Bond, Derek and Ramsey, Elaine and Boddy, Clive R. (2011): Projective techniques: Are they a victim of clashing paradigms?
Download (189Kb) | Preview
This paper reviews the concept and historical development of projective techniques. It considers why, given the importance of their psychoanalytical foundations to the underlying paradigms of management theory, they have been generally marginalised as a mainstream business and management research tool. Projective techniques are defined and their historical origins delineated. This is followed by an overview of projective ‘types’. Some of the general advantages and current issues associated with employing projective techniques are also presented. Thereafter a discussion of the reasons projective techniques have not been widely adopted by positivist academic management researchers is made. We put forward the central argument that since many of the challenges facing management research are due to the restrictions introduced by bounded rationality, projective techniques offer a possible alternative to traditional mixed methods.
|Item Type:||MPRA Paper|
|Original Title:||Projective techniques: Are they a victim of clashing paradigms?|
|Keywords:||Projective Techniques; Management Research;|
|Subjects:||M - Business Administration and Business Economics; Marketing; Accounting > M0 - General > M00 - General|
|Depositing User:||Derek Bond|
|Date Deposited:||12. Sep 2011 13:43|
|Last Modified:||13. Feb 2013 16:12|
Abt, L. E., and Bellak, L, (1959), Projective Psychology: Clinical Approaches to the Total Personality. New York: Grove Press
Anderson, J. C. 1978, 'The validity of Haire's shopping list projective technique', Journal of Marketing Research, 15(4), pp. 644 - 649.
Anthony, R. N. (1965). Planning and Control Systems: A Framework for Analysis Boston: Harvard University Press.
Asthana, S. C., Balsam, S. and Krishnan, J. (2010), Corporate governance, audit firm reputation, auditor switches, and client stock price reactions: the Andersen experience. International Journal of Auditing, 14(3), pp. 274 - 293.
Baumol, W.J. (1961), Economic Theory and Operations Analysis, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice Hall
Bellak, L., (1992), Projective techniques in the computer age. Journal of Personality Assessment, 58(3). pp. 445-453.
Boddy, C. (2011), The corporate psychopaths theory of the global financial crisis, Journal of Business Ethics, 102(2), pp. 255 - 259.
Boddy, C. R. (2004), Projective techniques in business research: are they useful?' in Proceedings of the National Business Student Research Conference, Curtin University Graduate School of Business, Perth.
Boddy, C. R. (2005), What do business research students think of the potential for Projective Techniques in business research? Quite a bit actually. In Proceedings of the Academy of Marketing Conference 2005, Academy of Marketing, Dublin.
Boddy, C. R. (2008), Are Projective techniques actually projective or are market researchers wasting their time? Australasian Journal of Market and Social Research, 16(1), pp. 5 - 17.
Bond, D. and Ramsey, E. (2010). The role of information and communication technologies in using projective techniques as survey tools to meet the challenge of bounded rationality, Qualitative Market Research: An International Journal, 13(4), pp. 430-440.
Boyatzis, R.E. (1982). The Competent Manager: A Model for Effective Performance, New York: Wiley
Breuer, J. and Freud, S. (1895) Studien über hysteria (Studies in Hysteria). Vienna; GW,
Burns, L.D., and Lennon, S.J., (1993), Social perception: methods for measuring our perception of others, International Textile and Apparel Association Special Publication, 5, pp. 153 –159
Catterall, M., and Ibbotson, P., (2000), Using projective techniques in education research, British Educational Research Journal, 26(2), pp 245-256.
Clements, C. and Washbrush, J. B. (1999), The two faces of leadership: considering the dark side of leader-follower dynamics, Journal of Workplace Learning, 11(5), pp. 170 - 176.
Colwell, J., (1990), Qualitative market research: a conceptual analysis and review of practitioner criteria’. Journal of Market research Society, 32(1), pp. 13-36.
Cyert, R. M., Simon, H.A., and Trow, D.B., (1956), Observation of a business decision. Journal of Business, 29(4), pp237-248.
Cyert, R.M. and March, J.G (1963), A Behavioural Theory of the Firm, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
Day, G.S., (1989), Deciding how to compete, Strategy and Leadership, 17(5), pp.18-23.
Deacon, S. (2000), Creativity within qualitative research on families: new ideas for old methods, The Qualitative Report, 4 (3/4)
Dichter, E. (1960), The Strategy of Desire, London: TV Boardman & Co.
Dichter, E. (1964), Handbook of Consumer Motivations The Psychology of the World of Objects, London:McGraw-Hill.
Edwards, W. (1954), The theory of decision-making, Psychological Bulletin, 51(4), pp380-417
Endres, J. (2004), The language of the psychopath: characteristics of prisoners' performance in a sentence completion test, Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health, 14(3), pp. 214 - 226.
Fisher, R. J. (1993), Social desirability bias and the validity of indirect questioning, Journal of Consumer Research, 20(2), pp. 303 - 315.
Fram, E. H. & Cibotti, E. (1991), The shopping list studies and projective techniques: A 40-Year View', Marketing Research, 3(4), pp. 14 - 22.
Frank LK. (1939) Projective Methods for the Study of Personality, Journal of Psychology 8(Oct.): pp.389–413.
Goldman, A. (2006), High toxicity leadership: borderline personality disorder and the dysfunctional organization. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 21(8), pp. 733 - 746.
Gordon, W. and Langmaid, R. (1988), Qualitative Market Research. A Practitioner's and Buyer's Guide, Aldershot, Gower..
Graham, J.R., and Lilly, R.S., (1984), Psychological Testing, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall.
Haire, M. (1950). Projective techniques in marketing research. Journal of Marketing Research 14(5), pp. 649-656.
Kassarjian, H.H., (1974), Projective Methods, in R. Ferber (Ed.), Handbook of Marketing Research. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Krugman (2009) How did Economists get it so Wrong?, New York Times, September 2nd.
Kuhn, T. (1962). The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Lee, B. and Cassell, C. (Eds)(2010), Challenges and Controversies in Management Research, Abingdon, Oxon:, Routeledge.
Lilienfeld, S.O., Wood, J.M., and Garb. H.N. (2000), The scientific status of projective techniques. Psychological Science in the Public Interest, 1(1), pp. 27-66.
Linzey, G. (1959), On the classification of projective techniques, Psychological Bulletin, 56(2), pp. 158 - 168.
Loudon, D.L., and Della Bitta, A.J. (1993), Consumer Behaviour, Concepts and Applications, (4th Ed.) New York: McGraw-Hill.
MacFarlane, J.W., and Tuddenham, R.R. (1951), Problems in the validation of projective techniques. In: Anderson, H.H. and Anderson, G.L. (Eds), An Introduction to Projectives, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall.
McClelland, D.C. (1953), The Achievement Motive, New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts.
March, J., and Simon, H., (1958), Organisations, New York: John Wiley and Sons.
Marris R. (1964), The Economic Behaviour of Managerial Capitalism,London: Macmillan.
Mason, R.O., and Mitroff, I.I. (1981), Challenging Strategic Planning Assumptions New York: John Wiley and Sons.
Maslow, A.H. (1943)., A Theory of Human Motivation, Psychological Review 50(4) pp. 370-96.
Mintzberg, H. (1994) ,The Rise and Fall of Strategic Planning: Reconceiving the Roles for Planning, Plans, Planners, New York: Free Press.
Mintzberg, H., Raisinghani, D., and Theoret, A., (1976), The structure of unstructured decision-making, Administrative Science Quarterly, 21(1), pp. 39-58.
Murray, H. A. (1938) Explorations in Personality, New York: Oxford University Press.
Natale, S. and Sora, S. (2010), Ethics in strategic thinking: business processes and the global market collapse', Journal of Business Ethics, 94(3), pp. 309 - 316.
Ramsey, E. and Bond, D. (2007). Evaluating public policy formation and support mechanisms for technological innovation, International Review of Applied Economics, 21(3), pp. 403-418.
Ramsey, E., Ibbotson, P. and McCole, P. (2006) Application of projective techniques in an e-business research context: a response to Projective Techniques in market research - valueless subjectivity or insightful reality?, International Journal of Market Research, 48(5) pp.551-573.
Rogers, E.M., and Beal, G.M., (1958), Projective techniques in interviewing farmers, The Journal of Marketing, 23(2), pp.177-183.
Savage, L. (1954), The Foundations of Statistics, London: John Wiley and Sons.
Schlackman, B. (1989), Projective tests and enabling techniques for use in market research, in Robson, S. and Foster, A. (Eds) Qualitative research in action, (pp. 58-75), London: Edward Arnold.
Seitz, J.A. (2001), A cognitive perceptual analysis of projective tests in children. Perceptual Motor Skills. 93(2), pp. 505-22.
Soley, L. (2009), Reassessing projective techniques, American Academy of Advertising Conference Proceedings, pp. 70 - 72.
Soley, L. (2010), Projective techniques in US marketing and management research: the influence of the achievement motive, Qualitative Market Research: An International Journal, 13(4), pp. 334 - 353.
Stein, M. (2003), Unbounded irrationality: risk and organizational narcissism at long term capital management', Human Relations, 56(5), pp, 523-540
Thorne, S.E. (1997). The art (and science) of critiquing qualitative research. In J.M.Morse (Ed) Completing a qualitative project: details and dialogue (pp117-132), Thousand Oaks. CA: Sage.
Thorpe, R and Ellwood, P (2010) Positioning Current UK Management Research, in Lee, B. and Cassell, C. (eds)(2010), Challenges and Controversies in Management Research, Abingdon, Oxon:, Routledge.
Wagner, E. E. (1995). A logical analysis of projective techniques based on independence of items and latitude or response. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 81(3), pp. 868-870.
Webb, J.R., (1992), Understanding and designing marketing research. London:Academic Press.
Wensley, R. (2010) Seeking Relevance in Management Research, in Lee, B. and Cassell, C. (eds)(2010), Challenges and Controversies in Management Research, Abingdon, Oxon, Routledge.
Westen, D., Lohr, K.R., Silk, L., and Gold Kerber, K., (1990), Object relations and social construction in borderlines, major depressives and normals: athematic apperception test analysis”. Psychological Assessment, 2(4). pp. 355-364.
Williamson, O.E. (1964), The Economics of Discretionary Behaviour, Managerial Objectives in a Theory of the Firm, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
Wood, F. (1969), An investigation of methods of presenting incomplete sentence stimuli', Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 74 (1), pp. 71 - 74.
Yoell, W.A. (1974), The fallacy of projective techniques, Journal of Advertising, Winter, pp. 33-35.
Zwass, V. (1992) Management Information Systems, Dubuque, Wm.C. Brown.