Diener, Alan and Ahmed, Rashid and Snider, Judy and Kaiserman, Murray (2007): Retailer Compliance as a Predictor of Youth Smoking Participation and Consumption.
Download (129kB) | Preview
Ninety per cent of smokers report having their first whole cigarette before the age of 19. Thus, it is important to have policies such as youth access laws which may prevent youth from becoming future smokers. In Canada, the Tobacco Act prohibits retailers from furnishing tobacco products to individuals under the age of 18. For such laws to be effective, however, it is important that retailers comply with them. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of retailer compliance on youth smoking behaviour. Data on individual smoking behaviour in conjunction with provincial retailer compliance rates and cigarette prices for the years 1999-2005 were employed to examine the effects of retailer compliance on youth smoking participation and consumption. Both price and retailer compliance were significant predictors of smoking participation. Price elasticity of demand for the overall sample was estimated to be -0.54. Our results which are consistent with previous research indicate that retailer compliance must be considered when examining the effects of youth access laws. This research confirmed that youth access laws can be an important component of a successful public policy approach to youth smoking prevention.
|Item Type:||MPRA Paper|
|Institution:||Health Canada, Tobacco Control Programme|
|Original Title:||Retailer Compliance as a Predictor of Youth Smoking Participation and Consumption|
|Keywords:||youth smoking; two-part model; retailer compliance|
|Subjects:||I - Health, Education, and Welfare > I1 - Health > I18 - Government Policy; Regulation; Public Health|
|Depositing User:||Alan Diener|
|Date Deposited:||04. May 2007|
|Last Modified:||18. Feb 2013 12:04|
Alciati, MH, Frosh M, Green SB, Brownson RC, Fisher PH, Hobart R, Roman A, Sciandra RC, Shelton DM. State laws on youth access to tobacco in the United States: measuring their extensiveness with a new rating system. Tob Control 1998; 7(4): 345-352.
Chaloupka, FJ, Pacula RL. Sex and Race Differences in Young People's Responsiveness to Price and Tobacco Control Policies. Tob Control 1999; 8(4): 373-377.
Chaloupka, FJ, Grossman M. Price, Tobacco Control Policies and Youth Smoking. Working Paper 5740. Cambridge, MA, National Bureau of Economic Research, 1996.
Chaloupka, FJ, Warner KE. The economics of smoking. In: Newhouse J., and Cuyler, A., eds. The Handbook of Health Economics, Volume 1B: 1539-1627; North-Holland: New York, 2000.
Corporate Research Group. Evaluation of Retailers’ Behaviour Towards Certain Youth Access-to-tobacco Restrictions, Final Report Findings: Prepared for Health Canada, Tobacco Control Program; 2005.
Cragg, JG. Some Statistical Models for Limited Dependent Variables with Application to the Demand for Durable Goods, Econometrica 1971; 39(5): 829—844.
DiFranza, JR, Carlson RP, Caisse Jr. RE. Reducing Youth Access to Tobacco, Tob Control 1992; 1(1): 57-58.
DiFranza JR. Is it time to abandon youth access programmes? Tob Control 2002; 11(3): 282 - 284.
DiFranza JR. Restricted Access to Tobacco Reduces Smoking Rates Among Youth, in Owing JH, ed. Focus on Smoking Research, pp 77-100. Nova Biomedical Books: New York; 2006.
Emery S, White MM, Pierce JP. Does cigarette price influence adolescent experimentation? J Health Econ 2002; 20(2): 261-270.
Fichtenberg CM, Glantz SA. Youth Access Interventions Do Not Affect Youth Smoking, Pediatrics 2002; 109(6):1088-1092.
Gilpin, E, Lee AL, Pierce JP. Does adolescent perception of difficulty in getting cigarettes deter experimentation? Prev Med 2004; 38(4): 485–491.
Gruber, J, Zinman J. Youth Smoking in the U.S.: Evidence and Implications NBER Working Paper No. W7780; 2000.
Jason LA, Ji PY, Anes MD, Birkhead SH. Active Enforcement of Cigarette Control Laws in the Prevention of Cigarette Sales to Minors. JAMA 1991; 266(22): 3159-3161.
Jones A. Health Econometrics. In: Newhouse J, Cuyler A, eds. The Handbook of Health Economics, Volume 1A, pp. 265-344. North-Holland: New York; 2000.
Lewit E, Coate MD, Grossman M, Benham L. The Effects Of Government Regulation On Teenage Smoking. J Law Econ 1997; 24(3): 545-573.
Lewit EM, Hyland A, Kerrebrock N, Cummings KM. Price, Public Policy, and Smoking in Young People, Tob Control 1997; 6(Suppl. 2): S17-S24.
Levy DT, Chaloupka FJ, Slater S. Expert Opinions on Optimal Enforcement of Minimum Purchase Age Laws for Tobacco 2000; J Public Health Manag Pract; 6(3): 107-114
Madden D. Sample Selection Versus Two-Part Models Revisited: The Case of Female Smoking and Drinking . UCD Centre for Economic Research Working Paper WP06/04 University College Dublin, 2006.
Powell LM, Chaloupka FJ. Parents, Public Policy, and Youth Smoking, J Policy Anal Manage 2005; 24(1): 93-112.
Powell LM, Tauras JA, Ross H. The importance of peer effects, cigarette prices and tobacco control policies for youth smoking behavior. J Health Econ 2005; 24(5): 950–968.
Rigotti NA, DiFranza JR, Chang Y, Tisdale T, Kemp B, Singer D. The effect of enforcing tobacco-sales laws on adolescents' access to tobacco and smoking behaviour. New Engl J Med 1997; 337(15):1044-1051.
Ross H, Chaloupka FJ. The effect of cigarette prices on youth smoking, Health Econ 2003; 12(3): 217-230.
Ross H, Chaloupka FJ. The Effect of Public Policies and Prices on Youth Smoking, Southern Econ J 2004; 70(4): 796-815.
SAS Institute Inc (2001) The SAS System for Windows. SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC
Statistics Canada. Canadian Tobacco Use Monitoring Survey, Annual Microdata File Ottawa, Ontario: Statistics Canada; 1999 - 2005.
Statistics Canada. Microdata user guide, Canadian tobacco use monitoring survey. Ottawa, Ontario: Statistics Canada; 1999 - 2005.
Wasserman J, Manning WG, Newhouse JP, Winkler JD. The effects of excise taxes and regulations on cigarette smoking, J Health Econ 1991; 10(1): 43-64.