Evers, Hans-Dieter and Nordin, Ramli and Nienkemper, Pamela (2010): Knowledge cluster formation in Peninsular Malaysia: The emergence of an epistemic landscape. Published in: ZEF Working Papers No. 62 (10. October 2010): pp. 1-36.
Download (1MB) | Preview
Knowledge clusters are central places within an epistemic landscape, i.e. in a wider structure of knowledge production and dissemination. They have the organisational capability to drive innovations and create new industries. Examples of such organisations in knowledge clusters are universities and colleges, research institutions, think tanks, government research agencies and knowledge-intensive firms with their respective knowledge workers. The following paper will look at Malaysia and its path towards a Knowledge-based economy. We first describe the development strategy of the Malaysian government which has emphasized cluster formation as one of its prime targets. We then provide evidence of the current state of knowledge cluster formation in Peninsular Malaysia and try to answer the following questions. If the formation of a knowledge cluster (especially in the ICT and multimedia industry) has been the government policy, what has been the result? Has Malaysia developed an epistemic landscape of knowledge clusters? Has the main knowledge cluster really materialised in and around Cyberjaya in the MSC Malaysia? Data collected from websites, directories, government publications and expert interviews have enabled us to construct the epistemic landscape of Peninsular Malaysia. Several knowledge clusters of a high density of knowledge producing institutions and their knowledge workers have been identified and described. The analysis of the knowledge output, measured in terms of scientific publications, patents and trademarks show that existing knowledge clusters have, indeed, been productive as predicted by cluster theory. On the other hand government designed development corridors do not always coincide with the distribution of knowledge assets. The analysis of our data pertaining to Cyberjaya, the MSC Malaysia and the “corridors” needs to be developed further to produce more robust results. Keywords:
|Item Type:||MPRA Paper|
|Original Title:||Knowledge cluster formation in Peninsular Malaysia: The emergence of an epistemic landscape|
|Keywords:||Malaysia; Cyberjaya; knowledge and development; knowledge-based economy (KBE); knowledge clusters; knowledge corridors; epistemic landscape; development strategy|
|Subjects:||H - Public Economics > H4 - Publicly Provided Goods > H41 - Public Goods
O - Economic Development, Technological Change, and Growth > O1 - Economic Development > O16 - Financial Markets; Saving and Capital Investment; Corporate Finance and Governance
L - Industrial Organization > L5 - Regulation and Industrial Policy > L52 - Industrial Policy; Sectoral Planning Methods
C - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods > C8 - Data Collection and Data Estimation Methodology; Computer Programs > C81 - Methodology for Collecting, Estimating, and Organizing Microeconomic Data
D - Microeconomics > D8 - Information, Knowledge, and Uncertainty
R - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics > R1 - General Regional Economics > R11 - Regional Economic Activity: Growth, Development, Environmental Issues, and Changes
D - Microeconomics > D8 - Information, Knowledge, and Uncertainty > D85 - Network Formation and Analysis: Theory
|Depositing User:||Prof. Dr. Hans-Dieter Evers|
|Date Deposited:||15. Oct 2010 17:10|
|Last Modified:||12. Feb 2013 02:11|
Ani Asmah and Aminuddin Hamdan (Eds). 2009. Quick Facts: Department of Polytechnic and Community College Education. Selangor: Department of Polytechnic and Community College Education, Ministry of Higher Education Malaysia.
Bernama. 2008. ‘USM Is Malaysia's Apex University’, 3 September available at www.bernama.com/bernama/v3/news_lite.php?id=356958 accessed on 30 August 2010.
Bunnel, T. 2006. Malaysia, Modernity and the Multimedia Super Corridor a Critical Geography of Intelligent Landscapes. Abingdon Ox: Routledge.
East Coast Development Region, available at www.ecerdc.com accessed on 19 May 2010.
European Cluster Observatory, available at: http://www.clusterobservatory.eu
Evers, Hans-Dieter , and Tatjana Bauer. 2009. "Emerging Epistemic Landscapes: Knowledge Clusters in Ho Chi Minh City and the Mekong Delta. ZEF Working Paper Series 48. Bonn: Centre for Development Research (ZEF), University of Bonn.
Evers, Hans-Dieter and Solvay Gerke. 2009. “ Strategic Group Analysis”. ZEF Working Paper Series 34. Bonn: Centre for Development Research (ZEF), University of Bonn.
Evers, Hans-Dieter, and Rüdiger Korff. 2000. Southeast Asian Urbanism. Singapore: ISEAS
Evers, Hans-Dieter, Solvay Gerke, and Thomas Menkhoff. 2010. "Knowledge Clusters and Knowledge Hubs: Designing Epistemic Landscapes for Development." Journal of Knowledge Management 14:forthcoming.
Faaland, Just, Jack Parkinson, and Rais Saniman. 2003. Growth and ethnic inequality: Malaysia's new economic policy. Kuala Lumpur: Utusan Publications & Distributors.
Fatimah Mohamed Arshad. 2009. “The Agriculture Development Path in Malaysia: Experiences and Challenges for the Future.” Pp. 39-100 in Malaysia at 50 & Beyond, edited by Abdul Razak Baginda. Kuala Lumpur: Malaysian Strategic Research Centre.
Goon Institute, available at www.goon.edu.my/ accessed on 19 May 2010.
Institute of Medical Research (IMR), available at www.imr.gov.my accessed on 19 May 2010.
Iskandar Malaysia Development, available at www.iskandarmalaysia.com.my accessed on 19 May 2010.
Jabatan Perancangan Bandar dan Desa Negeri Selangor [Department of Town and Country Planning of Selangor]. 2009. Rancangan Tempatan Daerah Sepang 2015 [District of Sepang Local Plan 2015]. Selangor (to be published).
Jabatan Perancangan Bandar dan Desa Semenanjung Malaysia [Federal Town and Country Planning Department]. 2006. Garis Panduan Rekabentuk Fizikal Senibina Cyberjaya [Cyberjaya Physical Architecture Planning Guidelines]. Kuala Lumpur: Kementerian Perumahan dan Kerajaan Tempatan.
Jomo, K.S. 2009. “What can the Developing World Learn from Post-Colonial Malaysia’s Development Experience?” Pp. 263-272 in Readings on Development: Malaysia 2057 Uncommon Voices, Common Aspirations, edited by Nungsari Ahmad Radhi and Suryani Senja Alias. Kuala Lumpur: Khazanah Nasional.
Kementerian Pengajian Tinggi [Ministry of Higher Education]. 2008b. Statistik Maklumat Asas Pelajar dan Tenaga Pengajar IPTS [Basic Statistics of Students and Lecturers in Private Higher Learning Institutes]. Putrajaya: Pusat Data dan Maklumat, Jabatan Pngajian Tinggi, Kementerian Pengajian Tinggi [Data and Information Centre, Department of Higher Education, Minsitry of Higher Education].
Khazanah Nasional Berhad, available at www.khazanah.com.my accessed on 30 August 2010.
King, R. 2008. Kuala Lumpur and Putrajaya: Negotiating Urban Space in Malaysia, Singapore: NUS Press.
Lee, M.N.N. 2004. Restructuring Higher Education in Malaysia. Available at: www.cshe.nagoya-u.ac.jp/seminar/kokusai/lee.pdfwww.cshe.nagoya-u.ac.jp/seminar/kokusai/lee.pdf accessed on 30 August 2010. 23
Leete, Richard. 2007. Malaysia from Kampung to Twin Towers 50 Years of Economic and Social Development. Shah Alam: Oxford Fajar Sdn Bhd.
Limkokwing University of Creative Technology, Available at www.limkokwing.net/malaysia accessed on 30 August 2010.
Mahathir Mohamad. 1998. Excerpts from the Speeches of Mahathir Mohamad on the Multimedia Super Corridor, Subang Jaya: Pelanduk Publications.
Mahathir Mohamad. 2009. “Revisiting Vision 2020: New Challenges for Malaysia” Pp.3-10 in Readings on Development: Malaysia 2057 Uncommon Voices, Common Aspirations edited by Nungsari Ahmad Radhi and Suryani Senja Alias, Kuala Lumpur: Khazanah Nasional.
Malaysia. 1966. First Malaysia Plan 1966-1970. Kuala Lumpur: Government Printer available at www.epu.gov.my accessed on 30 July 2010.
Malaysia. 1971. Second Malaysia Plan 1971-1975. Kuala Lumpur: Government Printer available at www.epu.gov.my accessed on 30 July 2010.
Malaysia. 1976. Third Malaysia Plan 1976-1980. Kuala Lumpur: Government Printer available at www.epu.gov.my accessed on 30 July 2010.
Malaysia. 1981. Fourth Malaysia Plan 1981-1985. Kuala Lumpur: Government Printer available at www.epu.gov.my accessed on 30 July 2010.
Malaysia. 1986. Fifth Malaysia Plan 1986-1990. Kuala Lumpur: Government Printer available at www.epu.gov.my accessed on 30 July 2010.
Malaysia. 1991. Sixth Malaysia Plan 1991-1995. Kuala Lumpur: Government Printer available at www.epu.gov.my accessed on 30 July 2010.
Malaysia. 1991. Terjemahan teks ucapan YAB Datuk Seri Dr. Mahathir b. Mohamad, Perdana Menteri Malaysia pada 28 Februari 1991 sempena persidangan pertama Majlis Perdagangan Malaysia di Kuala Lumpur [Translation of Prime Minister Mahathir Mohamad Speech on the 28 February 1991 at the First Malaysian Trade Conference]. Kuala Lumpur: Percetakan Nasional Malaysia Berhad.
Malaysia. 1996. Seventh Malaysia Plan 1996-2000. Kuala Lumpur: Government Printer available at www.epu.gov.mywww.epu.gov.my accessed on 30 July 2010.
Malaysia. 2001. Eight Malaysia Plan 2001-2005. Kuala Lumpur: Government Printer available at www.epu.gov.mywww.epu.gov.my accessed on 30 July 2010.
Malaysia. 2006. Ninth Malaysia Plan 2006-2010. Kuala Lumpur: Government Printer available at www.epu.gov.my accessed on 30 July 2010.
Malaysia. 2006. Ninth Malaysia Plan 2006-2010. Kuala Lumpur: Government Printer available at www.epu.gov.my accessed on 30 July 2010.
Malaysia. 2002. Knowledge-Based Economy Master Plan. Kuala Lumpur: Institute of Strategic and International Studies.
Malaysian APEX and Research University available at www.portal.mohe.gov.my/ accessed on 28 May 2010.
Malaysian Business. 2009a. “The Race is On” in Malaysian Business, 1 – 15 April, 2009: 20.
Malaysian Business. 2009b. ‘Green Calling at Cyberjaya’, Housing & Property, 1 -15 December: 4.
Malaysian Meteorological Department (MMD), available at www.met.gov.my accessed on 30 August 2010
Malaysian Science and Technology Information Centre (MASTIC). Public and Private Research and Development Institute in Malaysia, 2009 (unpublished)
Malaysian University Ranking, Available at www.mqa.gov.my accessed on 30 July 2010.
Marshall, Alfred. 1920. Principles of Economics. London: McMillan.
Menkhoff, Thomas, Hans-Dieter Evers, and Yue Wah Chay (Eds.). 2010. Governing and Managing Knowledge in Asia, 2nd revised edition. New Jersey, Singapore and London: World Scientific Publishing.
Ministry of Higher Education, available at www.mohe.gov.my accessed on 30 July 2010. 24
Ministry of Higher Education. 2008a. Malaysia Higher Education Statistics 2007. Putrajaya: Planning and Research Division, Ministry of Higher Education.
Ministry of Higher Education. 2009. Malaysia Higher Education Statistics 2008. Putrajaya: Planning and Research Division, Ministry of Higher Education.
Ministry of International Trade and Industry. 2006. Third Industrial Master Plan 2006-2020: Malaysia Towards Global Competitiveness. Kuala Lumpur : Government Printer.
Mohan, A.V. 2004. The Multimedia Super Corridor (MSC) Project A Note on the Progress and Prognosis of a Policy Driven ICT Cluster paper presented at the MIER National Economic Outlook 2005 Conference, Kuala Lumpur, 7th to 8th December.
MSC Malaysia, available at www.mscmalaysia.my accessed on 20 May 2010.
Multimedia Development Corporation Sdn Bhd (MDeC). 2008. Facts & Figures: MSC Malaysia Cybercities & Cybercentres Creating an Environment that Empowers (Third Edition). Cyberjaya: Multimedia Development Corporation Sdn Bhd (MDeC).
National Economic Advisory Council (NEAC). 2010. New Economic Model for Malaysia. Kuala Lumpur: Government Printer.
Neo, Wee Huay et.al. 2008. Cyberjaya: The Heart of A Nation’s ICT Agenda (Second Edition). Cyberjaya: Multimedia Development Corporation Sdn Bhd (MDeC).
Nolan, C. & I. Kumar. 2006. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) in Business and Industry Cluster Analysis: A Case Study of Indiana. ESRI International User Conference, 2006. Available at: http://www.pcrd.purdue.edu/documents/publications/ESRI_2006_Conference.pdf
Northern Corridor Development Region, available at www.ncer.com.my accessed on 19 May 2010.
OECD. 1996. "The knowledge-based economy." Paris: OECD.
Perbadanan Harta Intelek Malaysia[Intellectual Property Corporation of Malaysia (MyIPO)], Permohonan dan Pendaftaran Cap Dagangan Bagi Negeri-Negeri di Semenanjung Malaysia Dari Tahun 2005 -2009 [Application and Registration of Trademarks and Patents for States in Peninsular Malaysia from 2005-2009] (unpublished data).
Porter, Michael E. 1990. The Competitive Advantage of Nations. New York: The Free Press.
Porter, Michael E. 2000. "Location, Competition, and Economic Development: Local Clusters in a Global Economy." Economic Development Quarterly 14:15-34.
Ramasamy, B. et.al. 2002. “ Malaysia’s Leap into the Future: An Evaluation of the Multimedia Super Corridor” in Nottingham University Business School Research Paper Series No. 0872002. Kuala Lumpur: University of Nottingham, Malaysia.
Saleem, M.Y. 2008. “Federalism: Origin and Applications” Pp. 63-81 in Government and Politics in Malaysia edited by Moten, A.R. Singapore: Cenage Learning Asia Pte Ltd.
Setia Haruman Sdn. Bhd. Available at www.cyberjaya-msc.comwww.cyberjaya-msc.com accessed on 30 August 2010.
Sivalingam,G. 2006. Privatization of Higher Education in Malaysia. Forum on Public Policy. Available at: www.forumpublicpolicy.com/archive07/sivalingam.pdfwww.forumpublicpolicy.com/archive07/sivalingam.pdf accessed on 30 August 2010.
The Star. 2009. ‘Dr M on drawing foreign investors to Cyberjaya’, 15 May (Business Section): 6.
Weber, Alfred. 1909. Reine Theorien des Standortes. Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck.
Yusuf, Shahid and Kaoru Nabeshima. 2009. Tiger Economies under Threat: a Comparative Analysis of Malaysia’s Industrial Prospects and Policy Options. Washington D.C: World Bank