Hlavac, Marek (2010): Has EU Enlargement Been, and Will It Continue to Be, a Success? An Evaluation of EU Enlargement's Effects on Policies Pursued by Candidate Countries.
Download (208kB) | Preview
In this paper, I discuss whether enlargement has been a successful external policy of the European Union (EU). In particular, I evaluate the policy’s success based on its effects on the policies candidate countries have pursued. I argue that the prospect of entering the European Union has promoted beneficial democratic, economic and social reforms in candidate countries, and therefore can be judged to have been a success.
I focus on two sets of enlargement rounds where the potential for the EU’s influence on candidate countries’ policies was greatest: the 1980s rounds, during which Spain, Portugal and Greece – three countries with then-recent histories of dictatorship – were admitted; and the 2004/2007 rounds, during which twelve new Member States acceded, mostly from the post-communist Central and Eastern Europe.
I conclude that enlargement has, indeed, been a success: The prospect of entering the European Union (EU) has prompted candidate countries to pursue political, economic and social reforms that have contributed to the consolidation of democracy, to improvements in their human rights records, as well as to the betterment of their market economies. Finally, I discuss whether the enlargement process is likely to continue to be successful in improving the candidate countries’ policies, both in the Western Balkans (the likely next focus of EU enlargement), but also in potential further expansions.
|Item Type:||MPRA Paper|
|Original Title:||Has EU Enlargement Been, and Will It Continue to Be, a Success? An Evaluation of EU Enlargement's Effects on Policies Pursued by Candidate Countries|
|Keywords:||enlargement, European Union, democratization, economic reform, human rights, democratic consolidation, social reform, Regional Integration, International Organization, Multilevel Governance, Supranational Institutions|
|Subjects:||F - International Economics > F1 - Trade > F15 - Economic Integration
F - International Economics > F4 - Macroeconomic Aspects of International Trade and Finance > F42 - International Policy Coordination and Transmission
F - International Economics > F5 - International Relations and International Political Economy > F53 - International Agreements and Observance; International Organizations
|Depositing User:||Marek Hlavac|
|Date Deposited:||18. Jan 2011 07:56|
|Last Modified:||15. Feb 2013 19:34|
AFP. (2007). “Turkey does not belong in Europe: Sarkozy,” 20 September 2007.
Aznar, José María. (2010). Guest lecture. EU Politics and Policy – Fall 2010. Georgetown University: Georgetown Public Policy Institute.
BBC News. (2010a). “Cameron ‘anger’ at slow pace of Turkish EU negotiations,” 27 July 2010.
BBC News. (2010b). “Turkey’s EU bid overshadows Angela Merkel visit,” 29 March 2010.
Bunse, Simone. (2010). Lecture notes on EU Enlargement. EU Politics and Policy – Fall 2010. Georgetown University: Georgetown Public Policy Institute.
Cassis, Brady Anthony. (2008). “More Than Just “Keeping the Russians Out”: NATO and the End of Western European Autocracy, 1949-1989,” New Haven, CT: Yale University.
Díez-Nicolás, Juan. (2003). “Spaniards’ Long March Towards Europe,” South European Society and Politics, Vol. 8, No. 1, 119-146.
Dimitrijevic, Vojin, Florence Hartmann, Dejan Jovic and Tija Memisevic. (2009). “War crimes, conditionality and EU integration in the Western Balkans,” Chaillot Paper, No. 116, Institute for Security Studies.
Dimitrova, Antoaneta. (2002). “Enlargement, Institution-Building and the EU's Administrative Capacity Requirement.” West European Politics, Vol. 25, No. 4, 171-190.
Encarnación, Omar G. (2001). “Spain After Franco: Lessons in Democratization,” World Policy Journal, Winter 2001/2002.
Euractiv. (2008). “Time to Redesign the Structural Funds System?” 8 December 2008. Available at: http://www.euractiv.com/en/enlargement/time-redesign-structural-funds-system/article-177818
European Commission (EC). (2010). “Enlargement – Countries.” Available at: http://ec.europa.eu/enlargement/countries/index_en.htm
European Parliament (EP). (2003). “Presidency Conclusions: Copenhagen European Council, 21-22 June 1993.” Available at: http://www.europarl.europa.eu/enlargement/ec/pdf/cop_en.pdf
European Union (EU). (2003). “EU-Western Balkans Summit: Declaration.” Available at: http://www.consilium.europa.eu/ueDocs/cms_Data/docs/pressdata/en/misc/76291.pdf
Gateva, Eli. (2010). “Post-Accession Conditionality: Support Instrument for Continuous Pressure?” KFG Working Paper, No. 18.
Hungarian Spectrum. (2010). “Foreign media on the Orbán government,” 18 August 2010.
Leonard, Mark and Charles Grant. (2005). “Georgia and the EU: Can Europe’s neighborhood policy deliver?” Policy Brief, London, UK: Center for European Reform.
Levitz, Philip and Grigore Pop-Eleches. (2010). “Why No Backsliding? The EU’s Impact on Democracy and Governance Before and After Accession,” Comparative Political Studies, Vol. 43, 457-485.
Lobjakas, Ahto. (2008). “EU Censures Romania, Bulgaria for Corruption, Withholds Funds,” Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty.
Kelley, Judith. (2006). Ethnic politics in Europe: The power of norms and incentives. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Kubicek, Paul. (2003). The European Union and Democratization. London, UK: Routledge.
Linz, Juan José. (2000). Totalitarian and Authoritarian Regimes. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner Publishers.
Lipinska, Anna. (2008). “The Maastricht Convergence Criteria and Optimal Monetary Policy for the EMU Accession Countries,” ECB Working Paper, No. 896, European Central Bank.
Mikulová, Kristina. (2008). “Slovak Media Law Constrains Freedom of the Press,” Central Europe Digest, Center for European Policy Analysis.
Pollack, Mark A. (2005). “Theorizing EU Policy-Making,” In Wallace, H., Wallace W. and Pollack M. Policy-Making in the European Union. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
Pop-Eleches, Grigore. (2007). “Between Historical Legacies and the Promise of Western Integration: Democratic Conditionality After Communism,” East European Politics and Societies, Vol. 21, No. 1, 1-20.
Raby, David L. (1991). Fascism and Resistance in Portugal: Communists, Liberals and Military Dissidents in the Opposition to Salazar. Manchester, UK: Manchester University Press.
Schimmelfennig, Frank. (2007). “European Regional Organizations, Political Conditionality, and Democratic Transformations in Eastern Europe,” East European Politics & Societies, Vol. 21, No. 1, 126-141.
Schimmelfennig, Frank, Stefan Engert and Heiko Knobel. (2003). “Costs, Commitment and Compliance: The Impact of EU Democratic Conditionality on Latvia, Slovakia and Turkey,” Journal of Common Market Studies, Vol. 41, No. 3, 495-518. Schaefer, Olya. (2010). “Estonia readies for Euro Transition,” Baltic Times, 24 November 2010.
Sedelmeier. Ulrich. (2010). “Enlargement” in Wallace, H., Pollack, M.A., Young, A.R., Policy-Making in the European Union, Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
Shumylo, Olga. (2006). “The Debate on the EU Prospects of Ukraine.” Research Report, Warsaw, Poland: Institute for Public Affairs.
Today’s Zaman. (2010). “Germany’s Westerwelle says Turkey’s direction is Europe,” 29 July 2010.
Vachudova, Milada. (2005). Europe undivided: Democracy, leverage, and integration after communism. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.