C. (2003): Behavioral Game Theory. Experiments in Strategic Interaction, Princeton University Press/Russell Sage Foundation, Princeton, New York.
Cazorla, M. and M. Toman. (2001); International Equity and Climate Change Policy, in M. Toman (ed.), Climate Change Economics and Policy: An RFF Anthology, Washington, DC: RFF.
Chichilnisky, G. and G. Heal (1994): Who should abate carbon emissions? An international viewpoint, Economic Letters 44: 443-449.
Chichilnisky, G, G. Heal and D. Starrett (2000): Equity and Efficiency in Environmental Markets, Chapter 3 in G. Chichilnisky and G. Heal (eds.): Environmental Markets: Equity and Efficiency, Columbia University Press.
Cline, W. R. (1992): The Economics of Global Warming, Washington D.C.: Institute for International Economics.
Coase, (1960): The Problem of Social Cost, Journal of Law and Economics, 2: 1-44
Dasgupta, P. (2006): Comments on the Stern Review of the economics of climate change. Mimeo. University of Cambridge.
Danziger, S., R. Haveman and R. Plotnick (1986): How Income Transfer Programs Affect Work, Savings, and Income Distribution, Journal of Economic Literature, 19: 1-36.
Dinan, T. and D. Rogers (2002): Distributional Effects of Carbon Allowance Trading: How Government Decisions Determine Winners and Losers, National Tax Journal,55: 199-222.
Edmonds, J., M. Wise and D. Barns (1995): Carbon Coalitions: The Cost and Effectiveness of Energy Agreements to Alter Trajectories of Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Emissions. Energy Policy, 23: 309-335.
Elster, J. (1992): Local Justice. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.
Elster, J. (1993): Ethical Individualism and Presentism, The Monist 76: 333-48.
Eyckmans, J., S. Proost and E. Schokkaert (1993): Efficiency and Distribution in Greenhouse Negotiations, Kyklos 46(3): 363-397.
Eyckmans, J. and E. Schokkaert (2004): An ‘Ideal’ Normative Theory for Greenhouse Negotiations?, Ethical Perspectives 11: 5-19.
Eyckmans, J. and S. Kverndokk (2008): Moral considerations in trading pollution permits, forthcoming discussion paper, Center for Economic Studies, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven.
Fankhauser, S., R. S. Tol and D. W. Pearce (1997): The Aggregation of Climate Change Damages: A Welfare Theoretic Approach, Environmental and Resource Economics, 10: 249-266.
Feldman, A. and A. Kirman (1974): Fairness and Envy, American Economic Review, 64: 995-1005.
Ferng, J.-J. (2003): Allocating the responsibility of CO2 over-emissions from the perspectives of benefit principle and ecological deficit, Ecological Economics, 46: 121-141.
Folmer, H., P. v. Mouche and S. Ragland (1993): Interconnected games and international environmental problems, Environmental and Resource Economics, 3(4): 313-335.
Frey, B. S. (1997): Not just for the money. An economic theory of personal motivation, Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar.
Fullerton, D. and G. Heutel (2005): The General Equilibrium Incidence of Environmental Mandates, wWorking Paper, Department of Economics, University of Texas.
Garbaccio, R. F., M. S. Ho and D. W. Jorgenson (1999): Controlling carbon emissions in China, Environment and Development Economics, 4: 493-518.
Goodin, R. E. (1994): Selling Environmental Indulgences, Kyklos, 4: 573-596.
Goulder, L. (1995): Effects of Carbon Taxes in an Economy with Prior Tax Distortions: An Intertemporal General Equilibrium Analysis, Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, 29: 271-295.
Goulder, L., I. Parry and D. Burtraw (1997): Revenue-Raising vs. Other Approaches to Environmental Protection: The Critical Significance of Pre-Existing Tax Distortions, RAND Journal of Economics, 28: 708-31.
Hagem, C. and H. Westskog (1998): The Design of a Dynamic Tradeable Quota System under Market Imperfections, Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, 36(1): 89-107.
Hagem, C. and H. Westskog (2008): Intertemporal Emission Trading with a Dominant Agent; How does a restriction on borrowing affect efficiency? forthcoming in Environmental and Resource Economics.
Hamilton, J. (1995): Testing for Environmental Racism: Prejudice, Profits, Political Power? Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, 14(1): 107-32.
Hamilton, J. (2005): Environmental Equity and the Siting of Hazardous Waste Facilities in OECD Countries: Evidence and Policies, in T. Tietenberg and H. Folmer (eds.), International Yearbook of Environmental and Resource Economics 2005/2006. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar.
Hamilton, K. and G. Cameron (1994): Simulating the Distributional Effects of a Canadian Carbon Tax, Canadian Public Policy,20: 385-399.
Harberger, A. C. (1978): On the Use of Distributional Weights in Social Cost-Benefit Analysis, Journal of Political Economy, 86(2): S87-S120.
Harrison, D. (1994): The Distributive Effects of Economic Instruments for Environmental Policy, Paris: OECD.
Harsanyi, J. C. (1955): Cardinal Welfare, Individualistic Ethics, and Interpersonal Comparisons of Utility, Journal of Political Economy, 63(4).
Hausman, D. M. and M. S. McPherson (1993): Taking Ethics Seriously: Economics and Contemporary Moral Philosophy, Journal of Economic Literature, 31: 671-731.
Helm, C. and U. E. Simonis (2001): Distributive Justice in International Environmental Policy: Axiomatic Foundations in Exemplary Formulation, Environmental Values, 10: 5-18.
Helm, C. (2003): International emissions trading with endogenous allowance choices, Journal of Public Economics, 87: 2737-2747.
Hoel, M. and K. Schneider (1997): Incentives to participate in an international environmental agreement, Environmental and Resource Economics, 9: 153-170.
Hylland, A. and R. Zeckhauser (1979): Distributional Objectives Should Affect Taxes but Not Program Choice or Design, Scandinavian Journal of Economics, 81(2): 264-84.
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) (1996): Guidelines for national greenhouse gas inventories, vol. 1 – 3, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, London.
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) (2000): Special Report on Emissions Scenarios, Working Group III, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) (2001): Climate Change 2001: Mitigation (Contribution of Working Group III to the Third Assessment Report of the the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change). Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) (2007): Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis, Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.
Jacoby H., R. Prinn, and R. Schmalensee. (1998): Kyoto’s Unfinished Business, Foreign Affairs, 77(4): 54-66
Johansson-Stenman, O. (1998): On the problematic link between fundamental ethics and economic policy recommendations, Journal of Economic Methodology, 5(2): 263-297.
Johansson-Stenman, O. (2000): On the Value of Life in Rich and Poor Countries and Distributional Weights Beyond Utilitarianism, Environmental and Resource Economics, 17: 299-310.
Johansson-Stenman, O. (2005): Distributional Weights in Cost-Benefit Analysis — Should We Forget about Them?, Land Economics, 81(3): 337-352.
Konow, J. (2000): Fair Shares: Accountability and Cognitive Dissonance in Allocation Decisions, American Economic Review, 90(4): 1072-92.
Konow, J., T. Saijo and K. Akai (2008): Morals and Mores? Experimental Evidence on Equity and Equality from the US and Japan, draft, March.
Kopp, R. (1992): Comments on D. Jorgenson et al., ‘Carbon Taxes and Economic Welfare,' Brookings Papers on Economic Activity: Microeconomics, 443-49.
Kutting, G. (2004): Environmental Justice, Global Environmental Politics, 4(1): 115-21.
Kverndokk, S. (1995): Tradeable CO2 Emission Permits: Initial Distribution as a Justice Problem, Environmental Values, 4(2): 129-48.
Kverndokk, S. and A. Rose (2004): Externalities, Efficiency and Equity, chapter 6.29 in Encyclopedia of Development and Economic Sciences, Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems (EOLSS), United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO).
Lange, A. (2006): The Impact of Equity-preferences on the Stability of Heterogeneous International Agreements, Environmental and Resource Economics, 34: 247-267.
Lange, A. and C. Vogt (2003): Cooperation in international environmental negotiations due to a preference for equity, Journal of Public Economics, 87: 2049-2067.
Lange, A., A. Löschel, C. Vogt and A. Ziegler (2007a): On the Self-serving Use of Equity Principles in International Climate Negotiations, ZEW Discussion Papers 07-025, Center for European Economic Research, Mannheim.
Lange, A. C. Vogt, and A. Ziegler (2007b): On the Importance of Equity in International Climate Policy: An Empirical Analysis, Energy Economic, 29: 549-62.
Little, I. M.D. and J.A. Mirrlees (1974): Project appraisal and planning for developing countries, New York: Basic Books
Meyer, A. (2000): Contraction and Convergence: The Global Solution to Climate Change. Schumacher Briefing No. 5. Devon, UK: Greenbooks.
Montgomery, D. W. (1972): Markets in Licenses and Efficient Pollution Control Programs, Journal of Economic Theory, 5: 395-418.
Morello-Frosch, R. M. Pastor, and J. Sadd. (2001): Environmental Justice in Southern California’s Risk Scape: The Distribution of Air Toxics Exposures and Health Risks Among the Diverse Communities, Urban Affairs Review, 36: 551-78.
Mueller, B. (2001): Varieties of Dsitributive Justice in Climate Change Policy, Climatic Change, 48: 273-88.
Neumayer, E. (2000): In defense of historical accountability for greenhouse gas emissions, Ecological Economics, 33: 185-192.
Nordhaus, W. D. (1997): Climate Allowances Protocol (CAP): Comparison of Alternative Global Tradeable Emission Regimes. Presented at the MBER Workshop on Design of International Emission Trading Systems, Snowmass, CO.
Nordhaus, W. D. and J. G. Boyer (2000): Warming the World: The Economics of the Greenhouse Effect, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Nordhaus, W. D. (2007): A Review of the Stern Review on the Economics of Climate Change, Journal of Economic Literature, 45(3): 686–702.
Nozick, R. (1974): Anarchy, State and Utopia, New York: Basic Books.
Nyborg, K. and M. Rege (2003): On Social Norms: The Evolution of Considerate Smoking Behavior, Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization, 52(3): 323-240.
Nyborg, K. (2008): I Don’t Want to Hear About it: Rational Ignorance among Duty-Oriented Consumers, Memorandum 15/2008, Department of Economics, University of Oslo.
Oladosu, G. and A. Rose (2007): Income Distribution Impacts of Climate Change Mitigation Policy in the Susquehanna River Basin, Energy Economics, 29 (4): 520-44.
O’Brien, K. and R. Leichenko (2004): Winners and losers in the Context of Global Change, Annals of the American Association of Geographers 93: 89-103.
Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) (1974): Recommendation on the Implementation of the Polluter-Pays Principle, C(74)223, Paris, OECD.
Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) (1995): Climate Change, Economic Instruments and Income Distribution, Paris, OECD.
O’Riordan, T. and J. Cameron (1995): Interpreting the Precautionary Principle, Earthscan Publications, London.
Parry, I. (2004): Are Emissions Permits Regressive? Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, 47: 364-87.
Parry, I., R. Williams III, and L. Goulder (1999): When Can Co2 Abatement Policies Increase Welfare? The Fundamental Role of Pre-Existing Factor Market Distortions, Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, 37: 52-84.
Parry, I., H. Sigman, M. Walls and R. Williams III (2006): The Incidence of Pollution Control Polices, in T. Tietenberg and H. Folmer, eds. The International Yearbook of Environmental and Resource Economics 2006/7, Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar, pp. 1-42.
Pastor, M. (2007): Environmental Justice: A Reflection from the United States, in J. Boyce, S. Narain and E. Stanton (eds.), Reclaiming Nature: Environmental Justice and Ecological Restoration. London: Anthem Press.
Paavola, J. and W. N. Adger (2005): Fair adaptation to climate change, Ecological Economics, 56(4): 594-609.
Pogge, T. W. (1989): Realizing Rawls. London: Cornell University Press.
Rabin, M. (1993). Incorporating fairness into game theory, American Economic Review, 83: 1281-1302.
Rawls, J. (1971): A Theory of Justice. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Rawls, J. (1999): Law of Peoples, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Rege, M. (2004): Social Norms and Private Provision of Public Goods, Journal of Public Economic Theory, 6(1): 65-77.
Repetto, R. and D. Austin (1997): The Costs of Climate Protection, Washington, DC: World Resources Institute.
Ringius, A. Torvanger, and A. Underdal (2002): Burden Sharing and Fairness in International Climate Policy, International Environmental Agreements, 2:1-22.
Roemer, J. E. (1996): Theories of Distributive Justice, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA, and London, UK.
Rose, A. (1990): Reducing Conflict in Global Warming Policy: The Potential of Equity as a Unifying Principle, Energy Policy 18: 927-935.
Rose, A. (1992): Equity Considerations of Tradeable Carbon Emission Entitlements, in UNCTAD (1992): Combating Global Warming: A Global System of Tradeable Carbon Emission Entitlements, New York: United Nations (UNCTAD).
Rose, A. and P. Beaumont (1988): Interrelational Income Distributional Multipliers for the West Virginia Economy, Journal of Regional Science 28: 461-75.
Rose, A. and B. Stevens (1998): Will a Global Warming Agreement Be Fair to Developing Countries, International Journal of Environment and Pollution, 9 (2/3): 157-78.
Rose, A. and S. Kverndokk (1999): Equity in Environmental Policy with an Application to Global Warming, in Jeroen C. J. M. van den Bergh (ed.): Handbook of Environmental and Resource Economics, pp. 352- 379, Edward Elgar Publishing Ltd.
Rose, A. and G. Oladosu (2002): Greenhouse Gas Reduction Policy in the United States: Identifying Winners and Losers in an Expanded Permit Trading System Energy Journa,l 23: 1-18.
Rose, A. and S. Kverndokk (2004): Equity and Distribution in Energy Policy, in Cutler J. Cleveland (ed.): The Encyclopedia of Energy, volume 2, pp. 527-539, Elsevier Science.
Rose, A. and D. Wei (2008): An Analysis of Greenhouse Gas Emissions Trading among Pacific Rim Countries, Energy Policy, 1420-29.
Rose, A. and Z. X. Zhang (2004): Interregional Burden-Sharing of Greenhouse Gas Mitigation in the U.S., Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change, 9(3): 477-500
Rose, A., E. Bulte and H. Folmer (1999): Long-Running Implications of Joint Implementation For Developing Countries, Environmental and Resource Economics, 14(1): 19-31.
Rose, A., B. Stevens, J. Edmonds and M. Wise (1998): International Equity and Differentiation in Global Warming Policy, Environmental and Resource Economics,12, (1): 25-51.
Roth, A. E., V. Prasnikar, M. Okuno-Fujiwara and S. Zamir (1991): Bargaining and Market Behavior in Jerusalem, Ljubljana, Pittsburgh, and Tokyo: An Experimental Study, American Economic Review, 81(5): 1068-95.
Roth, A. E. (2007): Repugnance as a Constraint on Markets, Journal of Economic Perspectives, 21(3): 37-58.
Sandmo, A. (2005): Environmental taxation and revenue for development, in A. B. Atkinson (ed.) New Sources of Development Finance, Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK, 33-57.
Sandmo, A. (2007): A Broad View of Global Public Goods, Lecture at the 63rd Congress of the International Institute of Public Finance, Warwick, August 2007.
Sathaye, J., A. Najam, C. Cocklin, T. Heller, F. Lecocq, J. Llanes-Regueiro, J. Pan, G. Petschel-Held, S. Rayner, J. Robinson, R. Schaeffer, Y. Sokona, R. Swart and H. Winkler (2007): Sustainable Development and Mitigation, chapter 12 in Climate Change 2007: Mitigation, Contribution of Working Group III to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 691-743.
Schelling, T. (1960): The strategy of conflict, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA.
Schelling, T. (1996): The Economic Diplomacy of Geoengineering, Climatic Change, 33: 303-307.
Schmalensee, R., P. Joskow, A. Ellerman, J. Montero and E. Bailey (1998): An Interim Evaluation of Sulfur Dioxide Emissions Trading, Journal of Economic Perspectives, 12: 53-68.
Sen, A. (1980): Equality of what?, in S. McMurrin (ed.): The Tanner Lectures on Human Values. Vol. 1. Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press.
Sheeran, K. A. (2006): Who should abate carbon emissions? A Note, Environmental and Resource Economics 35: 89-98.
Shiell, L. (2003): Descriptive, prescriptive and second-best approaches to the control of global greenhouse gas emissions, Journal of Public Economics, 87: 1431-1452.
Speck, S. (1999): Energy and Carbon Taxes and Their Distributional Implications, Energy Policy 27: 659-67.
State of Maine (2007): FAQs on Maine’s Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative Law of 2007 and Administrative Rules Proposed to Implement It, prepared by the Maine Department of Environmental Protection August 2007, http://www.state.me.us/dep/air/greenhouse/pdf/AS0255
Stern, N. (2007): The Economics of Climate Change: The Stern Review, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.
Thaler, R. H. (2000): From Homo Economicus to Homo Sapiens, Journal of Economic Perspectives, 14(1): 133-141.
Tol, R., S. Fankhauser, R. Richels and J. Smith (2000): How Much Damage Will Climate Change Do? Recent Estimates. World Economics, 1(4): 179-206.
Tol, R. (2002a): Estimates of the Damage Costs of Climate Change. Part 1: Benchmark Estimates, Environmental and Resource Economics, 21: 47-73.
Tol, R. (2002b): Estimates of the Damage Costs of Climate Change. Part II: Dynamic Estimates, Environmental and Resource Economics, 21: 135-160.
Tol, R. (2005): Adaptation and mitigation: trade-offs in substance and methods, Environmental Science & Policy, 8(6): 572-578.
UNCTAD (1992): Combating Global Warming: A Global System of Tradeable Carbon Emission Entitlements, New York: United Nations (UNCTAD).
U.S. Inspector General. (2004): Evaluation of Executive Order Number 12898, Washington, DC.
Varian, H. R. (1974): Equity, envy, and efficiency, Journal of Economic Theory, 9: 63-91.
Victor, D. (1999): The Regulation of Greenhouse Gasses: Does Fairness Matter? in F. Toth (ed.), Fair Weather? Equity Concerns and Climate Change, New York: Earthscan Publications.
Victor, D. (2001): The Collapse of the Kyoto Protocol. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Weitzman, M. (2007): A Review of the Stern Review on the Economics of Climate Change, Journal of Economic Literature, 45(3): 703–724.
West, S. and R. Williams III (2004): Estimates from a Consumer Demand System: Implications for the Incidence of Environmental Taxes. Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, 47: 535-558.
Wiese, A., A. Rose and G. Schluter (1995): Motor-Fuel Taxes and Household Welfare: An Applied General Equilibrium Analysis, Land Economics, 71(2): 229-43.
Wackernagel, M. and W. E. Rees (1996): Our Ecological Footprint: Reducing Human Impact on the Earth, New Society, Gabriola Island, BC, Canada.
Yohe, G. W., R. D. Lasco, Q. K. Ahmad, N. W. Arnell, S. J. Cohen, C. Hope, A. C. Janetos and R. T. Perez (2007): Perspectives on climate change and sustainability, Chapter 20 in Climate Change 2007: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 811-841.
Zhang, Z. X. and A. Baranzini (2004). What Do We Know About Carbon Taxes? An Inquiry into their Impacts on Competitiveness and Distribution, Energy Policy, 32(4): 507-18.