Wozniak, David and Harbaugh, William T. and Mayr, Ulrich (2009): The Menstrual Cycle and Performance Feedback Alter Gender Differences in Competitive Choices.
This is the latest version of this item.
Download (1MB) | Preview
We use a within-subjects experiment with math and word tasks to show that feedback about relative performance moves high ability females towards more competitive forms of compensation such as tournaments, moves low ability men towards piece rate and group pay, and eliminates gender differences in choices. We also examine choices for females across the menstrual cycle, and find that women in the high-hormone phase are more willing to compete than women in the low phase, though somewhat less willing to compete than men. There are no significant differences between the choices of these groups after they receive relative performance feedback.
|Item Type:||MPRA Paper|
|Original Title:||The Menstrual Cycle and Performance Feedback Alter Gender Differences in Competitive Choices|
|Keywords:||Competition; Hormones; Gender; Menstrual cycle; Information; Performance feedback; Competitive environments; Gender differences|
|Subjects:||D - Microeconomics > D0 - General
D - Microeconomics > D8 - Information, Knowledge, and Uncertainty > D80 - General
C - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods > C9 - Design of Experiments > C91 - Laboratory, Individual Behavior
|Depositing User:||David Wozniak|
|Date Deposited:||10. Jun 2011 16:53|
|Last Modified:||14. Feb 2013 16:11|
Aden, U., Jung-Hoffmann, C. and Kuhl, H.: 1998, A randomized cross-over study on various hormonal parameters of two triphasic oral contraceptives, Contraception 58(2), 75–81.
Anderson, F. and Hait, H.: 2003, A multicenter, randomized study of an extended cycle oral contraceptive, Contraception 68(2), 89–96.
Barber, B. and Odean, T.: 2001, Boys Will be Boys: Gender, Overconfidence, and Common Stock Investment, The Quarterly Journal of Economics 116(1), 261–292.
Baumgartner, T., Heinrichs, M., Vonlanthen, A., Fischbacher, U. and Fehr, E.: 2008, Oxytocin shapes the neural circuitry of trust and trust adaptation in humans, Neuron 58(4), 639–650.
Bertrand, M. and Hallock, K.: 2001, The gender gap in top corporate jobs, Industrial and Labor Relations Review pp. 3–21.
Bethea, C., Lu, N., Gundlah, C. and Streicher, J.: 2002, Diverse Actions of Ovarian Steroids in the Serotonin Neural System, Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology 23(1), 41–100.
Borghans, L., Golsteyn, B., Heckman, J. and Meijers, H.: 2009, Gender Differences in Risk Aversion and Ambiguity Aversion, Journal of the European Economic Association 7(2-3), 649–658.
Brown, C.: 1990, Firms’ choice of method of pay, Industrial and Labor Relations Review pp. 165–182.
Burnham, T.: 2007, High-testosterone men reject low ultimatum game offers, Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 274(1623), 2327.
Charness, G. and Gneezy, U.: 2007, Strong evidence for gender differences in investment, SSRN .
Chen, Y., Katuscak, P. and Ozdenoren, E.: 2005, Why Can’t a Woman Bid More Like a Man?, Working Paper, Ann Arbor 1001, 48109–1220.
Coates, J. and Herbert, J.: 2008, Endogenous steroids and financial risk taking on a London trading floor, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 105(16), 6167.
Coutinho, E. and Segal, S.: 1999, Is menstruation obsolete?, Oxford University Press, USA.
Dohmen, T. and Falk, A.: 2007, Performance pay and multidimensional sorting: productivity, preferences and gender, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA); CESifo.
Fink, G., Sumner, B., Rosie, R., Grace, O. and Quinn, J.: 1996, Estrogen control of central neurotransmission: effect on mood, mental state, and memory., Cell Mol Neurobiol 16(3), 325–44.
Gneezy, U., Leonard, K. and List, J.: 2009, Gender Differences in Competition: Evidence From a Matrilineal and a Patriarchal Society, Econometrica 77(5), 1637–1664.
Gneezy, U., Niederle, M. and Rustichini, A.: 2003, Performance in Competitive Environments: Gender Diﬀerences, Quarterly Journal of Economics 118(3), 1049–1074.
Gneezy, U. and Rustichini, A.: 2004, Gender and Competition at a Young Age, American Economic Review 94(2), 377–381.
Grossman, P. and Eckel, C.: 2003, Men, women and risk aversion: Experimental evidence, Unpublished manuscript .
Gunther, C., Ekinci, N., Schwieren, C. and Strobel, M.: 2008, Women can’t jump?–An experiment on competitive attitudes and stereotype threat, Technical report, Mimeo.
Gupta, N., Poulsen, A. and Villeval, M.: 2005, Do (wo) men prefer (non-) competitive jobs, Technical report, GATE Working Paper.
Harbaugh, W., Krause, K. and Vesturlund, L.: 2002, Risk Attitudes of Children and Adults: Choices Over Small and Large Probability Gains and Losses, Experimental Economics 5, 53–84.
Holt, C. and Laury, S.: 2002, Risk Aversion and Incentive Effects, American Economic Review 92(5), 1644–1655.
Ichino, A. and Moretti, E.: 2009, Biological Gender Differences, Absenteeism and the Earnings Gap, American Economic Journal: Applied Economics 1(1), 183–218.
Jirjahn, U. and Stephan, G.: 2004, Gender, piece rates and wages: evidence from matched employer-employee data, Cambridge Journal of Economics 28(5), 683–704.
Kagel, J. and Roth, A.: 1995, The Handbook of Experimental Economics, Princeton University Press Princeton, NJ.
Kosfeld, M., Heinrichs, M., Zak, P., Fischbacher, U. and Fehr, E.: 2005, Oxytocin increases trust in humans, Nature 435(7042), 673–676.
Lazear, E. and Rosen, S.: 1981, Rank-order tournaments as optimum labor contracts, The Journal of Political Economy 89(5), 841.
Malison, R., Price, L., Berman, R., van Dyck, C., Pelton, G., Carpenter, L., Sanacora, G., Owens, M., Nemeroﬀ, C., Rajeevan, N. et al.: 1998, Reduced brain serotonin transporter availability in major depression as measured by [123I]-2β-carbomethoxy-3β-(4-iodophenyl) tropane and single photon emission computed tomography, Biological Psychiatry 44(11), 1090–1098.
Matsushita, R., Baldo, D., Martin, B. and Da Silva, S.: 2007, The biological basis of expected utility anomalies.
McEwen, B.: 2002, Estrogen Actions Throughout the Brain, Recent Progress in Hormone Research 57(1), 357–384.
Moore, E. and Eckel, C.: 2003, Measuring Ambiguity Aversion. Virginia Tech.
Niederle, M., Segal, C. and Vesterlund, L.: 2009, How costly is diversity? Affirmative action in light of gender differences in competitiveness, NBER Working Paper .
Niederle, M. and Vesterlund, L.: 2007, Do women shy away from competition? do men compete too much?, Quarterly Journal of Economics 122(3), 1067–1101.
Pearson, M. and Schipper, B.: 2009, Menstrual cycle and competitive bidding, MPRA Paper .
Platt, M. and Huettel, S.: 2008, Risky business: the neuroeconomics of decision making under uncertainty., Nat Neurosci 11(4), 398–403.
Polachek, S.: 1981, Occupational self-selection: A human capital approach to sex differences in occupational structure, The Review of Economics and Statistics pp. 60–69.
Speroff, L. and Fritz, M.: 2005, Clinical Gynecologic Endocrinology and Infertility, Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins.
Stanton, S. and Schultheiss, O.: 2007, Basal and dynamic relationships between implicit power motivation and estradiol in women, Hormones and Behavior 52(5), 571–580.
Stricker, R., Eberhart, R., Chevailler, M., Quinn, F., Bischof, P. and Stricker, R.: 2006, Establishment of detailed reference values for luteinizing hormone, follicle stimulating hormone, estradiol, and progesterone during different phases of the menstrual cycle on the Abbott ARCHITECT analyzer., Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine 44(7), 883.
Vliet, E.: 2001, Screaming to be heard: hormone connections women suspect and doctors still ignore, M. Evans and Co., New York, NY.
Zak, P., Kurzban, R. and Matzner, W.: 2005, Oxytocin is associated with human trustworthiness, Hormones and Behavior 48(5), 522–527.
Zethraeus, N., Kocoska-Maras, L., Ellingsen, T., von Schoultz, B., Hirschberg, A. and Johannesson, M.: 2009, A randomized trial of the effect of estrogen and testosterone on economic behavior, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 106(16), 6535.
Available Versions of this Item
Choices About Competition: Differences by gender and hormonal fluctuations, and the role of relative performance feedback. (deposited 06. Mar 2010 04:18)
- The Menstrual Cycle and Performance Feedback Alter Gender Differences in Competitive Choices. (deposited 10. Jun 2011 16:53) [Currently Displayed]