Singh, Ashish (2010): Inequality of opportunity in India.
Download (172kB) | Preview
The paper associates inequality of opportunities with outcome differences that can be accounted by pre-determined circumstances which lie beyond the control of an individual, such as parental education, parental occupation, caste, religion and place of birth. The overall opportunity share estimates (parametric) of total consumption expenditure inequality due to a set of circumstances comprising of caste, religion, geographical region, parental education and parental occupation vary from 16% to 25% in urban India. The corresponding figures for rural areas stand at 20% and 23%. The analysis further reveals that, parental education is the major contributor to the opportunity share of consumption expenditure inequality in urban India, but caste and geographical region also play an equally important role when rural India is considered.
|Item Type:||MPRA Paper|
|Original Title:||Inequality of opportunity in India|
|Keywords:||Inequality of opportunity; consumption expenditure inequality; India|
|Subjects:||D - Microeconomics > D3 - Distribution > D31 - Personal Income, Wealth, and Their Distributions
D - Microeconomics > D6 - Welfare Economics > D63 - Equity, Justice, Inequality, and Other Normative Criteria and Measurement
|Depositing User:||Ashish Singh|
|Date Deposited:||25. Aug 2011 02:44|
|Last Modified:||12. Feb 2013 22:45|
Ali, I. and J. Zhuang, “Inclusive Growth towards a Prosperous Asia: Policy Implications,” ERD Working Paper 97, Asian Development Bank, 2007.
Anitha, B.K., Villages, Caste and Education, Rawat Publication, 2000.
Arneson, R., “Equality and Equal Opportunity for Welfare,” Philosophical Studies, 56, 77-93, 1989.
Barros, R. P., F.H.G. Ferreira, J.R.M. Vega, and J.S. Chanduvi, Measuring Inequality of Opportunities in Latin America and the Caribbean, Palgrave MacMillian and The World Bank, 2009.
Behrman, J. and P. Taubman, “Intergenerational Transmission of Income and Wealth,” American Economic Review, 66 (2), 436-440, 1976.
Betts, J. and J. E. Roemer, “Equalizing Opportunity Through Educational Finance Reform,” Mimeo, Public Policy Institute of California, 1999.
Bhat, P.N.M. and F. Zavier, “Findings of National Family Health Survey: Regional Analysis,” Economic and Political Weekly, 34, 3008-3032, 1999.
Bose, A., Demographic Diversity of India-1991 Census, State and District Level Data, B.R. Publishing Corporation, 1991.
Bourguignon, F., “Decomposable Income Inequality Measures,” Econometrica, 47 (4), 901-920, 1979.
Bourguignon, F., H.G. Ferreira Francisco, and M. Menéndez, “Inequality of Opportunity in Brazil,” Review of Income and Wealth, 53(4), 585-618, 2007.
Bowles, S., “Schooling and Inequality from Generation to Generation,” Journal of Political Economy, 80(3), S219-S51, 1972.
Checchi, D. and V. Peragine, “Inequality of Opportunity in Italy,” Journal of Economic Inequality, 8, 429-450, 2010.
Checchi, D., V. Peragine, and L. Serlenga, “Fair and Unfair Income Inequalities in Europe,” ECINEQ Working Paper 174, Society for Study of Economic Inequality, 2010.
Cohen, G., “On the Currency of Egalitarian Justice,” Ethics, 99, 906-944, 1989.
Desai, S. and V. kulkarni, “Changing Educational Inequalities in India in the Context of Affirmative Action,” Demography, 45(2), 245-270, 2008.
Deshpande, A., “Caste at Birth? Redefining disparity in India”, Review of Development Economics 5(1): 130-144, 2001.
Dirk, V., “Equality of Opportunity and Investment in Human Capital,” Ph.D. Dissertation, Mimeo, Catholic University of Louvain, 1993.
Dreze, J. and A. Sen, India: Economic Development and Social Opportunity, Oxford University Press, 1995.
Duraisamy, P., "Changes in Returns to Education in India, 1983–94: By Gender, Age-Cohort and Location," Economics of Education Review, 21(6), 609-22, 2002.
Dworkin, R., “What is Equality? Part Two: Equality of Resources,” Philosophy & Public Affairs, 10, 283-345, 1981.
Ferreira, F., and J. Gignoux, “The Measurement of Inequality of Opportunity: Theory and Application to Latin America,” Policy Research Working Paper 4659, World Bank, 2008.
Fleurbaey, M., “Three Solutions for the Compensation Problem,” Journal of Economic Theory, 65(2), 505-521, 1995.
Fleurbaey, M., “Fairness, Responsibility and Welfare,” Oxford University Press, 2008.
Fleurbaey, M. and E. Schokkaert, Unfair Inequalities in Health and Health Care,” Journal of Health Economics, 28, 73-90, 2009.
Foster, J. and A. Shneyerov, “Path Independent Inequality Measures,” Journal of Economic Theory, 91, 199-222, 2000.
Gaiha, R., G. Thapa, I. Katsushi, and V.S. Kulkarni, “Disparity, Deprivation and Discrimination in Rural India,” BWPI Working Paper, Brooks World Poverty Institute, 2007.
Gang, I. N., K. Sen, and M. Yun, “Poverty in Rural India: Caste and Tribe”, Review of Income and Wealth, 54(1), pp. 50-70, 2007.
Government of India, Social Economic and Educational Status of Muslim Community in India, Government of India, 2006.
Hanoch, G., “An Economic Analysis of Earning and Schooling,” The Journal of Human Resources, 2(3), 310-329, 1967.
Kingdon, Geeta G. and N. Theopold, “Do Returns to Education Matter to Schooling Participation? Evidence from India,” GPRG-WPS-052, Global Poverty Research Group, 2006.
Kijima, Y., “Caste and Tribe Inequality: Evidence from India, 1983-1999,” Economic Development and Cultural Change 54: 369-404, 2006.
Lefranc, A., N. Pistolesi, and A. Trannoy, “Inequality of Opportunities vs. Inequality of Outcomes: Are Western Societies All Alike,” Review of Income and Wealth, 54(2), 513-546, 2008.
Page, M. and J. Roemer, “The US Fiscal System as an Equal Opportunity Device,” in Hasset, K. and Glenn R. Hubbard (eds.) In The Role of Inequality in Tax Policy, The American Enterprise Institute Press, 2001.
Peragine, V., “Ranking Income Distributions according to Equality of Opportunity,” Journal of Economic Inequality, 2, 11-30, 2004.
Rawls, J., A Theory of Justice, First Edition, Harvard University Press, 1971.
Roemer, John E., “A Pragmatic Theory of Responsibility for the Egalitarian Planner,” Philosophy and Public Affairs, 22(2), 146-166, 1993.
Roemer, John E., Equality of Opportunity, First Edition, Harvard University Press, 1998.
Roemer, John E., “Economic Development as Opportunity Equalization,” Discussion Paper 1583, Cowles Foundation, 2006.
Sen, A., “Equality of What? Tanner Lecture on Human Values,” Tanner Lectures, Stanford University, 1979.
Shah, G., H. Mander, S. Thorat, S. Deshpande, and A. Baviskar, Untouchability in Rural India, Sage, 2006.
Sharma, K.L., Social Inequality in India: Profiles of Caste, Class and Social Mobility, Rawat Publications, 1999.
Shorrocks, Anthony F., “The Class of Additively Decomposable Inequality Measures,” Econometrica, 48(3), 613-625, 1980.
Shorrocks, A.F and G. Wan, “Spatial Decomposition of Inequality,” Journal of Economic Geography 5:59-81, 2005.
Singh, A., Effect of Family Background on Individual Wages and An Examination of Inequality of Opportunity in India,” Journal of Labor Research 31(3), 230-246, 2010.
Weiss, Randal D., “The Effect of Education on the Earnings of Blacks and Whites,” The Review of Economics and Statistics, 52(2), 150-159, 1970.
Available Versions of this Item
- Inequality of opportunity in India. (deposited 25. Aug 2011 02:44) [Currently Displayed]