Klimov, Blagoy (2010): Challenging path dependence? Ideational mapping of nationalism and the EU’s transformative power: The case of infrastructural politics in SEE.
Download (4Mb) | Preview
The research employs historical institutionalism, amplified by ideas to explain path dependent political behaviour. The theoretical framework is applied to explain political behaviour in the Balkans, where Greece and Bulgaria, despite many similarities have developed highly antagonistic path-dependent policies of obstruction towards each other that remained remarkably persistent, regardless of changing external factors during most of the XX c. The main hypothesis is that such behaviour could be properly understood neither by leverage of Great Powers, nor by ancient hatreds, but by exploring the crucial role, played by path dependent institutionalized ideas (programmatic beliefs) in shaping policy outcomes. Only when ideas change- policy change does happen. The main task of this research is to outline historical ideational impediments to Balkan regional cooperation and explore if regional cooperation is attainable. The second hypothesis argues that after the 1990s EU was such a powerful idea, that for the first time since the Independence revolutions, started to successfully challenge old institutional settings in the region, that have persisted for decades, even centuries. Political elites in the region encountered a new complicated situation, having to balance between the traditional nationalist ideational contexts and the `integration and cooperation´ ideational impetus, coming from outside. The implications of this tension between continuity and change are explored in the case studies on cooperation over common infrastructure projects between Bulgaria and Greece in the period 1990-2010. So, we are considering the long-term historical force of path dependence and the possibility it can be rooted out, or at least significantly modified. The research is not only an endeavour to study the EU´s role in the Balkans, but to contribute to the growing debate in the field about the role of ideas in political life and to use such theoretical discussions, and the comparative method, to enhance our understanding of the evolution of modern EU states.
|Item Type:||MPRA Paper|
|Original Title:||Challenging path dependence? Ideational mapping of nationalism and the EU’s transformative power: The case of infrastructural politics in SEE|
|Keywords:||historical institutionalism, ideas, constructivist institutionalism, ideational theory, political decision making, path dependence, multi-level governance, democratization, Europeanization, nationalism, national doctrines, Megale Idea, San Stefano, regional cooperation, transport infrastructure, Balkans, Balkan cooperation, Greece, Bulgaria.|
|Subjects:||H - Public Economics > H1 - Structure and Scope of Government > H11 - Structure, Scope, and Performance of Government
H - Public Economics > H7 - State and Local Government; Intergovernmental Relations
L - Industrial Organization > L9 - Industry Studies: Transportation and Utilities > L98 - Government Policy
R - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics > R5 - Regional Government Analysis
Q - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics > Q4 - Energy
N - Economic History > N4 - Government, War, Law, International Relations, and Regulation
|Depositing User:||Blagoy Klimov|
|Date Deposited:||26. May 2011 19:08|
|Last Modified:||13. Feb 2013 04:14|
A. A., Personal Interview, Senior expert at the Ministry of Transport-Bulgaria, Sofia, 30.05.2008 [in Bulgarian].
A. Y., Personal Interview, Political party IMRO-Organizational secretary, Sofia, 15.05.2008 tape recorded [in Bulgarian].
B. A., Personal Interview, Member of European Parliament (2004-2009), PASOK, Party of European Socialists, Brussels, 02.09.2008 [in English].
B. P., Personal Interview, Member of European Parliament (2004-2007), PASOK, Party of European Socialists, 14.11.2008, Athens, [in English].
A. Z., Personal Interview, Member of European Parliament, Brussels, 13.07.2009 [in Bulgarian].
D.B., Personal Interview, Senior Representative of Egnatia Odos Transport Company, Thessaloniki, 22.06.2009 [in Greek].
D., B., Personal Interview, Minister for Bulgarians Abroad (2009-present), GERB political party, Former Head of National Museum of History, Prolific Textbook and Book writer, Sofia, 15.07. 2008 [in Bulgarian].
D. A., Personal Interview, Sofia Town Councillor on The Security and Defense Committee, Sofia, 15.08.2009 tape recorded [in Bulgarian].
P. E., Personal Interview, Vice President of the Chamber of Commerce and Industry of the city of Serres, Serres, Greece, 12.01.2010 [in English].
K, R, Personal Interview, Senior expert, Ministry of Transport –Greece, Athens, 01.12. 2007 [in Greek].
K. I., Personal Interview, Member of European Parliament, BSP, Party of European Socialists, Former Foreign Minster of Bulgaria, Brussels, 30.11.2009 [in Bulgarian].
K. A., Personal Interview, Professor in Sociology, Author of Fields of Wheat, Hills of Blood, Brussels, 17.07. 2008 [in English].
K. E., Personal Interview, Member of European Parliament, BSP, Party of European Socialists Brussels, Brussels, 01.12.2009 [in Bulgarian].
K. K., Personal Interview, Deputy Chair of VMRO Party, Sofia, Bulgaria,13.08.2009, tape recorded [in Bulgarian]
K. D., Personal Interview, Greek Ambassador to Bulgaria (2006-present), Sofia, 06.10.2008 [in English].
K. A., Personal Interview, Mayor Bansko, Bansko, 17.08.2008 [in Bulgarian].
L. M., Personal Interview, Member of European Parliament (2007-2009), BSP, Party of European Socialists, Bourgas, 22.09. 2009 [in Bulgarian].
M. R., Personal Interview, Head of Agency for Bulgarians Abroad, Veliko Turnovo, 15.09. 2009 tape recorded [in Bulgarian].
M. T., Personal Interview, Mayor of Drama, Drama, Greece, 14.01.2010 [in English].
N. C., Personal Interview, Senior Representative of Egnatia Odos Transport Company, Thessaloniki, 08.04.2008 [in Greek].
P. K., Personal Interview, Mayor Blagoevgrad, BSP Party, Blagoevgrad, 10.11.2009 [in Bulgarian].
P. P., Personal Interview, Former Head of State Agency for Bulgarians Abroad, Professor of Byzantium and modern Greek History, Bulgarian and Balkan History, Veliko Turnovo, 15.09. 2009 tape recorded [in Bulgarian].
P. V., Personal Interview, Public Relations & Communication of ‘Arcturos’ Foundation, Komotini, 09.12. 2007 [in English].
P. V., Personal Interview, Minister , Sofia, 20.08.2009 [in Bulgarian].
R. B., Personal Interview, Member of European Parliament (2007-2009), NDSV Political Party, Alliance of Liberal and Democrats in Europe, Varna, 08.08. 2009 [in Bulgarian].
R.S., Personal Interview, Member of European Parliament (2009-2014), PASOK, Party of European Socialists, Brussels, 20.11. 2009 [in English].
R. M., Personal Interview, Deputy Minister of Foreign Affairs of Bulgaria (2009-present), Sofia, 07.11.2009 [in Bulgarian].
S. A., Personal Interview, Mayor of a town in Northern Greece, bordering Bulgaria, Thessaloniki, 08.12.2007 [in Greek].
S. A., Personal Interview, Member of European Parliament (2004-2009), New Democracy, European People’s Party-European Democrats, Minister of Culture (2009), Athens, 10.10.2009, [in English].
S. T., Personal Interview, Member of European Parliament (2009-2014), NEW Democracy European People’s Party-European Democrats, Brussels, 29.11. 2009 [in English].
S. M., Personal Interview, Mayor of Xanthi, Xanthi, 23.11.2007 [in English].
S. S., Personal Interview, Executive Director, National Business Agency-NGO, Varna, 26.10.2009 tape recorded [in Bulgarian].
T. N., Personal Interview, Mayor of a town in Northern Greece, bordering Bulgaria, Thessaloniki,07.12.2007 [in Greek].
T. T., Personal Interview, Senior Representative of Egnatia Odos Transport Company, Thessaloniki, 08.03.2008 [in Greek].
T. K., Personal Interview, Prefect of the Drama–Kavala–Xanthi region, Northern Greece, Drama, Greece, 17.01.2010 [in English].
T. A., Personal Interview, Member of European Parliament (2007-2009), New Democracy, European People’s Party-European Democrats, Brussels, 05.10.2009 [in English].
T. M., Personal Interview, Minister of Macedonia and Thrace (2007-2009), New Democracy, Thessaloniki, 26.06.2009 [in English].
V. I., Personal Interview, Member of European Parliament (2004-2009), New Democracy, European People’s Party-European Democrats, Brussels, 07.09. 2008 [in English].
V. A., Personal Interview, Mayor of Komotini (2002-2006), Komotini, 12.12.2008 [in English].
V. K., Personal Interview, Member of European Parliament, BSP Political Party, Party of European Socialists, Brussels, 01.10.2009 [in Bulgarian].
V. M., Personal Interview, President of “Bulgarian Memory” Foundation, NGO, close to Government and working in Cross-border cooperation and Bulgarian diaspora, Varna, 01.11.2009 [in Bulgarian].
Y. D., Personal Interview, Mayor of Smolyan, Smolyan, 10.12.2009 [in Bulgarian].
Interview with A.B., B.C., D.D - dwellers of Embore (Emborio) village, Kaylari region, representatives of the Slav minority in Greece 20.10.2009, field notes [in Bulgarian].
Interview with T.T., S.S., A. K - dwellers of Vrbeni (Ekshi su) and Voshtarani (Meliti) in the Lerin (Florina) region, representatives of the Slav minority in Greece, 21.10.2009, field notes [in Bulgarian].
New Institutionalism and Ideas:
Apter, D., Ideology and Discontent, (New York: The Free Press, 1964).
Archer, Margaret , Realistic Social Theory: The Morphogenetic Approach, (Cambridge:Cambridge University, 1996).
Aspinwall, Mark and Gerald Schneider, ‘Same Menu, Separate Tables: The Institutionalist Turn in Political Science and the Study of European Integration’, European Journal of Political Research 38, 2000.
Banks, Jeffrey and Eric Hanushek (eds), Modern Political Economy (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1995).
Berman, Sheri, The Social Democratic Moment: Ideas and Politics in the Making of Interwar Europe, (Cambridge: Harvard University press, 1998).
Bernstein, Steven, ‘Ideas, Social Structure, and the Compromise of Liberal Environmentalism’, European Journal of International Relations (6) 4, 2000.
Blyth, Mark, ‘Any More Bright Ideas? The Ideational Turn of Comparative Political Economy’, Comparative Politics Vol. 29 (1) January 1997.
__________, ‘TheTransformation of the Swedish Model: Economic Ideas, Distributional Conflict, and Institutional Change’, World Politics, 54, 2001, pp. 1-26.
Boas, Taylor C., ‘Conceptualizing Continuity and Change: The Composite-Standard Model of Path Dependence’, Journal of Theoretical Politics 19(1), 2007, p. 33-54.
Bulmer, Simon, ‘The new governance of the European Union: A new institutionalist approach’, Journal of Public Policy 13, 1994, p. 351–380.
Checkel, Jeffrey T., ‘The Constructivist Turn in International Relations Theory’, World Politics (50) 2, 1998.
Collier, Ruth Berins and David Collier, Shaping the Political Arena: Critical Junctures, the Labor Movement and Regime Dynamics in Latin America, (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1991).
Crouch, Colin, and Henry Farrell , ‘Breaking the Path of Institutional Development? Alternatives to the New Determinism’, Rationality and Society 16(1), 2004.
David, Paul A., ‘Clio and the Economics of QWERTY’, The American Economic Review, Vol. 75, No. 2, 1985, p. 332-337.
Di Maggio, Paul, ‘Culture and Cognition’, American Review of Sociology, 23, 263-287.
Flockhart, Trine, Europeanization and EU-ization, Danish Institutie of International Studies, Presented at the 6th Pan European International Relations Conference, Turin, 12-15 September, 2007.
Gleny, Misha, The Balkans: Nationalism, War, and the Great Powers, 1804-1999(Viking, 2000).
Goldstein, Judith, ‘The Impact of Ideas on Trade Policy: The Origins of U.S. Agricultural and Manufacturing Policies’, International Organization (43), 1989, p. 31-71.
Goldstein, Judith and Robert O. Keohane, (eds). (1993) Ideas and Foreign Policy: Beliefs, Institutions, and Political Change, (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1993).
Goldsworthy, Vesna, ‘Invention and in(ter)vention: The rhetoric of Balkanization’, available at http://www.eurozine.com/article/2003-05-08-goldsworthy-en.html, accessed May, 2007.
__________, Vesna, Inventing Ruritania: The Imperialism of the Imagination (Yale University Press, 1998).
Goodin, Robert E. and Hans-Dieter Klingemann, (eds.), A New Handbook of Political Science, (Oxford: Oxford University Press 1996).
Greenstein, Fred, Personality and Politics (New York: Norton, 1975).
Hacker, Jacob ‘Privatizing Risk without Privatizing the Welfare State: The Hidden Politics of Social Policy Retrenchment in the United States’, American Political Science Review 98(2), 2004, p. 243–260.
Hall, Peter and Rosemary Taylor, ‘Political Science and the Three New Institutionalisms’, Political Studies, 44, 4, 939 (1996).
Hall, Peter, Governing the Economy: The Policy of State Intervention in Britain and France (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1986).
__________, ‘Policy paradigms, social learning, and the state: The case of economic policymaking in Britain’, Comparative Politics, 25 (3), 1993, p. 275-296.
Hall, Peter A., ‘Policy Paradigms, Social Learning, and the State: The Case of Economic Policymaking in Britain’, Comparative Politics (25) 3, 1993, pp. 275-296.
Haas, Peter M., ‘Introduction: epistemic communities and international policy coordination’, International Organization, v. 46, n. 1, winter 1992, p. 28.
Hay, Colin, Political Analysis: A Critical Introduction, (Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan, 2002).
Hay, Colin and Daniel Wincott, ‘Structure, Agency and Historical Institutionalism’, Political Studies, XLVI, 951-957(1998).
Holbrooke, Richard, ‘To End a War’ (New York: Random House, 1998).
Ikenberry, John and Charles Kupchan, ‘Socialization and Hegemonic Power’, International Organization, 44, 1990.
Jervis, Robert, Ideas and Foreign Policy, Paper presented to the APSA Conference, New York, 1994.
Kaliber, Alper, ‘Reassessing Europeanization as a Quest for a New Paradigm of Modernity: The Arduous Case of Turkey’ Paper presented at the annual meeting of the ISA's 49th Annual Convention, Bridging Multiple Divides, Hilton San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA, Mar 26, 2008.
Kaplan, Robert, Balkan Ghosts: A Journey Through History, (New York: St Martin’s Press, 1993).
Katznelson, Ira and Helen Milner (eds), Political Science: State of the Discipline. (New York: W.W. Norton, 2002).
Krasner, Stephen, ‘Approaches to the State: Alternative Conceptions and Historical Dynamics’, Comparative Politics, 16, 1984.
Ladrech, Robert, ‘Europeanization of Domestic Politics and Institutions: The Case of France’, Journal of Common Market Studies 32, 1, 1994.
Lavenex, Sandra, ‘The Europeanization of Refugee Policy: Normative Challenges and Institutional Legacies’, Journal of Common Market Studies 39, 5 (2001).
Mahoney, James, ‘Path Dependence in Historical Sociology’, Theory and Society 29, 2000, p. 507–548.
Mahoney, James and Dietrich Rueschemeyer (eds), Comparative Historical Analysis in the Social Sciences, (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2003), pp. 208–40.
March, James G. and Johan P. Olsen, ‘The New Institutionalism: Organizational Factors in Political Life’, The American Political Science Review, Vol. 78, No. 3 (Sep., 1984), pp. 734-749.
Marcussen, Martin, The Social Construction of Economic and Monetary Union, (Aalborg: Aalborg University Press, 2000).
Marsh, David and Gerry Stoker, (2nd edition) , Theory and Methods in Political Science (eds), (Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan, 2002).
Mattli, Walter and Thomas Plumper , ‘The Demand-Side Politics of EU Enlargement: Democracy and the Application for EU Membership’, European Journal of Public Policy 9, 4, 2002.
Norgaard, A., ‘Rediscovering reasonable rationality in institutional analysis’, European Journal of political research 29, 1996, p. 31–57.
North, Douglass, Structure and Change in Economic History, (New York: Norton, 1981).
__________, Institutions, Institutional Change and Economic Performance (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1990).
Nielsen, Klaus, ‘Institutionalist approaches in the social sciences: Typology, dialogue; and future challenges’, Journal of Economic Issues, June 2001.
Olsen, Johan P., ‘The Many Faces of Europeanization’, Journal of Common Market Studies, Vol. 40, 2002, p. 921-952.
Peters, B. Guy, Institutional Theory in Political Science: The ‘New’ Institutionalism, (London: Pinter, 1999).
Pierson, Paul, ‘Increasing Returns, Path Dependence, and the Study of Politics’, American Political Science Review 94(2), 2000, p. 251–267.
___________, Politics in Time: Politics in Time: History, Institutions, and Social Analysis, (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2004)
Radaelli, M., ‘Whither Europeanization? Concept stretching and Substantive Change’, European Integration Online Papers, 2000.
Schwartz, Herman, Down the Wrong Path: Path Dependence, Increasing Returns, and Historical Institutionalism, Unpublished Manuscript, University of Virginia.
Shepsle, Kenneth, ‘Studying Institutions: Some Lessons from the Rational Choice Approach’, Journal of Theoretical Politics, 1, 1989), p. 131-147.
Sikkink, Kathryn, Ideas and Institutions: Developmentalism in Brazil and Argentina, (Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1991).
Shimmelfenig, Frank and Ulrich Sedelmeier, ‘Governance by conditionality: EU rule transfer to the candidate countries of Central and Eastern Europe’, Journal of European Public Policy, 11-4, August 2004.
Spendzharova, Aneta, Bringing Europe In? The Impact on EU Conditionality on Bulgarian and Romanian Politics, Southeast European Politcs, Vol. 4, N2-3 2003, p. 143.
Steinmo, S., K. Thelen and F. Longstreth (eds.), Structuring politics. Historical institutionalism in comparative analysis, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1992).
Steunenberg, Bernard and Antoaneta Dimitrova, ‘Compliance in the EU Enlargement Process: The Limits of Conditionality’, EIoP, 22 June 2007.
Swidler, Ann, ‘Culture in Action: Symbols and Strategies, American Sociological Review 51(1986), 273-286.
Thelen, Kathleen, How Institutions Evolve: The Political Economy of Skills in Germany, Britain, the United States, and Japan, (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2004)
Todorova, Maria, Imagining the Balkans (Oxford University Press, 1997).
Vachudova, Milada,‘Historical Institutionalism and the EU’s Eastward Enlargement’, Memo prepared for the State of the European Union Conference Princeton, 16 September 2005.
Williamson, O., The Economic Institutions of Capitalism: Firms, Markets, Relational Contracting, (New York: The Free Press, 1985).
Yanakiev, Alexander, ‘Role of the Core Executive in the Europeanization of the Regional Policy-the Case of Bulgaria’, Conference Paper, Exchanging Ideas on Europe 2008: Rethinking the European Union, The 38th UACES Annual Conference, September, 2008.
Yee, Albert S., ‘The Causal Effects of Ideas on Policies’, International Organization (50) 1, 1996, p. 92.
Ideational Mapping of Greece:
Agnew ,John, No Borders, No Nations: Making Greece in Macedonia, (Oxford: Blackwell, 2006) Human Rights Watch- Report ‘Denying Ethnic Identity: The Macedonians of Greece’, (Library of Congress Catalog Card Number: 94-75891, USA, 1994).
Allison, G. T. and K. Nicolaidis (eds.), ‘Introduction’, The Greek Paradox, (Boston: The MIT Press, 1997).
Anderson, Frank Maloy and Amos Shartle Hershey, ‘The Greco-Serbian Alliance, 1913’ in Handbook for the Diplomatic History of Europe, Asia, and Africa 1870-1914, Prepared for the National Board for Historical Service, Government Printing Office: Washington, 1918.
Benz A. and B. Eberlein, ‘The Europenization of Regional Policies: Patterns of Multi-level Governance’, Journal Of European Public Policy, 6/2.
Brailsford, HN, Personal Account- Macedonia: Its Races and their Future (London: Methuen & Co., 1906).
Clogg, Richard, A Short History of Modern Greece, (Cambridge University Press, 1987).
Couloumbis, T., Greek Political Reaction to American and NATO Influences, (New Heaven: Yale University press, 1966). ___________, ‘The Greek Junta Phenomenon’, Polity, vol. VI, no. 3.
Danforth, Loring M., 'Claims to Macedonian identity', Anthropology Today, 9/4 (1993).
Dijkink, G.J., National Identity and Geopolitical Visions: Maps of Pride and Pain (London: Routledge 1996).
Ethnographie Des Vilayets D'Adrianople, De Monastir et De Salonique Courrier D Orient, (Ethnography of the Adrianople, Monastir and Thessaloniki regions), (Constantinople, 1878).
Greek Government Decrees LZ/1947; later by Law 2536/1953 and Decrees M/1948, N/1948.
Greek Ministry of Public Order, National Security Service, Number of Protocol 6502/7-3042 of 16 February 1982.
Huliaras Asteris and Charalambos Tsardanidis, ‘(Mis)understanding the Balkans: Greek Geopolitical Codes of the Post-communist Era’, Geopolitics 11, 2006, p. 1-19.
Ioannou, D., Institutions, Development and European Regional Policy in Greece, 1981-1999, unpublished PhD dissertation, (Cambridge: University of Cambridge, 1999.
Kaminski, Matthew, ‘Greece’s Balkan Ghosts’, Wall Street Journal, October 21, 2002.
Karakasidou, Anastasia, Fields of Wheat, Hills of Blood, (Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1997).
Karavangelis, Germanos ‘The Macedonian struggle’, Archives of the Macedonian struggle of Penelope Delta, (Thessaloniki, 1959), Γερμανού Καραβαγγέλη. "Ο Μακεδονικός Αγών (Απομνημονεύματα), Εταιρία Μακεδονικών Σπουδών, Ίδρυμα Μελετών Χερσονήσου του Αίμου", (Thessaloniki, 1959).
Katsoulis, Giorgis D., Istoria tou Kommounistikou Kommatos Elladas (History of the Greek Communist Party), vol. II, Athens, 1976.
Koliopoulos, John and Thanos Veremis, Greece-The Modern Sequel: From 1821 to the Present, (London: Hurst & Company, 2002).
Leeb, T., Jakob Philipp Fallmerayer: Publizist und Politiker zwischen Revolution und Reaktion (Munich, 1996).
Lithoksoou, Dimitrios: 'The Greek Anti-Macedonian Struggle: From Ilinden to Zagorichani (1903-1905)', (Athens: Ekdoseis Megali Poreia, 1998), Dimitrios Lithoxoou, Ellinikos Antimakedonikhos Aghonas, A’: Apo to Illinten sti Zagkoritsani (1903-1905).
Macedonian Scientific Institute, Illustartion Ilinden (Илюстрация Илинден) Magazine, Vol. 6 (1), 1929, p. 6.
Mazower, Mark, The Balkans: From the End of Byzantium to the Present days, (London: Phoenix, 2001).
Michaletos, Ioannis, ‘Greek-Bulgarian Relations, 1912-2006: A Historical Synopsis’, Balkanalysis, available at http://www.balkanalysis.com/2006/04/12/greek-bulgarian-relations-1912-2006-a-historical-synopsis/, accessed June 2008.
Michas, Takis, Unholy Alliance: Greece and Milosevic's Serbia in the Nineties, (Texas A&M University Press, 2002).
Nicolson, A., ‘A Fall from Cultural Grace’, The Spectator (12th November 1993).
Perry, D.M., ‘Crisis in the Making? Macedonia and Its Neighbours’, Sudosteuropa 43/1-2 (1994). p. 31-58.
Slupkov, Ireneusz, The Communist Party of Greece and the Macedonian National Problem 1918-1940, (Szczecin, 2006).
Raptis, Stamatis, O kapetan Poulakas - Captain Pulakas. All Macedonian Struggle. Heroic Battles. Avengers Bulgarian-Killers. Most Patriotical Reading. With the True Images of the Heroes, (Athens, 1910).
Serbian-Hellenic Brotherhood, available at http://www.serbia-hellas.f2g.net/, accessed June 2007.
Shea, John, Macedonia and Greece, The Struggle to Define a New Balkan Nation, (McFarland & Company, 2007).
Smyrl, M, ‘When (and How) Do the Commission’s Preference Matter?’, Journal of Common Market Studies, 36/1.
Sugar, Peter, Eastern European Nationalism in the Twentieth Century, (Washington D.C.: American University Press, 1995).
Treaty of Peace with Turkey Signed at Lausanne, July 24, 1923 in The Treaties of Peace 1919-1923, Vol. II, Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, New York, 1924.
Velenstinlis, Rigas (Feraios) (1797), The Revolutionary Manifesto, in Vranousis L. (1958), Rigas, Basic Library, Athens.
Wiebes, Cees, Intelligence En De Oorlog in Bosnie, 1992-1995: De Rol Van De Inlichtingen- En Veiligheidsdiensten by and Nederlands Instituut voor Oorlogsdocumentatie. (Report on Srebrenica, Srebrenica. A ‘safe’ are, Netherlands Institute for War Documentation).
Zahariadis, N, ‘Nationalism and Small State Foreign Policy: The Greek response to the Macedonian issue’. Political Science Quarterly 109/4 (1994), p. 647-668.
van Zweeden, Cees, ‘DutchBat in Srebrenica beschoten door Grieken’ (DutchBat in Srebrenica shot at by Greeks), Rotterdams Dagblad, 22/06/02.
Ideational Mapping of Bulgaria:
Authentic Turkish Documents About Macedonia. ‘Sultan’s Ferman for the establishment of a Bulgarian Exarchate.’, available at http://www.macedoniainfo.com/books/dg2en/sultans_ferman.htm, accessed August 2008.
Bobchev, Stefan, ‘The Bulgarian Prayer’ in Slavyanski Glas (Slavic voice), 1927-1, p. 3-6.
Danev, Stoyan, Memoari (Memoirs), (Sofia: Sv. Kliment Ohridski, 1992).
EU-Bulgaria relations, EurActiv, available at http://www.euractiv.com/en/enlargement/eu-bulgaria-relations/article-129603, accessed March 2007.
European Stability Initiative, From Laggard to EU Member, Bulgaria 1997, available at http://www.esiweb.org/index.php?lang=en&id=282, accessed August 2008.
Fol, Alexander et al, History for the 11th Grade of the General Profile High School, (Anubis: Sofia, 1996).
Foundation Lyudmila Zhivkova ‘Banner of Peace’, Historical Background of the ‘Banner of Peace’ Movement, available at http://www.bannerofpeace.hit.bg/en/a/is.html, accessed August, 2008.
Genchev, Nikolay, Vunshnata politika na Bulgarija 1938-1941 (The Foreign Policy of Bulgaria 1938-1941), (Sofia: Vector, 1941).
Geshov, Ivan Evstratiev, Prestupnoto Bezumie i anketata po nego. Fakti I dokumenti (The Criminal Insanity and the Survey, Factology and Documents), (Sofia: Balkan, 1914).
Gulubov, Constantine, ‘The Psychology of the Bulgarian’ in Ornamenti (Filosofski i literaturni eseta), [Ornaments (Filosophical and Literature Essays)], (Sofia, 1934).
Kaneva, Nadia, Memories of Everyday Life in Communist Bulgaria: Negotiating Identity in Immigrant Narratives, Colorado Research in Linguistics, Volume 19 (2006).
Kazakov, Emil, ‘Geopoliticheskite Modeli v Bulgarskata Vunshna Politika: Sanstefanizmut’ (The Geopolitical Models in the Bulgarian Foreign Policy: The Syndrom of San Stefano) in Geopolitika i geostrategia, 2-2004.
Lavele, E., Balkan Peninsula ( Balkanskii Poluostrov, Балканский полуостров), (Moscow, 1889).
Manifest for the Promulgation of Serbia-Bulgarian War. Plovdiv, 2.11.1885 by Alexander Joseph of Battenberg I Prince of Bulgaria, Bulgarian States Archives Agency, available at http://www.archives.government.bg/index.php?lang=en&page=33.
Marin Pundeff, ‘Bulgarian Nationalism’, Peter Sugar and Ivo Lederer eds., (Seattle: University of Washington press, 1969).
Mitev, Jono, Suedinenieto 1885 (Unification 1885), (Sofia: Hristo G. Danov, 1985).
Paisius of Hilendar, Istorija Slavjanobulgarskaja ( History of Slav-Bulgarians), original manuscript kept in the Zograph Monastery on Athos, 1762. Bulgarian text available at http://scriptorium.hit.bg/istoria.pdf and partial English translation by P.Miltenov available at http://members.tripod.com/~zlatnite/Paisiy.htm, accessed October 2007.
Radoslavov, Vassil, Bulgaria i svetovnata kriza (Bulgaria and the World Crisis), (Sofia: Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 1993).
Ramet, Pedro and Sabrina P Ramet, Religion and Nationalism in Soviet and East European Politics, (Duke University Press, 1989).
Shkodrova, Albena and Marian Chirac, ‘Healing the Romania-Bulgaria Divide’ in Sofia Echo, available at http://www.sofiaecho.com/article/reading-room-healing-the-bulgaria--romania-divide/id_11103/catid_29, accessed October 2007.
Spendzharova Aneta, Bringing Europe In? The Impact on EU Conditionality on Bulgarian and Romanian Politics, Southeast European Politcs, Vol. 4, N2-3 (2003).
Tempest, Peter, Anthology of Bulgarian Poetry, , transl., (Sofia, 1980).
Todorova, Maria, ‘The Course and Discourses of Bulgarian Nationalism’ in Peter Sugar, Eastern European Nationalism in the Twentieth Century, Washington D.C.: American University Press, 1995).
Vachudova, Anna, ‘Strategies for democratization and European Integration in the Balkans’ in Collected Papers of the Academy of European Law, ed. Marise Cremona, (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002).
Velev, Grigor, ‘Bulgarija prez XXI vek. Bulgarskata Nacionalna Doktrina (I chast)’[ (Bulgaria in XXI Century. The Bulgarian National Doctrine (Part I)], (Sofia: Znanie, 1997).
Verdery, Katherine, National ideology under Socialism: Identity and Cultural Politics in Ceausescu’s Romania (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1991).
Transport Infratsructure in SEE:
Athens News Agency Bulletin (724), ‘Greece dismisses plans for 'para-Egnatia' highway, Egnatia Highway a major priority for EU’, 25 October, 1995.
Carter, Francis, A Historical Geography of the Balkans (London: Academic Press, 1977).
Chervenova, Milena, Строителство. Градът онлайн (Stroitelstvo. Gradut Online Magazine), ‘Транспортни експерти подготвиха програма за граничните преходи’ (Transportni experti podgotviha programa za granichnite prehodi), N30, July 2007.
Commission of the European Communities, 01/10/2003, Extended Impact Assessment of the proposal amending the amendable proposal for a decision amending decision No 1692/96/EC on the Trans European Transport Networks, SEC(2003) 1060.
Corrigendum to Decision No 1346/2001/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 22 May 2001 amending Decision No 1692/96/EC as regards seaports, inland ports and intermodal terminals as well as project No 8 in Annex III (OJ L 185 of 6.7.2001).
Coufoudakis, Van, Harry J. Psomiades and Andre Gerolymatos, eds., Greece and the New Balkans: Challenges and Opportunities (New York: Pella Publishing Company, 1999).
Decision No 1692/96/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 July 1996 on Community guidelines for the development of the trans-European transport network (Official Journal of the European Communities No L 228 of 9 September 1996) .
Devedzhiev, Marin (Деведжиев, Марин), Българските геополитически шансове (Bulgarskite Geopoliticheski Shansove), (Veliko Turnovo: Faber, 2008).
Douroudi, M, Egnatia Highway. Graduate Thesis, Technical Educational Institute of Serres, 1998.
Ecumenopolis 2080, ACE Newsletter, 5, no. 5, (December 1969) quoted in Hristo Genchev, ‘Geography-Arbiter in the Rivalry Called Balkan Cooperation’ in Makedonia, 34 (1997), 8.
European Commission, , official web site, DG Energy and Transport, Trans-European Transport Network, TEN-T Priority Axes and Projects 2005, Brussels, 2005. ___________,Trans-European Networks, available at http://ec.europa.eu/ten/index_en.html, last accessed August 2008.
___________, Trans-European Transport Networks “Ten-T”, Community Guidelines, available at http://ec.europa.eu/ten/transport/guidelines/index_en.htm, last accessed August 2008.
Gancheva, Yordanka, ‘The Second Danube Bridge: Where is the Problem Actually?’, Institute for Market Economics, available at http://www.ime-bg.org/pdf_docs/papers/bridge.doc; Internet; accessed May, 2006, 1.
Genchev, Hristo, ‘Geography-Arbiter in the Rivalry Called Balkan Cooperation’ in Makedonia, 34 (1997 Greek Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Agreement on the Opening of Three New Border Posts and Arterial Road Links between Greece and Bulgaria (Sofia 22/12/1995), available at http://www.mfa.gr/www.mfa.gr/enUS/Policy/Geographic+Regions/SouthEastern+Europe/Balkans/Bilateral+Relations/Bulgaria/, last accessed August 2008.
Hristakoudis, Apostolos, Bulgarian-Greek Cooperation in the Sphere of Transport Infrastructure, International Relations, 3 (2001).
Jung, Pilsoo, ‘Annex III, EU common Transport Policy: Trans-European Networks’, United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacifics, available at http://www.unescap.org/ttdw/Publications/TFS_pubs/pub_2354/pub_2354_ann3.pdf, last accessed August 2008, p. 67.
Lampe, John R. and Marvin R. Jackson, Balkan Economic History, 1550-1950: From Imperial Borderlands to Developing Nations, (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1981).
Liolios, Asterios, Design and Construction of Highways in Greece, The Case of Egnatia Odos Motorway in Northern Greece, available at http://www.ssm.org.yu/congress2007/doc%202007/Liolios_EGNATIA_Profile_2007_round-table.pdf, accessed September 2008.
Memorandum of Understanding on the Development of the Pan-European Transport Corridor VIII, signed in Bari on 9 September, 2002, available at http://www.corridor8led.net/network-docs/index.asp, accessed September 2008.
Nikova, Ekaterina, ‘Roads Connecting, Roads Dividing: on Infrastructure in South East Europe’, Institute of Balkan Studies, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Etudes Balkanique, N1 (2007).
Palairet, Michael, The Balkan Economies 1800-1914: Evolution without Development, (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1997).
Roussev, Serguey, ‘Environment Management along the Road-Bed of Trans-European Corridor N8 in the Section between Sofia and Skopje’, in Balkans: Politics, Economy, Security [journal on-line] 2, no. 2 (2000); available from http://www.balcanica.org/balkanreview/current/a3.html , accessed May, 2006.
Slavcheva, Polina, ‘Politics Thwarts Balkan Transport Revolution’ in Anna McTaggart and Marcus Tanner (eds.), Overcoming Balkan Barriers to a European Future Excellence, Balkan Fellowship for Journalistic, (Sarajevo, 2007), p. 35-42, available at http://fellowship.birn.eu.com/movingon/movingon.eng.pdf, accessed October 2008.
Theodoros, Adrianos, Michalis Karakotsoglou and Rizos Charalampos, Egnatia Highway and Pan-European Corridor 8: Complementarity or Competition?, Conference Paper, 46th Congress of the European Regional Science Association: Enlargement, Southern Europe and the Mediterranean August 30th – September 3rd, 2006 University of Thessaly, Volos, Greece.
TINA Vienna Transport Strategies GmbH, available at http://www.tinavienna.at/index.php?p_id=64&last_id=64&l_id=en&s_id=4d714bdccad2bb119b7c4cba17e68c7d, accessed October 2008.
Traceca: 1993-2002: Transport Corridor Europe-Caucasus-Asia http://www.traceca.org/rep/broshure/broshure.pdf; last accessed May 2008.
Traceca Online, Traceca Program-Reconstruction of the historical Silk Road, Pan European Transport Corridors (Helsinki Corridors), available at http://www.mt.ro/traceca/english/maps.html#a5, last accessed August 2008.
Trans European Transport Networks, Ten-T Priority Axes and Projects 2005, European Commission, DG TREN, (Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, 2005).
US Trade and Development Agency, ‘TDA Awards $4.3 Million in Transportation Grants In The South Balkans’, available at http://www.tda.gov/trade/press/dec9_98.html; Internet; accessed June, 2007.
Williams, R. H., European Spatial Policy and Planning, (London: Paul Chapman Publishing, 1996.