McDonald, Mark and Rascher, Daniel (2000): Does Bat Day Make Cents? The Effect of Promotions on the Demand for Major League Baseball. Published in: Journal of Sport Management , Vol. 1, No. 14 (January 2000): pp. 8-27.
Download (2210Kb) | Preview
A primary objective of sport marketers in the professional sport setting is to develop strategies to increase game attendance. Historically, one of the strategies to accomplish this goal has been the utilization of special promotions. This paper studied the impact of promotions on attendance at professional sport games. Specifically, this research examines (1) the overall effect of promotions on attendance, and (2) the marginal impact on attendance of additional promotional days. Using a data set containing 1500 observations, we find that a promotion increases single game attendance by about 14%. Additionally, increasing the number of promotions has a negative effect on the marginal impact of each promotion. The loss from this watering down effect, however, is outweighed by the gain from having an extra promotion day.
|Item Type:||MPRA Paper|
|Original Title:||Does Bat Day Make Cents? The Effect of Promotions on the Demand for Major League Baseball|
|Keywords:||baseball; promotions; giveaways; regression; demand; economics|
|Subjects:||D - Microeconomics > D1 - Household Behavior and Family Economics > D12 - Consumer Economics: Empirical Analysis
L - Industrial Organization > L8 - Industry Studies: Services > L83 - Sports; Gambling; Recreation; Tourism
|Depositing User:||Daniel Rascher|
|Date Deposited:||11. Oct 2010 02:53|
|Last Modified:||13. Feb 2013 10:35|
Becker, M.A., & Suls, J. (1983). Take me out to the ballgame: The effect of objective, social, and temporal performance information on attendance at major league baseball games. Journal of Sport Psychology, 5, 302-313.
Bird, P.J. (1982). The demand for league football. Applied Economics, 14, 637-649.
Boyd, David W., and Laura A. Boyd. (1996). The Home Field Advantage: Implications for the Pricing of Tickets to Professional Team Sports. Journal of Economics and Finance, V. 20, No. 2, 23-32.
Branvold, S.E. & Bowers, R. (1992). The use of promotions in college baseball. Sport Marketing Quarterly, 1(1), 19-24.
Burton, R. & Cornilles, R.Y. (1998). Emerging theory in team sport sales: Selling tickets in a more competitive arena. Sport Marketing Quarterly, 7(1), 29-37.
Cornwell, T.B. (1995). Sponsorship-linked marketing development. Sport Marketing Quarterly, 4(4), 13-24.
Drever, P., & MacDonald, J. (1981). Attendances at South Australian football games. International Review of Sport Sociology, 16(2), 103.
Fizel, J.L., & Bennett, R.W. (1989). The impact of college football telecasts on college football attendance. Social Science Quarterly, 7(4), 980-988.
Helson, H. (1964). Adaptation-level theory. New York: Harper & Row.
Hill, J.R., Madura, J., & Zuber, R.A. (1982). The short run demand for major league baseball. Atlantic Economic Journal, 10(2), 31-35.
Hoang, Ha and Daniel A. Rascher. (1999) The NBA, Exit Discrimination, and Career Earnings. Industrial Relations, January, 1999.
Jones, J.C.H. (1984). Winners, losers, and hosers: Demand and survival in the National Hockey League. Atlantic Economic Journal, 10(3), 54-63.
Kalwani, M.U., Yim, C., Rinne, H.J., & Sugita, Y. (1990). A price expectation model of customer brand choice. Journal of Marketing Research, 27 (August), 251-262.
Kamen, J. & Toman, R. (1970). Psychophysics of prices. Journal of Marketing Research, 8(1), 252-257.
Kotler, P. (1994). Marketing management: Analysis, planning, implementation, and control. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Kumar, V. & Pereira, A. (1995). Explaining the variation in short-term sales response to retail price promotions. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 23(3), 155-169.
Mullin, B.J., Hardy, S., & Sutton, W.A. (1993). Sport Marketing. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
Nagle, T.T. (1987). The strategy and tactics of pricing. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Noll, R.G. (1974). Government and the sports business. Washington, D.C. The Brookings Institute.
Rascher, Daniel A. (1999). The Optimal Distribution of Talent in Major League Baseball. Sports Economics: Current Research, Praeger Press, Eds. Lawrence Hadley, Elizabeth Gustafson, and John Fizel. 1999.
Scully, G.W. (1974). Pay and performance in major league baseball. American Economic Review, 64(6), 915-930.
Schurr, K.T., Wittig, A.F., Ruble, V.E., & Ellen, A.S. (1987). Demographic and personality characteristics associated with persistent, occasional, and non-attendance of university male basketball games by college students. Journal of Sport Behavior, 11(1), 3-17.
Schwartz, J.M. (1973). Causes and effects of spectator sports. International Review of Sport Sociology, 34(8), 25-45.
Siegfried, J.J. & Eisenberg, J.D. (1980). The demand for minor league baseball. Atlantic Economic Journal, 8, 59-66.
USA Today (1998, April 22). Take ‘em out to the ballpark. P. 12c.
Wall, G.V. & Myers, K. (1989). Factors influencing attendance: Toronto Blue Jays game. Sport Place International: An International Magazine of Sports Geography, 3(1), 29-33.
Winer, R.S. (1986). A reference price model of brand choice for frequently purchased products. Journal of Consumer Research, 13(2), 250-256.
Zhang, J.J., Pease, D.G., Hui, S.C. & Michaud, T.J. (1995). Variables affecting the spectator decision to attend NBA games. Sport Marketing Quarterly, 4(4), 29-39.
Zhang, J.J. & Smith, D.W. (1997). Impact of broadcasting on the attendance of professional basketball games. Sport Marketing Quarterly, 6(1), 23-29.