El Jalil, Sabreen J. Abd (2009): Images of Egypt in United Kingdom Tour Operators' Brochures. Published in: TOURISMOS: An International Multidisciplinary Journal of Tourism , Vol. 5, No. 2 (15. October 2010): pp. 179-191.
Download (79Kb) | Preview
Tour operators and travel agents play a double role as distribution channels and image creators with tourist brochures playing an important role in the image creation process. This paper assesses tourist images of Egypt in the United Kingdom through content analysis of the brochures of United Kingdom tour operators using 35 image attributes which are rated on a 5-point Likert scale. Most of the brochures in the United Kingdom market present Egypt and its physical attractions - beaches, historical sites, luxury accommodation - extremely positively although clearly they have a vested interest in doing this. They are however silent on certain aspects of the destination which have received negative comments in the literature - the real lifestyles of local people and their friendliness and hospitality, the local cuisine and safety and security.
|Item Type:||MPRA Paper|
|Original Title:||Images of Egypt in United Kingdom Tour Operators' Brochures|
|Keywords:||Brochures, content analysis, Egypt, tour operators, tourist image, UK tourist market|
|Subjects:||O - Economic Development, Technological Change, and Growth > O1 - Economic Development
M - Business Administration and Business Economics; Marketing; Accounting > M1 - Business Administration
L - Industrial Organization > L8 - Industry Studies: Services > L83 - Sports; Gambling; Recreation; Tourism
|Depositing User:||Evangelos Christou|
|Date Deposited:||23. Sep 2010 14:35|
|Last Modified:||16. Feb 2013 01:02|
Airtours. (2008). Winter Sun. November 2008 – April 2009. 1st Ed: UK, p. 150.
Albers, P. & James, W. (1988). Travel Photography: A Methodological Approach. Annals of Tourism Research, Vol. 15, No.1, pp.134-158.
Andereck, K. (2005). Evaluation of a Tourist Brochures. Journal of Travel and Tourism Marketing, Vol. 18, No.2, pp.1-13.
Awad, H. (1998). Crises of the Tourism Sector in Egypt. Paper presented at the 1st Management of Tourism Activation in Egypt conference. Public Administration Research and Consultation Centre (PARC), Cairo, Egypt: 18March1998.Http//:www.parcegypt.org/english/link.php?cat_id=28&Id=319. Accessed the 20 th March 2008, at 14:50.
Baloglu, S. & Mangaloglu, M. (2001). Tourism Destination Image of Turkey, Egypt, Greece, and Italy as perceived by US-based Tour Operator and Travel Agents. Journal of tourism Management, Vol. 22, pp.1-9.
Beerli, A. & Marten, C. (2004). Factor Influencing Destination Image. Annals of Tourism Research, Vol. 31, pp.657-681.
Bryce, D. (2007). Repackaging Orientation: Discourses on Egypt and Turkey in United Kingdom Outbound Tourism. Tourism Studies, Vol. 7, pp.165- 191.
Echtner, C. & Richie, J. (1991). The Meaning of Measurement of Destination Image. Journal of Travel Studies, Vol. 2, No.2, pp.69-80.
Ekinci, Y. & Hosany, S. (2006). Destination Personality: An Application of Brand Personality to Tourism Destinations. Journal of travel Research, Vol. 45, pp.127-139.
El Beltagy, M. (1998). Strategies of tourism Activation in Egypt. Paper presented at the 1st Management of Tourism Activation in Egypt conference. Public Administration Research and Consultation Centre (PARC), Cairo, Egypt: 18March1998.Http//:www.parcegypt.org/english/link.php?cat_id=28&Id=319. Accessed the 20 th March 2008, at 14:50.
Gartner, W. (1993). Image Formation Process. Journal of Travel and Tourism Marketing, Vol. 2, No.2-3, pp.191-215.
Getz, D. & Sailor, L. (1993). Design of Destination and Attraction-Specific Brochures. Journal of Travel and Tourism Marketing, Vol. 2, No.2/3, pp.111-131.
Goossens, C. (1994). External Information Search: Effective of Tour Brochure with Experimental Information. Journal of Travel and Tourism Marketing, Vol. 3, No.3, pp.89-107.
Gunn, C. (1988a). Vacationscape: Designing Tourist Regions, 2nd edition. New York, Van Nostrand Reinhold.
Gunn, C. (1988b). Tourism Planning, 2nd edition. New York, Taylor & Francis.
Hall, C. and Valentin, A. (2005). Content Analysis. In B. Ritchie, P. Burnsand and C. Palmer (Eds.) Tourism Research Methods, Integrating Theory with Practice (pp. 191), UK: CABI Publishing.
Hayes, D. & Macleod, N. (2006). Packaging Places: Designing Heritage Trails Using an Experience Economy Perspective to Maximize Engagement. Journal of vacation Marketing, Vol. 13, No.1, pp.45-58.
Jenkins, O. (1999). Understanding and Measuring Tourist Destination Images. International Journal of tourism Research, Vol.1, pp. 1-15.
Kokosalakis, C. et al. (2006). Place Image and Urban Regeneration in Liverpool. International Journal of Consumer Studies, Vol. 30, No.4, pp.389-397.
Kouni. (2008). Tropical Sun 2009. A Kouni company: UK.
Lawton, G. & Page, S. (1997). Evaluating Travel Agents’ Provision of Health Advice to Travelers. Tourism Management, Vol. 18, No.2, pp.89-104.
Mansfeld, Y. & Winckler, O. (2004). Options for Viable Economic Development through Tourism among the Non-oil Arab Countries: the Egyptian Case. Journal of Tourism Economics, Vol. 10, No.4, pp.365-388.
Marino, E. (2008). The Strategic Dimension of Destination Image, An Analysis of the French Riviera Image from the Italian Tourists, Perceptions. Http//www.fedoa.unina.it/2170/. Accessed the 22 nd of June 2008, at 16:22.
Molina, A. & Esteban, A. (2006). Tourism Brochures, Usefulness and Image. Journal of Annals of Tourism Research, Vol. 33, No.4, pp.1036-1056.
O’Leary, S. & Deegan, J. (2005). Ireland’s Image as a Tourist Destination in France: Attribute Importance and Performance. Journal of Travel Research, Vol. 43, pp.247-256.
Pine, B. & Gilmore, J. (1999). The Experience Economy. Harvard, MA: Harvard Business School Press.
Pritchard, A. (2001). Tourism and Representation: a Scale for Measuring Gendered Portrayals. Leisure Studies, Vol. 20, pp.79-94.
Reimer, G. (1990). Packaging Dreams: Canadian Tour Operators at Work. Annals of Tourism Research, Vol. 17, pp.501-512.
Segui-Llinas, M. & Capella-Cervera, J. (2006). Spanish Package Holiday Tourism to China: Spatial Patterns and Tourist Attractions. Tourism Geographies, Vol. 8, No.3, pp.233-252.
Sirakaya, E. & Sonmez, S. (2000). Gender Image in State Tourism Brochures: An Overlooked Area in Socially Responsible Tourism Marketing. Journal of Travel Research, Vol. 38, No.4, pp.353-362.
Sirgy, M. & Su, C. (2000). Destination Image, Self-Congruity, and Travel Behaviour: Toward an Integrative Model. Journal of Travel Research, Vol. 38, pp.340-350.
Sonmez, S. & Sirakaya, E. (2002). A Distorted Destination Image? The Case of Turkey. Journal of Travel Research, Vol. 41, pp.185-195.
Steiner, C. (2007). Political Instability, Transnational Tourist Companies and Destination Recovery in the Middle East after 9/11. Journal of tourism and Hospitality Planning & Development, Vol. 4, No.3, pp.169-190.
Tain-Cole, S. & Crompton, J. (2003). A Conceptualization of Relationships between Services Quality and Visitor Satisfaction, and their Links to Destination Selection. Journal of Leisure Studies, Vol. 22, pp.65-80.
The Specialist National Councils. (1998). The Negative Impacts of the Recent Crises on the Tourism Business. The culture, media, policy and economic business report, Cairo (August), pp.14-22.
Thomson, (2008). Egypt and the Red Sea Riviera. May 2008-October 2009, April Edition, TUI: UK, UK Limited. P. 16.
Tuohino, A. (2001). The Destination Image of Finnish Lake Districts. Paper presented at 10th Nordic Tourism Research Symposium. Institute for Regional Development and Research, Vaasa, Finland. Savonlinna: 18-20 October 2001.
Um, S. & Crompton, J. (1999). Attitude Determinants in Tourism Destination Choice. Annals of Tourism Research, Vol. 17, pp.432-448.
Urry, J. (2002). The Tourist Gaze. London, Constable.
White, C. (2004). Destination Image: to See or not to See? International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, Vol. 16, No.5, pp.309-314.