Novarese, Marco and Lanteri, Alessandro (2007): Individual learning: theory formation, and feedback in a complex task.
Download (242Kb) | Preview
We present an experiment for the study of learning in a complex task which requires both memorisation and the ability to process several pieces of information. The outcome of an action, for which immediate feedback is given, depends on the context (i.e. one of thirty-two sequences of three features) which is know and visible to the subjects. Subjects develop some theories of the experimental world, which result in the stable repetition of some actions in response to certain conditions. These theories are modified after feedback, however mistaken answers are repeated and correct answers abandoned. During the game, theories become more effective (i.e. they afford more correct answers and a higher score), yet the improvements slow down. The theories follow from only a portion of the available information and when they become successful (i.e. towards the end of the experiment) the subjects start refining them to include a larger subset of the information, this causes more stable mistakes.
|Item Type:||MPRA Paper|
|Institution:||Centre for Cognitive Economics, Università Amedeo Avogadro|
|Original Title:||Individual learning: theory formation, and feedback in a complex task|
|Keywords:||cognitive economics; complexity; experiments; feedback; learning; theory formation; Heiner|
|Subjects:||A - General Economics and Teaching > A1 - General Economics > A12 - Relation of Economics to Other Disciplines
D - Microeconomics > D8 - Information, Knowledge, and Uncertainty > D83 - Search; Learning; Information and Knowledge; Communication; Belief
C - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods > C9 - Design of Experiments > C91 - Laboratory, Individual Behavior
|Depositing User:||Marco Novarese|
|Date Deposited:||02. May 2007|
|Last Modified:||18. Feb 2013 18:14|
• Arthur, W. B. (1992). “On Learning and Adaptation in the Economy”. Santa Fe Institute Working Paper 92-07-038 • Bandura, A. (1977). Social Learning Theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall • Best, J. (1990). “Knowledge Acquisition and Strategic Action in ‘Mastermind’ problems”. Memory & Cognition, 18 (1): 54-64 • Egidi M. (2002). "Biases in Organizational Behavior" in: Augier, M., and J. J. March (eds.) The Economics of Choice, Change and Organization: Essays in Memory of Richard M. Cyert. Aldershot: Edward Elgar, pp. 190-242 • Feldman J. (1973). “Simulation of behaviour in the Binary Choice Experiment” in: Feigenbaum, E. A., and J. Feldman (eds.), Computers and Thought, pp. 329-346 • Garner, W. R. (1962). Uncertainty and structure as psychological concepts. New York: Wiley. • Hayek, F. (1952). The Sensory Order: An Inquiry into the Foundations of Theoretical Psychology. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press • Heiner, R. A. (1983)- “The Origin of Predictable Behavior,” American Economic Review, 73 (4): 560-595 • Heiner, R. A. (1985). “Origin of Predictable Behavior: Further Modelling and Applications”. American Economic Review, 75 (2): 391-396 • Lakoff, G., and M. Johnson (1981). Metaphors We Live By. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press • Lee, F., and J. Anderson (2001). “Does Learning a Complex Task Have to Be Complex? A Study in Learning Decomposition”. Cognitive Psychology, 42: 267-316 • Marcet A. and T. Sargent(1989). “Convergence of least squares learning mechanisms in self referential linear stochastic models”. Journal of Economic Theory, 48: 337-68 • Nelson, R. (2005). “Bounded Rationality, Cognitive Maps, and Trial and Error Learning”. LEM Working Paper Series, 2005/28 (december) • Novarese, M., and S. Rizzello (2006). “A Cognitive Approach to Individual Learning: Some Experimental Results”, in: Arena, R. and A. Festrè (eds.) Knowledge and Beliefs in Economics. Aldershot: Edward Elgar, pp. 203-219; preliminary version: <http://188.8.131.52/eps/get/papers/0301/0301001.pdf> • Rizzello, S., and M. Turvani (2002). “Subjective Diversity and Social Learning: A Cognitive Perspective for Understanding Institutional Behaviour”. Constitutional Political Economy, 13 (2): 197-210 • Roth, A., and I. Erev (1998). “Predicting how People Play Games: Reinforcement Learning in Experimental Games with Unique, Mixed Strategy Equilibria”. American Economic Review, 88 (4): 848-881 • Simon, H. A. (1983). Reason in Human Affairs. Stanford: Stanford University Press • Witt, U. (2000). “Social Cognitive Learning and Group Selection. A Game-Theoretic Version of Hayek’s Societal Evolution” presented at the INEM-ASSA Session ‘Austrian Economics and Game Theory’, 8 January, Boston (MA)