Gupta, Rupayan (2008): The Effect of Opportunity Cost and Pacifism on Protests in Occupied Regions.
This is the latest version of this item.
Download (469kB) | Preview
This paper examines how the opportunity costs of the leaders of a national protest movement, and the intrinsic hawkishness or pacifism of the occupier, affect the nature of the movement against occupation. A two-stage game is modeled, in which a protest leader and an external occupier fight over the control of the population of an occupied region. The protest leader can actively convert the populace to protest. On the other hand, the occupier chooses how much to punish the protest leader and other protestors for their actions. The findings of this paper indicate that under certain circumstances leaders who have a greater opportunity cost of leading protests may be more active, compared to leaders with lower opportunity costs. Further, the former may be able to lead a movement with more mass support. This paper also characterizes equilibria, among others, where a more hawkish occupier can actually de-escalate the conflict with the protestors. The characteristics of the population residing in the occupied region, the nature of punishment that is being meted out to the protestors, and the structure of enforcement costs that lead to these outcomes, are discussed in the paper.
|Item Type:||MPRA Paper|
|Original Title:||The Effect of Opportunity Cost and Pacifism on Protests in Occupied Regions|
|Keywords:||Conflict; Protest; Revolt|
|Subjects:||D - Microeconomics > D7 - Analysis of Collective Decision-Making > D74 - Conflict ; Conflict Resolution ; Alliances ; Revolutions
H - Public Economics > H5 - National Government Expenditures and Related Policies > H56 - National Security and War
|Depositing User:||Rupayan Gupta|
|Date Deposited:||06. Sep 2010 00:18|
|Last Modified:||30. Jun 2015 19:08|
1.Becker, G.S. Crime and Punishment: An Economic Approach, The Journal of Political Economy, Vol. 76, Issue 2, 1968, 169-217. 2.Chalmers, J.A. and Shelton, R.B. An Economic Analysis of Riot Participation, Economic Inquiry, Vol. 13, No. 3, 1975, 322-336. 3.Chang, Y., Potter, J. and Sanders, S. The Fate of Disputed Territories: An Economic Analysis, Defence and Peace Economics, Vol. 18, No. 2, 2007, 183-200. 4.Chang, Y., Potter, J. and Sanders, S. War and Peace: Third-party Intervention in Conflict, The European Journal of Political Economy, Vol. 23, No. 4, 2007, 954-974. 5.Chang, Y. and Sanders, S. Raising the Cost of Rebellion: The Role of Third-Party Intervention in Intrastate Conflict, Defence and Peace Economics, Vol. 20, No. 3, 2009, 149-169. 6.Eaton, B. C. Applied Microeconomic Theory: Selected Essays of B. Curtis Eaton, Edward Elgar. 7.Eaton, B. C. 2004. The Elementary Economics of Social Dilemmas, Canadian Journal of Economics, Vol, 37, No. 4, 2001, 805-29. 8.Esteban, J. and Ray, D. Conflict and Distribution, Journal of Economic Theory, Vol. 87, 1999, 379-415. 9.Frey, B.S. and Luechinger S. How to Fight Terrorism: Alternatives to Deterrence, Defence and Peace Economics, Vol. 14, No. 4, August 2003, 237-249. 10.Gangopadhyay, P. Economics of intolerance and social conflict, The Economics of Peace and Security Journal, Vol. 4, No. 2, 2009, 23-31. 11.Garfinkel, M. and Skaperdas, S. (eds.). The Political Economy of Conflict and Appropriation, Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge, UK, 1996. 12.Ghosh, K.C. Chronological Dictionary of India's Independence, Revised and Edited by Subhas Bhattacharya, Sahitya Samsad Press, Calcutta, 1998. 13.Grossman, H.I. A General Equilibrium Model of Insurrections, The American Economic Review, Vol. 81, Sep. 1991, 912-921. 14.Grossman, H.I. Kleptocracy and Revolutions, Oxford Economic Papers 51, 1999, 267-83. 15.Gal-Or, E. First Mover and Second Mover Advantages, International Economic Review, Vol. 26, No. 3, 1985, 649-54. 16.Gupta, R. Some Factors Affecting Independence Movements: An Overview, Economics of Peace and Security Journal, Vol. 2, No. 2, July 2007, 101-106. 17.Gupta, R. Structuring International Institutions for the Efficient Provisioning of Global Security, Public Choice, Vol. 144, Issue 1, 2010, 169-197. 18.Harris, C. Existence and Characterization of Perfect Equilibrium in Games of Perfect Information, Econometrica, Vol. 53, No. 3., May, 1985, 613-628. 19.Hartley, K. and Sandler, T. (eds.). Handbook of Defense Economics, Vol. 1, Elsevier, 1995. 20.Hirshleifer, J. The Macrotechnology of Conflict, Journal of Conflict Resolution, Vol. 44, Dec. 2000, 773-792. 21.Kirk, R. M. Political Terrorism and the Size of Government: A Positive Institutional Analysis of Violent Political Activity, Public Choice, Vol. 40, No. 1, 1983, 41-52. 22.Kuran, T. Sparks and prairie fires -- A Theory of Unanticipated Political Revolution, Public Choice, April 1989, 41-74. 23.Mookherjee D. and Png, I.P.L. Marginal Deterrence in Enforcement of Law, The Journal of Political Economy, Vol.102, Issue 5, 1994, 1039-1066. 24.Roemer, J.E. Rationalizing Revolutionary Ideology, Econometrica, Jan. 1985, 85-108. 25.Sandler, T. Collective Action, The University of Michigan Press, 1992. 26.Sandler, T. and Hartley, K. The Economics of Defense, Cambridge University Press, 1995. 27.Sandler, T and Hartley, K. (eds.). The Economics of Conflict (Vols. I - III), International Library of Critical Writings in Economics, Elgar, Cheltenham, 2004. 28.Sandler, T. and Siqueira. Global Terrorism: Deterrence versus Pre-emption, Canadian Journal of Economics, Vol. 39, No. 4, November 2006, 1370-1387. 29.Sarkar, S. Modern India: 1885-1947, McMillan Press, 2001. 30.Sharma, R.K. (ed.). History of Indian National Movement: 1857-1947, Sonali Publications, 2005. 31.Siqueira, K. Conflict and Third-Party Intervention, Defence and Peace Economics, Vol. 14, No. 6, 2003, 389- 400. 32.Skaperdas, S. Contest Success Functions, Economic Theory, Vol. 7, 1996, 283-290.
Available Versions of this Item
The Effect of Opportunity Cost and Pacifism on Protests in Occupied Regions. (deposited 21. Jul 2010 12:46)
- The Effect of Opportunity Cost and Pacifism on Protests in Occupied Regions. (deposited 06. Sep 2010 00:18) [Currently Displayed]