Ballinger, Clint (2011): Why Geographic Factors are Necessary in Development Studies.
Download (346Kb) | Preview
This paper proposes that the resurgence of geographic factors in the study of uneven development is not due simply to the recurrent nature of intellectual fashions, nor necessarily because arguments that rely on geographic factors are less simplistic than before, nor because they avoid racialist, imperialistic, and deterministic forms they sometimes took in the past. Rather, this paper argues that geographic factors have been turned to once again because they are an indispensable part of explanation, playing a special role that has not been properly understood, a role especially crucial for the explanation of the inherently spatial questions that development studies seek to address.
The paper is made up of two sections and an appendix.
The first section discusses why geographic factors are necessary for explanations of uneven development with a brief example from the ‘institutions versus geography’ debate. The second section discusses why the reflexive rejection by social scientists of geographic and environmental factors is misguided, with a separate note on geography and geographers.
The ideas in this paper were in part arrived at inductively while surveying instances where social scientists in some way attempt to account for real-world locations/distributions of social phenomena (as opposed to discussing a social theory or process aspatially or with its distribution taken as a starting point). A number of these are included with discussion as an appendix.
|Item Type:||MPRA Paper|
|Original Title:||Why Geographic Factors are Necessary in Development Studies|
|Keywords:||geographic determinism; environmental determinism; economic development; Daron Acemoglu, Jeffrey Sachs; Jared Diamond; explanation; exogenous factors; location; distribution; colonialism; biogeography;|
|Subjects:||Z - Other Special Topics > Z1 - Cultural Economics; Economic Sociology; Economic Anthropology
O - Economic Development, Technological Change, and Growth > O1 - Economic Development > O10 - General
N - Economic History > N9 - Regional and Urban History > N90 - General, International, or Comparative
O - Economic Development, Technological Change, and Growth > O1 - Economic Development > O15 - Human Resources; Human Development; Income Distribution; Migration
O - Economic Development, Technological Change, and Growth > O1 - Economic Development > O19 - International Linkages to Development; Role of International Organizations
F - International Economics > F5 - International Relations and International Political Economy > F54 - Colonialism; Imperialism; Postcolonialism
A - General Economics and Teaching > A1 - General Economics > A13 - Relation of Economics to Social Values
A - General Economics and Teaching > A1 - General Economics > A12 - Relation of Economics to Other Disciplines
O - Economic Development, Technological Change, and Growth > O5 - Economywide Country Studies > O57 - Comparative Studies of Countries
C - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods > C2 - Single Equation Models; Single Variables > C21 - Cross-Sectional Models; Spatial Models; Treatment Effect Models; Quantile Regressions
B - History of Economic Thought, Methodology, and Heterodox Approaches > B4 - Economic Methodology > B41 - Economic Methodology
|Depositing User:||Dr. Clint Ballinger|
|Date Deposited:||28. Mar 2011 10:16|
|Last Modified:||12. Feb 2013 07:20|
Abler, R F. 1987. The National Science Foundation National Center for Geographic Information and Analysis. International Journal of Geographical Information Systems 1(4): 303-326.
Acemoglu, Daron, Simon Johnson, and James Robinson. 2001. The Colonial Origins of Comparative Development: An Empirical Investigation. American Economic Review 91: 1369-1401.
Acemoglu, Daron, Simon Johnson, and James Robinson. 2002. Reversal of Fortune: Geography and Institutions in the Making of the Modern World Income Distribution. Quarterly Journal of Economics 117: 1231-1294.
Acemoglu, Daron; Johnson, Simon; Robinson, James. 2005. The Rise of Europe: Atlantic Trade, Institutional Change, and Economic Growth. The American Economic Review 95(3): 546-579. (Previously available as 2002, MIT Department of Economics Working Paper No. 02-43; MIT Sloan Working Paper No. 4269-02).
Algaze, Guillermo. 2005. The Sumerian Takeoff. Structure and Dynamics 1(1), Article 2. http://repositories.cdlib.org/imbs/socdyn/sdeas/vol1/iss1/art2
Algaze, Guillermo. 2010. Ancient Mesopotamia at the Dawn of Civilization: The Evolution of an Urban Landscape. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Amin, Ash. 1999. An institutionalist perspective on regional development. International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 23(2): 365-378.
Amin, Ash and Nigel Thrift, eds. 2003. The Blackwell Cultural Economy Reader. Oxford: Blackwell.
Amin, Samir. 1976. Unequal Development: An Essay on the Social Formations of Peripheral Capitalism. New York: Monthly Review Press.
Bairoch, Paul. 1985 (1988). Cities and Economic Development. Translated by Christopher Braider. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Bairoch, Paul. 1993. Economics and World History: Myths and Paradoxes. London: Harvester Wheatsheaf.
Ballinger, Clint. 2001. City, Society and State: The Role of Transport Costs in European State Formation.
Ballinger, Clint. 2008a. Initial Conditions as Exogenous Factors in Spatial Explanation. Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Geography, University of Cambridge. Available online at: http://philosophyofscience.webstarts.com/working_papers.html
Ballinger, Clint. 2008b. Initial Conditions and the ‘Open Systems’ Argument against Laws of Nature. Available online at: http://www.springerlink.com/content/g8m2724t0442081j/?p=3250344f65334d95a11b5a0d2f1a61c7&pi=2
Ballinger, Clint. 2008c. Classifying Contingency in the Social Sciences: Diachronic, Synchronic, and Deterministic Contingency. Available online at: http://philosophyofscience.webstarts.com/working_papers.html Ballinger, Clint. 2008d. Determinism and the Antiquated Deontology of the Social Sciences. Available online at: http://philsci-archive.pitt.edu/4152/1/Determinism_and_the_Antiquated_Deontology_of_the_Social_Sciences.pdf
Ballinger, Clint. 2011a. Why inferential statistics are inappropriate for development studies and how the same data can be better used. Online by late February 2011 at: http://philosophyofscience.webstarts.com/working_papers.html
Ballinger, Clint. 2011b. Comparative Economics in a World Divided: Spatial Autocorrelation and World Regions. http://philosophyofscience.webstarts.com/working_papers.html
Ballinger, Clint. 2011c. Acemoglu, Johnson, and Robinson: Natural Experiments or Geographic Theories of Development? http://philosophyofscience.webstarts.com/working_papers.html
Ballinger, Clint. 2011d. Two Fatal Flaws in the ‘Reversal of Fortune’ (Acemoglu, Johnson, and Robinson 2002) Argument. http://philosophyofscience.webstarts.com/working_papers.html
Ballinger, Clint. 2011e. Mercantilism and Uneven Development. http://philosophyofscience.webstarts.com/working_papers.html
Ballinger, Clint. 2011f. World Regions, International Development and Cluster Analysis. http://philosophyofscience.webstarts.com/working_papers.html
Bamshad, M., Kivisild, T., Watkins, W.S., et. al. 2001. Genetic Evidence on the Origins of Indian Caste Populations. Genome Research 11(6): 994-1004.
Banfield, Edward C. 1958. The Moral Basis of a Backward Society. Glencoe, Ill.: The Free Press.
Barbujani, G. and G. Bertorelle. 2001. Genetics and the Population History of Europe. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, United States 98: 23-25.
Bassin, Mark. 2003. ‘Politics from Nature: Environment, Ideology, and the Determinist Tradition’, in A Companion to Political Geography, John A. Agnew, Katharyne Mitchell and Gearóid Ó Tuathail, eds. Oxford: Blackwell.
Black, Maggie. 2002. The No-Nonsense Guide to International Development. London: Verso.
Blaut, James M. 2000. Eight Eurocentric Historians. New York: Guilford Press.
Bookchin, Murray. 1987. Social Ecology versus Deep Ecology: A Challenge for the Ecology Movement. Green Perspectives: Newsletter of the Green Program Project, nos. 4-5.
Castree, Noel, Alisdair Rogers, Douglas Joel Sherman, 2005. Questioning Geography: Fundamental Debates. Oxford: Blackwell.
Coombes, Paul and Keith Barber. 2005. Environmental determinism in Holocene research: Causality or coincidence? Area 37(3): 303–311.
Cox, Kevin R. 1992. Review: Locality Studies and the British Localities Project. Economic Geography 68(1): 94-98.
Curtin, Philip D. 1989. Death by Migration: Europe’s Encounter with the Tropical World in the Nineteenth Century. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Curtin, Philip D. 2000. The World and the West: The European Challenge and the Overseas Response in the Age of Empire. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Davis, Mike. 2002. Late Victorian Holocausts: El Niño Famines and the Making of the Third World. London: Verso.
Drayton, Richard. 2000. Nature’s Government: Science, Imperial Britain, and the ‘Improvement’ of the World. New Haven: Yale University Press.
Drayton, Richard. 2004. A Perversion of the Human Will for Survival. The Times Higher Education Supplement 18-19 April 23.
Easterly, William. 2001. The Elusive Quest for Growth: Economists’ Adventures and Misadventures in the Tropics. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press.
Eliot Hurst, Michael E. 1985. ‘Geography has neither existence nor future’, pp. 59-91 in R.J. Johnston, (ed) The Future of Geography London: Methuen.
Engerman, Stanley, and Kenneth Sokoloff. 1994. ‘Factor Endowments, Institutions, and Differential Paths of Growth Among New World Economies: A View From Economic Historians of the United States’. NBER Working Paper on Historical Factors in Long Run Growth, Historical Paper 66.
Fitzsimmons, Margaret. 1989. The Matter of Nature. Antipode 21: 106-120.
Freudenburg, William R. Scott Frickel, and Robert Gramling. 1995. Beyond the Nature/Society Divide: Learning to Think about a Mountain. Sociological Forum 10(3): 361-392.
Gallup, J.L., Sachs, J.D., and Mellinger, A.D. 1999. Geography and economic development. International Regional Science Review 22: 179-232. (Also published as 1998 NBER Working Paper No. W6849 and again as Center for International Development (CID) at Harvard University, Working Paper no. 1, March.)
Galor, Oded and Andrew Mountford. 2008. Trading Population for Productivity: Theory and Evidence. CEPR Discussion Paper 6678.
Genovese, Eugene D. and Leonard Hochberg, eds. 1989. Geographic Perspectives in History. Oxford: Blackwell.
Gersmehl, Philip J. and Dwight A. Brown. 1986. Regional Differences in the Validity of the Concept of Innate Soil Productivity. Annals of the Association of American Geographers 76(4): 480-492.
Gertler, M.S. 1997. ‘The Invention of Regional Culture’, pp. 47-58 in R. Lee and J. Will, eds. Geographies of Economies. London: Arnold.
Goldstone, Jack A. 1992. Revolution and Rebellion in the Early Modern World. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Gresham, D., Morar, B., Underhill, P. A., et. al. 2001. Origins and Divergence of the Roma Gypsies. American Journal of Human Genetics 69: 1314-1331.
Guelke, Leonard. 1989. Intellectual Coherence and the Foundations of Geography. The Professional Geographer 41(2): 123-130.
Hall, Peter. 1998. Cities in Civilization. New York: Pantheon.
Hanson, Susan. 1999. Isms and schisms: Healing the rift between the nature-society and the space-society traditions in human geography. Annals of the Association of American Geographers 89(1): 133-143.
Hanson, Victor Davis, 2005. ‘Decline and Fall’, review of Collapse: How Societies Choose to Fail or Succeed, by Jared Diamond. National Review, March 28.
Hart, John Fraser. 1982. The Highest Form of the Geographer’s Art. Annals of the Association of American Geographers. 71: 1-29.
Hartshorne, Richard. 1960. Political Geography in the Modern World. The Journal of Conflict Resolution 4(1): 52-66.
Harvey, David. 2011. Roepke Lecture in Economic Geography – Crises, Geographic Disruptions and the Uneven Development of Political Responses. Economic Geography 87(1): 1-22.
James, Alan. 2003. Regional Culture, Corporate Strategy, and High Tech Innovation: Salt Lake City. Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Geography, University of Cambridge. Available online at: http://www.transform-eu.org/further/documents/AlanJamesThesis.pdf
Johnston, Ron. 2007. Review of Diamond, Jared, 2005, Collapse: How societies choose to fail or survive. New York: Viking Penguin. Progress in Human Geography 31: 408-410.
Judkins, Gabriel, Marissa Smith, and Eric Keys. 2008. Determinism within human-environment research and the rediscovery of environmental causation. The Geographical Journal 174(1): 17-29.
Kates, Robert W. 1987. The Human Environment: The Road Not Taken, The Road Still Beckoning. Annals of the Association of American Geographers 77(4): 525-534.
Kindleberger, Charles P. 1978. Economic Response: Comparative Studies in Trade, Finance, and Growth. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.
Klasen, Stephan and Thorsten Nestmann. 2006. Population, Population Density, and Technological Change. Journal of Population Economics 19(3): 611-626.
Kremer, M. 1993. Population growth and technological change one million B. C. to 1990. Quarterly Journal of Economics S.681-716.
Krugman, Paul. 1998. ‘The Role of Geography in Development’. Paper prepared for the Annual World Bank Conference of Development Economics, Washington D.C., April 20-21. Lane, Bruce. ‘How Along the Erie Canal Came to Be’, accessed January 23, 2008, http://www.docfilm.com/amerfilms/erie/indexF.htm?erie.htm&down
Lovering, John. 1989. ‘The restructuring debate’, in Peet, Richard and Nigel Thrift, eds. New Models in Geography. 2: 198-223. London: Unwin Hyman.
Luck, Gary W. 2007. The relationships between net primary productivity, human population density and species conservation. Journal of Biogeography 34 (2): 201–212.
Maddison, Angus (1995), Monitoring the World Economy: 1820-1992. Paris: OECD.
Maddison, Angus. 2001. Monitoring the World Economy: A Millennial Perspective. Paris: OECD.
Marshall. John. 1985. ‘Geography as a Scientific Enterprise’ pp. 113-128 in R.J Johnston, (ed.), The Future of Geography, London: Methuen.
Martin, Ron. 1999. The ‘New Economic Geography’: Challenge or Irrelevance? Transactions Institute of British Geographers 24: 387-391.
Martin, Ron. 2000. ‘Institutional Approaches to Economic Geography’, pp. 77-94 in Barnes, T. and Sheppard, M. (eds.), A Companion to Economic Geography, Oxford: Blackwell.
Martin, Ron and Peter Sunley. 1996. Paul Krugman’s Geographical Economics and Its Implications for Regional Development Theory: A Critical Assessment. Economic Geography, 72: 259-292.
Massey, Doreen. 1978. Regionalism: Some current issues. Capital and Class 6, 106-125.
Massey, Doreen. 1979. In what sense a regional problem? Regional Studies 13, 233-243. Masters, William. 2003. ‘Climate, agriculture and economic development’, in Land quality, agricultural productivity, and food scarcity. Ed. by K.D. Wiebe. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar.
Masters, William A. and Margaret S. McMillan. 2000. ‘Climate and Scale in Economic Growth’, Center for International Development (CID) at Harvard University Working Paper no. 48, June.
McArthur, John W. and Jeffrey D. Sachs. 2001. ‘Institutions and Geography: Comment on Acemoglu, Johnson and Robinson (2000)’. NBER Working Paper No. 8114.
Meinig, Donald W. 1978. The Continuous Shaping of America: A Prospectus for Geographers and Historians. The American Historical Review 83(5): 1186-1205.
Meinig Donald W. 1992. ‘A Life of Learning’. Charles Homer Haskins Lecture, American Council of Learned Societies Occasional Paper No. 19.
Mellinger, Andrew D., Jeffrey D. Sachs and John L. Gallup. 1999. Climate, Water Navigability, and Economic Development, Center for International Development CID at Harvard University Working Paper no. 24, September.
Merrett, Christopher D. 2003. Debating Destiny: Nihilism or Hope in Guns, Germs, and Steel? Antipode 35(4): 801-806.
Monbiot, George. 2005. God and the good earth. The Guardian, March 22nd.
Morgan, W.B. and R.P. Moss. 1965. Geography and ecology: The concept of community and its relationship to environment. Annals of the Association of American Geographers 55(2): 339-359.
Morse, Stephen. 2004. Indices and indicators in development: an unhealthy obsession with numbers? London: Earthscan.
Murphy, Raymond. 1995. Sociology as if Nature did not Matter: An Ecological Critique. The British Journal of Sociology. 46(4): 688-707.
Nordhaus, William D. 2006. Geography and macroeconomics: New data and new findings. Proceeding of the National Academy of Sciences, United States 103: 3510-3517.
North, Douglass C. 1982. Structure and Change in Economic History. New York: Norton.
O’Keefe, Phil, Geoff O’Brien, Zaina Gadema, and Jon Swords. 2010. Geographers and geography: making waves for the wrong reasons. Area. 42(3): 258-261.
Olsen, Jonathan. 1999. Nature and Nationalism: Right-Wing Ecology and the Politics of Identity in Contemporary Germany. New York: St. Martin’s Press.
Olson, Mancur. 1996. Big Bills Left on the Sidewalk: Why Some Nations are Rich, and Others Poor’. Journal of Economic Perspectives 10(4): 3-24.
Pawson, Eric and Stephen Dovers. 2003. Environmental History and the Challenges of Interdisciplinarity: An Antipodean Perspective. Environment and History 9(1): 53-75
Peet, Richard. 1997. ‘The Cultural Production of Economic Forms’, pp. 37-46 in Lee, R. and J. Will, eds. Geographies of Economies. London: Arnold.
Pomeranz, Kenneth. 2000. The Great Divergence: China, Europe, and the Making of the Modern World Economy. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Pounds, Norman and Charles Roome. 1971. Population Density in Fifteenth Century France and the Low Countries. Annals of the Association of American Geographers 61(1): 116-130.
Przeworski, Adam. 2004. ‘Geography vs. Institutions Revisited: Were Fortunes Reversed?’ Working paper, Department of Politics, New York University. Putnam, Robert D. 1993. Making Democracy Work: Civic Traditions in Modern Italy. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Radcliffe, Sarah A., Elizabeth E. Watson, Ian Simmons, Felipe Fernández-Armesto, and Andrew Sluyter. 2010. Environmentalist thinking and/in geography. Progress in Human Geography 34(1): 98-116.
Retallack, Greg. 2003. ‘Soils and Agricultural Potential at Sacred Sites of Classical (480-338BC) Greece and Cyprus’. Paper presented to the annual conference of the Geological Society of America, Seattle.
Retallack, Greg. 2008. Rocks, views, soils and plants at the temples of ancient Greece. Antiquity 82: 640-657.
Rodrik, Dani. 2003. ‘Institutions, Integration, and Geography: In Search of the Deep Determinants of Economic Growth’ in Rodrik, Dani (ed.) In Search of Prosperity: Analytic Narratives on Economic Growth. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Rodrik, Dani, Arvind Subramanian, and Francesco Trebbi. 2002. Institutions Rule: The Primacy of Institutions over Geography and Integration in Economic Development, CEPR Discussion Paper No. 3643. (Also, 2002, Center for International Development, Harvard University Working Paper No. 97).
Rogers, R. A., L. A. Rogers, R. S. Hoffmann, and L. D. Martin. 1991. Native American Biological Diversity and the Biogeographic Influence of Ice Age Refugia. Journal of Biogeography 18(6): 623-630
Roeder, Philip G. 2001. Ethnolinguistic Fractionalization (ELF) indices, 1961 and 1985. Department of Political Science, University of California, San Diego.
Rokkan, Stein. 1975. ‘Dimensions of State Formation and Nation Building: A Possible Paradigm for Research on Variations within Europe’, pp. 562-600 in CharlesTilly, ed. The Formation of National States in Western Europe. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Sachs, Jeffrey D. 2000. ‘Tropical Underdevelopment’. Center for International Development (CID) at Harvard University, Working Paper No. 57.
Salih, Kamal. 1984. ‘Territorial Social Formation: Notes on Some Concepts Underlying A Strategy of Regional Closure’, in Forbes D.K. and P. J. Rimmer eds. Uneven Development and the Geographic Transfer of Value. Canberra: Australia National University Press, pp. 79-109.
Sauer, Carl. 1940. Presidential address delivered before the Association of American Geographers at Baton Rouge, Louisiana, December, 1940.
Saxenian, AnnaLee. 1994. Regional Advantage: Culture and Competition in Silicon Valley and Route 128. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.
Sayer, Andrew and Walker, Richard. 1992. The New Social Economy: Reworking the Division of Labor. Oxford, Blackwell.
Scott, A. J. 1984. Industrial Organization and the Logic of Intra-Metropolitan Location: III. A Case Study of the Women’s Dress Industry in the Greater Los Angeles Region. Economic Geography 60: 3-27.
Scott, A. J. and D. P. Angel. 1987. The U.S. semiconductor industry: A locational analysis. Environment and Planning, A 19: 875-912.
Sluyter, Andrew. 2003. Neo-environmental determinism, intellectual damage control, and nature/society science. Antipode 35(4): 813-817.
Small, Christopher and Joel E. Cohen. 2004. Continental Physiography, Climate, and the Global Distribution of Human Population. Current Anthropology 45(2): 269-277.
Sowell, Thomas. 1996. Migrations and Cultures: A World View. New York: Basic Books.
Sowell, Thomas. 1998. Conquests and Cultures: An International History. New York: Basic Books.
Steinberg, Ted. 2002. Down to Earth: Nature, Agency, and Power in History. American Historical Review 107(3): 798-820.
Stiglitz, Joseph. 2000. What I Learned at the World Economic Crisis. New Republic April 17.
Stoddart, D. R. 1987. To Claim the High Ground: Geography for the End of the Century. Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers (New Series) 12(3): 327-336.
Sylwester, Kevin. 2003. Income Inequality and Population Density 1500 AD: A Connection. Journal of Economic Development 28(2): 61-82.
Turner, B.L. 2002. Response to Thrift’s ‘The Future of Geography’. Geoforum 33: 427-429.
van der Woude, A. M., Akira Hayami, and Jan De Vries, eds. 1990. Urbanization in History: A Process of Dynamic Interactions. Oxford, Oxford University Press.
Vries, P.H.H. 2001. Are Coal and Colonies Really Crucial? Kenneth Pomeranz and the Great Divergence. Journal of World History 12(2): 407-446.
Wacome, Donald H. 2004. Reductionism’s Demise: Cold Comfort. Zygon 39(2): 321-337.
Waddell Paul. 2005. ‘Confronting the Bane of Endogeneity in Modelling Urban Social Dynamics’. Workshop on Modelling Urban Social Dynamics, University of Surrey, April 7-8, 2005
Worster, Donald. 1990. Transformations of the Earth: Toward an Agroecological Perspective in History. The Journal of American History 76(4): 1087-1106.