Tausch, Arno (2011): Costa Rica, superstar? some reflections on the global drivers and bottlenecks of the happy planet index.
Download (634kB) | Preview
For some years now, the Happy Planet Organization presents the so-called ‘Happy Planet Index’ (HPI), which is an index of measuring the trade-off between ecological footprint data and life quality (Happy Life Years, HLYE). Costa Rica emerges from these comparisons as the world’s ‘best practice nation’, using a minimum amount of natural resources to achieve a maximum of human happiness. So is Costa Rica the pathway for humanity? There are shortcomings in the formula, with which the index is calculated (Happy Life Years divided by Ecological Footprint per capita, and some constants added). Using a re-formulation, the global ranking with Costa Rica on top is indeed confirmed. We present some evidence on the cross-national drivers and bottlenecks of our re-formulated Happy Planet Index (HPI) performance on a global scale: a wide variety of standard globalization variables have little influence on HPI performance. Big countries with large population resources perform somewhat better, and low military expenditures per GDP are a constraint on HPI performance. Beneficial effects are also wielded by received worker remittances. Efficiency tends to increase and then to decrease with rising development levels.
|Item Type:||MPRA Paper|
|Original Title:||Costa Rica, superstar? some reflections on the global drivers and bottlenecks of the happy planet index|
|Keywords:||Ecological and environmental phenomena; ecological footprint; globalization; Happy Planet Index; inequality; migration; military expenditures|
|Subjects:||C - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods > C4 - Econometric and Statistical Methods: Special Topics > C43 - Index Numbers and Aggregation
F - International Economics > F5 - International Relations and International Political Economy
Q - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics > Q5 - Environmental Economics
H - Public Economics > H5 - National Government Expenditures and Related Policies > H51 - Government Expenditures and Health
Q - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics > Q5 - Environmental Economics > Q56 - Environment and Development; Environment and Trade; Sustainability; Environmental Accounts and Accounting; Environmental Equity; Population Growth
Q - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics > Q5 - Environmental Economics > Q51 - Valuation of Environmental Effects
|Depositing User:||Arno Tausch|
|Date Deposited:||12. Sep 2011 13:30|
|Last Modified:||19. Feb 2013 09:30|
Afxentiou, P.C. (1990a). Basic Needs – As Survey of the Literature. Revue Canadienne d’Etudes du Developpement – Canadian Journal of Development Studies, 11(2): 241-257.
Afxentiou, P.C. (1990b). The Rhethoric and Substance of Basic Needs. South African Journal of Economics, 58(1): 78-87.
Anand, S. and Ravallion, M. (1993). Human Development in Poor Countries. On the Role of Private Incomes and Public Services. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 7(1): 133-150.
Anson, J. (1988). Mortality and Living Conditions. Relative Mortality Levels and their Relation to the Physical Quality of Life in Urban Populations. Social Science&Medicine, 27(9): 901-910.
Anson, J. (1991). Demographic Indexes as Social Indicators. Environment and Planning. 23(3): 433-446.
Barro, R.J. (2003). Economic Growth in a Cross Section of Countries. International Library of Critical Writings in Economics, 159(1), 350-386.
Barro, R.J. and Sala-i-Martin, X. (2003). Economic Growth. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, Second edition.
Bornschier, V. and Chase-Dunn, Ch.K. (1985). Transnational Corporations and Underdevelopment. N.Y., N.Y.: Praeger.
Cheng W.Y. (1989). Testing the Food-First Hypothesis. A Cross-national Study of Dependency, Sectoral Growth and Food-Intake in Less Developed Countries. World Development, 17(1): 17-27.
Dietz, T.; Rosa, E. A.; York, R. (2007). Driving the human ecological footprint. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, 5(1): 13-18.
Dietz, T.; Rosa, E. A.; York, R. (2009). Environmentally Efficient Well-Being: Rethinking Sustainability as the Relationship between Human Well-being and Environmental Impact. Human Ecology Review, 16, (1): 114-123.
Dixon, W.J. (1987). Progress in the Provision of Basic Human Needs. Latin America, 1960-1980. Journal of Developing Areas, 21(2): 129-140.
Dixon, W.J. and Moon, B.E. (1986). The Military Burden and Basic Human Needs. Journal of Conflict Resolution, 30(4): 660-684.
Dixon, W.J. and Moon, B.E. (1989). Domestic Political Conflict and Basic Needs Outcomes. An Empirical Assessment. Comparative Political Studies, 22(2): 178-198.
Durlauf, St.N., Kourtellos, A. and Tan, Ch.M. (2008). Are any Growth Theories Robust? The Economic Journal, 118(1), 329-346.
Fain, H.D. et al. (1997). World-System Position, Tropical Climate, National Development, and Infant Mortality: A Cross-National Analysis of 86 Countries. Human Ecology Review, 3: 197-203.
Fosu, A.K. (2009). Inequality and the Impact of Growth on Poverty: Comparative Evidence for Sub-Saharan Africa. Journal of Development Studies, 45(5): 726-745.
Fosu, A.K. (2010a). The Effect of Income Distribution on the Ability of Growth to Reduce Poverty: Evidence from Rural and Urban African Economies. American Journal of Economics and Sociology, 69(3): 1034-1053.
Fosu, A.K. (2010b). Does inequality constrain poverty reduction programs? Evidence from Africa. Journal of Policy Modeling, 32(6): 818-827.
Fosu, A.K. (2010c). Inequality, Income, and Poverty: Comparative Global Evidence. Social Science Quarterly, 91(5): 1432-1446.
Goldstein, J.S. (1985). Basic Human Needs – The Plateau Curve. World Development, 13(5), 595-609.
Hayek, F. A. (1945). The Use of Knowledge in Society. American Economic Review, 35, 4: 519-530.
Heintz, P. (1972). A macrosociological theory of societal systems; with special reference to the international system. Bern: H. Huber.
Jorgenson, A.K. (2008). Structural Integration and the Trees: An Analysis of Deforestation in Less-Developed Countries, 1990-2005. The Sociological Quarterly, 49(3), 503-527, Summer 2008.
Jorgenson, A.K. (2009a). Foreign Direct Investment and the Environment, the Mitigating Influence of Institutional and Civil Society Factors, and Relationships Between Industrial Pollution and Human Health. Organization & Environment, 22(2), 135-157.
Jorgenson, A.K. (2009b). Political-Economic Integration, Industrial Pollution and Human Health A Panel Study of Less-Developed Countries, 1980-2000. International Sociology, 24(1), 115-143.
Jorgenson, A.K. (2009c). The Sociology of Unequal Exchange in Ecological Context: A Panel Study of Lower-Income Countries, 1975-2000. Sociological Forum, 24(1), 22-46.
Jorgenson, A.K. (2009d). The Transnational Organization of Production, the Scale of Degradation, and Ecoefficiency: A Study of Carbon Dioxide Emissions in Less-Developed Countries. Human Ecology Review, 16(1), 64-74.
Kakwani, N. (1993). Performance in Living Standards. An International Comparison. Journal of Development Economics, 41(2): 307-336.
Kakwani, N. (1995). Structural Adjustment and Performance in Living Standards in Developing Countries. Development and Change, 26(3): 469-502.
Khan, H. (1991). Measurement and Determinants of Socioeconomic Development. Social Indicators Research, 24(2): 153-175.
King, L.A. (1998). Economic growth and basic human needs. International Studies Quarterly, 42(2): 385-400.
Knight, K.W. and Rosa E.A. (2011). The environmental efficiency of well-being: A cross-national analysis. Social Science Research, 40(3): 931-949.
Kuznets, S. (1955). Economic Growth and Income Inequality. American Economic Review, 45, 1: 1-28.
Laver, M. and Shepsle, K. A. (1999). Understanding Government Survival: Empirical Exploration or Analytical Models? British Journal of Political Science, 29(2), 395-401.
Mazumdar, K. (1996). An analysis of causal flow between social development and economic growth: The social development index. American Journal of Economics and Sociology, 55(3): 361-383.
Mazumdar, K. (2000). Causal flow between human well-being and per capita real gross domestic product. Social Indicators Research, 50(3): 297-313.
Moon, B.E. and Dixon, W.J. (1992). Basic Needs and Growth Welfare Trade-Offs. International Studies Quarterly, 36(2): 191-212.
Mostafa, M.M. (2010a). A Bayesian approach to analyzing the ecological footprint of 140 nations. Ecological Indicators, 10(4), 808-817.
Mostafa, M.M. (2010b). Clustering the ecological footprint of nations using Kohonens self-organizing maps. Expert Systems with Applications, 37(4), 2747-2755.
Mostafa, M.M. and Nataraajan, R. (2009). A neuro-computational intelligence analysis of the ecological footprint of nations. Computational Statistics and Data Analysis, 53(9), 3516-3531.
Newman, B.A. and Thomson, R.J. (1989). Economic Growth and Social Development. A Longitudinal Analysis of Causal Priority. World Development, 17(4): 461-471.
Ng, Y.-K. (2008a). Environmentally responsible happy nation index: Towards an internationally acceptable national success indicator. Social Indicators Research, (85), 3: 425-446.
Ng, Y.-K. (2008b). Happiness studies: Ways to improve comparability and some public policy implications. Economic Record, 84, June: 253-266.
Rudra, N. (2009). Why International Organizations Should Bring Basic Needs Back in. International Studies Perspectives, 10(2): 129-150.
Schumacher, E. F. (1973a). Small is beautiful; economics as if people mattered. New York: Harper & Row
Schumacher, E. F. (1973b). Western Europe's Energy Crisis: A Problem of Life-Styles. Ambio, Vol. 2(6): 228-232.
Schumacher, E. F. 1976. Patterns of Human Settlement. Ambio, 5(3): 91-97.
Schumacher, E. F. 1977. A guide for the perplexed. New York: Harper & Row
Shandra, J.M. (2007a). Economic dependency, repression, and deforestation: A quantitative, cross-national analysis. Sociological Inquiry, 77(4), 543-571.
Shandra, J.M. (2007b). International Nongovernmental Organizations and Deforestation: Good, Bad, or Irrelevant? Social Science Quarterly, 88(3), 665-689.
Shandra, J.M.; Leckband, Ch.; McKinney, L.A.; and London, B. (2009). Ecologically Unequal Exchange, World Polity, and Biodiversity Loss. A Cross-National Analysis of Threatened Mammals. International Journal of Comparative Sociology, 50(3-4), 285-310.
Tausch, A. (2010). Life expectancy, infant mortality and inequality - once again. Rapid Responses to: EDITORIALS: Kate E Pickett and Richard G Wilkinson Greater equality and better health, BMJ 2009; 339: b4320. British Medical Journal, (2 March 2010). http://www.bmj.com/cgi/eletters/339/nov10_2/b4320 (electronic edition)
Tausch, A. and Ghymers, Ch. (2006). From the Washington towards a Vienna Consensus? A quantitative analysis on globalization, development and global governance. Hauppauge NY: Nova Science.
Tausch, A. and Prager, F. (1993). Towards a Socio-Liberal Theory of World Development. Basingstoke and New York: Palgrave Macmillan/St. Martins Press.
Veenhoven, R. (1996). Happy Life-expectancy. A comprehensive measure of quality-of-life in nations. Social Indicators Research, (39), 1-58.
Wilkinson R.G. and Picket K.E. (2006). Income inequality and population health: A review and explanation of the evidence. British Medical Journal, BMJ, 62 (7): 1768-1784, April.
Wilkinson, R.G. (1992). For Debate – Income Distribution and Life Expectancy. British Medical Journal, BMJ, 304, 6820: 165-168, January 18
Wilkinson, R.G. (1997). Socioeconomic determinants of health - Health inequalities: Relative or absolute material standards? British Medical Journal, BMJ, 314, 7080: 591-595, published February 22, 1997.
Williamson, J.A. (2002). Is Protection Bad for Growth? Will Globalization Last? Looking for Answers in History. Presented at the 13th IEHA Congress, Buenos Aires, August 22-26, 2002 Draft Date: June 2002. Available at: http://www.economics.harvard.edu/faculty/williamson/jwilliamworkingpapers (download: August 1, 2011)