Evers, Hans-Dieter (2011): Knowledge cluster formation as a science policy: lessons learned.
Download (1MB) | Preview
Regional science policy aims at the creation of productive knowledge clusters, which are central places within an epistemic landscape of knowledge production and dissemination, K-clusters are said to have the organisational capability to drive innovations and create new industries. The following paper will look at Malaysia, Indonesia and Vietnam and their path towards a Knowledge-based economy. All governments have used cluster formation as one of their development strategies. Some evidence on the current state of knowledge cluster formation is provided. If the formation of a knowledge cluster has been the government policy, what has been the result? Is there an epistemic landscape of knowledge clusters? Has the main knowledge cluster really materialised? Data collected from websites, directories, government publications and expert interviews have enabled us to construct the epistemic landscape of Peninsular Malaysia and the Mekong Delta of Vietnam. Several knowledge clusters of a high density of knowledge producing institutions and their knowledge workers have been identified and described. An analysis of the knowledge output, measured in terms of scientific publications, patents and trademarks show that knowledge clusters have, indeed, been productive as predicted by cluster theory, though the internal working of clusters require further explanation.
|Item Type:||MPRA Paper|
|Original Title:||Knowledge cluster formation as a science policy: lessons learned|
|Keywords:||Science policy; knowledge and development; knowledge-based economy; knowledge clusters; knowledge corridors; Malaysia; Vietnam|
|Subjects:||J - Labor and Demographic Economics > J3 - Wages, Compensation, and Labor Costs > J38 - Public Policy
R - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics > R5 - Regional Government Analysis > R58 - Regional Development Planning and Policy
O - Economic Development, Technological Change, and Growth > O1 - Economic Development
G - Financial Economics > G3 - Corporate Finance and Governance > G38 - Government Policy and Regulation
D - Microeconomics > D8 - Information, Knowledge, and Uncertainty > D83 - Search; Learning; Information and Knowledge; Communication; Belief
D - Microeconomics > D8 - Information, Knowledge, and Uncertainty
D - Microeconomics > D7 - Analysis of Collective Decision-Making > D78 - Positive Analysis of Policy-Making and Implementation
E - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics > E6 - Macroeconomic Policy, Macroeconomic Aspects of Public Finance, Macroeconomic Policy, and General Outlook > E61 - Policy Objectives; Policy Designs and Consistency; Policy Coordination
O - Economic Development, Technological Change, and Growth > O3 - Technological Change; Research and Development; Intellectual Property Rights
A - General Economics and Teaching > A1 - General Economics > A14 - Sociology of Economics
|Depositing User:||Prof. Dr. Hans-Dieter Evers|
|Date Deposited:||09. Oct 2011 13:44|
|Last Modified:||13. Feb 2013 22:59|
Ani Asmah and Aminuddin Hamdan (Eds). 2009. Quick Facts: Department of Polytechnic and Community College Education. Selangor: Department of Polytechnic and Community College Education, Ministry of Higher Education Malaysia. Bernama. 2008.
‘USM Is Malaysia's Apex University’, 3 September available at www.bernama.com/bernama/v3/news_lite.php?id=356958 accessed on 30 August 2010.
Bunnel, T. 2006. Malaysia, Modernity and the Multimedia Super Corridor a Critical Geography of Intelligent Landscapes. Abingdon Ox: Routledge.
East Coast Development Region, available at www.ecerdc.com accessed on 19 May 2010.
European Cluster Observatory, available at: http://www.clusterobservatory.eu
Evers, Hans-Dieter, Ramli Nordin, and Pamela Nienkemper. 2011. "Knowledge Cluster Policy in Malaysia: The Development of an Epistemic Landscape." Paper prepared for the International Conference on Humanities 2011, Penang.
Evers, Hans-Dieter , and Tatjana Bauer. 2011. "Emerging Epistemic Landscapes: Knowledge Clusters in Ho Chi Minh City and the Mekong Delta." in Beyond the Knowledge Trap: Developing Asia's Knowledge-Based Economies, edited by Thomas Menkhoff, Hans-Dieter Evers, Yue Wah Chay, and Eng Fong Pang. New Jersey: World Scientific.
Evers, Hans-Dieter and Solvay Gerke. 2009. “ Strategic Group Analysis”. ZEF Working Paper Series 34. Bonn: Centre for Development Research (ZEF), University of Bonn.
Evers, Hans-Dieter, and Rüdiger Korff. 2000. Southeast Asian Urbanism. Singapore: ISEAS
Evers, Hans-Dieter, Solvay Gerke, and Thomas Menkhoff. 2010. "Knowledge Clusters and Knowledge Hubs: Designing Epistemic Landscapes for Development." Journal of Knowledge Management 14: 678 - 689
Faaland, Just, Jack Parkinson, and Rais Saniman. 2003. Growth and ethnic inequality: Malaysia's new economic policy. Kuala Lumpur: Utusan Publications & Distributors.
Fatimah Mohamed Arshad. 2009. “The Agriculture Development Path in Malaysia: Experiences and Challenges for the Future.” Pp. 39-100 in Malaysia at 50 & Beyond, edited by Abdul Razak Baginda. Kuala Lumpur: Malaysian Strategic Research Centre.
Goon Institute, available at www.goon.edu.my/ accessed on 19 May 2010.
Institute of Medical Research (IMR), available at www.imr.gov.my accessed on 19 May 2010.
Iskandar Malaysia Development, available at www.iskandarmalaysia.com.my accessed on 19 May 2010.
Jabatan Perancangan Bandar dan Desa Negeri Selangor [Department of Town and Country Planning of Selangor]. 2009. Rancangan Tempatan Daerah Sepang 2015 [District of Sepang Local Plan 2015]. Selangor (to be published). Jabatan Perancangan Bandar dan Desa Semenanjung Malaysia [Federal Town and Country Planning Department]. 2006.
Garis Panduan Rekabentuk Fizikal Senibina Cyberjaya [Cyberjaya Physical Architecture Planning Guidelines]. Kuala Lumpur: Kementerian Perumahan dan Kerajaan Tempatan.
Jomo, K.S. 2009. “What can the Developing World Learn from Post-Colonial Malaysia’s Development Experience?” Pp. 263-272 in Readings on Development: Malaysia 2057
Uncommon Voices, Common Aspirations, edited by Nungsari Ahmad Radhi and Suryani Senja Alias. Kuala Lumpur: Khazanah Nasional.
Kementerian Pengajian Tinggi [Ministry of Higher Education]. 2008b. Statistik Maklumat Asas Pelajar dan Tenaga Pengajar IPTS [Basic Statistics of Students and Lecturers in Private Higher Learning Institutes]. Putrajaya: Pusat Data dan Maklumat, Jabatan Pngajian Tinggi, Kementerian Pengajian Tinggi [Data and Information Centre, Department of Higher Education, Minsitry of Higher Education].
Khazanah Nasional Berhad, available at www.khazanah.com.my accessed on 30 August 2010.
King, R. 2008. Kuala Lumpur and Putrajaya: Negotiating Urban Space in Malaysia, Singapore: NUS Press.
Lee, M.N.N. 2004. Restructuring Higher Education in Malaysia. Available at: www.cshe.nagoya-u.ac.jp/seminar/kokusai/lee.pdfwww.cshe.nagoya-u.ac.jp/seminar/kokusai/lee.pdf accessed on 30 August 2010.
Leete, Richard. 2007. Malaysia from Kampung to Twin Towers 50 Years of Economic and Social Development. Shah Alam: Oxford Fajar Sdn Bhd.
Limkokwing University of Creative Technology, Available at www.limkokwing.net/malaysia accessed on 30 August 2010.
Mahathir Mohamad. 1998. Excerpts from the Speeches of Mahathir Mohamad on the Multimedia Super Corridor, Subang Jaya: Pelanduk Publications.
Mahathir Mohamad. 2009. “Revisiting Vision 2020: New Challenges for Malaysia” Pp.3-10 in Readings on Development: Malaysia 2057 Uncommon Voices, Common Aspirations edited by Nungsari Ahmad Radhi and Suryani Senja Alias, Kuala Lumpur: Khazanah Nasional.
Malaysia. 1966. First Malaysia Plan 1966-1970. Kuala Lumpur: Government Printer available at www.epu.gov.my accessed on 30 July 2010.
Malaysia. 1971. Second Malaysia Plan 1971-1975. Kuala Lumpur: Government Printer available at www.epu.gov.my accessed on 30 July 2010.
Malaysia. 1976. Third Malaysia Plan 1976-1980. Kuala Lumpur: Government Printer available at www.epu.gov.my accessed on 30 July 2010.
Malaysia. 1981. Fourth Malaysia Plan 1981-1985. Kuala Lumpur: Government Printer available at www.epu.gov.my accessed on 30 July 2010.
Malaysia. 1986. Fifth Malaysia Plan 1986-1990. Kuala Lumpur: Government Printer available at www.epu.gov.my accessed on 30 July 2010.
Malaysia. 1991. Sixth Malaysia Plan 1991-1995. Kuala Lumpur: Government Printer available at www.epu.gov.my accessed on 30 July 2010.
Malaysia. 1991. Terjemahan teks ucapan YAB Datuk Seri Dr. Mahathir b. Mohamad, Perdana Menteri Malaysia pada 28 Februari 1991 sempena persidangan pertama Majlis Perdagangan Malaysia di Kuala Lumpur [Translation of Prime Minister Mahathir Mohamad Speech on the 28 February 1991 at the First Malaysian Trade Conference]. Kuala Lumpur: Percetakan Nasional Malaysia Berhad.
Malaysia. 1996. Seventh Malaysia Plan 1996-2000. Kuala Lumpur: Government Printer available at www.epu.gov.mywww.epu.gov.my accessed on 30 July 2010. Malaysia. 2001. Eight Malaysia Plan 2001-2005. Kuala Lumpur: Government Printer available at www.epu.gov.mywww.epu.gov.my accessed on 30 July 2010. Malaysia. 2006. Ninth Malaysia Plan 2006-2010. Kuala Lumpur: Government Printer available at www.epu.gov.my accessed on 30 July 2010.
Malaysia. 2006. Ninth Malaysia Plan 2006-2010. Kuala Lumpur: Government Printer available at www.epu.gov.my accessed on 30 July 2010.
Malaysia. 2002. Knowledge-Based Economy Master Plan. Kuala Lumpur: Institute of Strategic and International Studies. Malaysian APEX and Research University available at www.portal.mohe.gov.my/ accessed on 28 May 2010.
Malaysian Business. 2009a. “The Race is On” in Malaysian Business, 1 – 15 April, 2009: 20.
Malaysian Business. 2009b. ‘Green Calling at Cyberjaya’, Housing & Property, 1 -15 December: 4.
Malaysian Meteorological Department (MMD), available at www.met.gov.my accessed on 30 August 2010
Malaysian Science and Technology Information Centre (MASTIC). Public and Private Research and Development Institute in Malaysia, 2009 (unpublished)
Malaysian University Ranking, Available at www.mqa.gov.my accessed on 30 July 2010.
Marshall, Alfred. 1920. Principles of Economics. London: McMillan.
Menkhoff, Thomas, Hans-Dieter Evers, and Yue Wah Chay (Eds.). 2010. Governing and Managing Knowledge in Asia, 2nd revised edition. New Jersey, Singapore and London: World Scientific Publishing.
Menkhoff, Thomas , Hans-Dieter Evers, Yue Wah Chay, and Eng Fong Pang (Eds.). 2011. Beyond the Knowledge Trap: Developing Asia's Knowledge-Based Economies. New Jersey: World Scientific.
Ministry of Higher Education, available at www.mohe.gov.my accessed on 30 July 2010.
Ministry of Higher Education. 2008a. Malaysia Higher Education Statistics 2007. Putrajaya: Planning and Research Division, Ministry of Higher Education.
Ministry of Higher Education. 2009. Malaysia Higher Education Statistics 2008. Putrajaya: Planning and Research Division, Ministry of Higher Education.
Ministry of International Trade and Industry. 2006. Third Industrial Master Plan 2006-2020: Malaysia Towards Global Competitiveness. Kuala Lumpur : Government Printer.
Mohan, A.V. 2004. The Multimedia Super Corridor (MSC) Project A Note on the Progress and Prognosis of a Policy Driven ICT Cluster paper presented at the MIER National Economic Outlook 2005 Conference, Kuala Lumpur, 7th to 8th December.
MSC Malaysia, available at www.mscmalaysia.my accessed on 20 May 2010.
Multimedia Development Corporation Sdn Bhd (MDeC). 2008. Facts & Figures: MSC Malaysia Cybercities & Cybercentres Creating an Environment that Empowers (Third Edition). Cyberjaya: Multimedia Development Corporation Sdn Bhd (MDeC).
National Economic Advisory Council (NEAC). 2010. New Economic Model for Malaysia. Kuala Lumpur: Government Printer.
Neo, Wee Huay et.al. 2008. Cyberjaya: The Heart of A Nation’s ICT Agenda (Second Edition). Cyberjaya: Multimedia Development Corporation Sdn Bhd (MDeC).
Nolan, C. & I. Kumar. 2006. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) in Business and Industry Cluster Analysis: A Case Study of Indiana. ESRI International User Conference, 2006. Available at: http://www.pcrd.purdue.edu/documents/publications/ESRI_2006_Conference.pdf
Northern Corridor Development Region, www.ncer.com.my . OECD. 1996. "The knowledge-based economy." Paris: OECD.
Perbadanan Harta Intelek Malaysia[Intellectual Property Corporation of Malaysia (MyIPO)], Permohonan dan Pendaftaran Cap Dagangan Bagi Negeri-Negeri di Semenanjung Malaysia Dari Tahun 2005 -2009 [Application and Registration of Trademarks and Patents for States in Peninsular Malaysia from 2005-2009] (unpublished data).
Porter, Michael E. 1990. The Competitive Advantage of Nations. New York: The Free Press.
Porter, Michael E. 2000. "Location, Competition, and Economic Development: Local Clusters in a Global Economy." Economic Development Quarterly 14:15-34.
Ramasamy, B. et.al. 2002. “ Malaysia’s Leap into the Future: An Evaluation of the Multimedia Super Corridor” in Nottingham University Business School Research Paper Series No. 0872002. Kuala Lumpur: University of Nottingham, Malaysia.
Saleem, M.Y. 2008. “Federalism: Origin and Applications” Pp. 63-81 in Government and Politics in Malaysia edited by Moten, A.R. Singapore: Cenage Learning Asia Pte Ltd. Setia Haruman Sdn. Bhd. www.cyberjaya-msc.com
Sivalingam,G. 2006. Privatization of Higher Education in Malaysia. Forum on Public Policy. www.forumpublicpolicy.com/archive07/sivalingam.pdfwww.forumpublicpolicy.com/archive07/sivalingam.pdf
Sölvell, Örjan, Christian Ketels, and Göran Lindqvist. n.y. The European Cluster Observatory: EU Cluster Mapping and Strengthening Clusters in Europe. Stockholm: Center for Strategy and Competitiveness, CSC.
Swann, G. M. P. , M. Prevezer, and D. Stout (Eds.). 1998. The Dynamics of Industrial Clustering: International Comparisons in Computing and Biotechnology. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
The Star. 2009. ‘Dr M on drawing foreign investors to Cyberjaya’, 15 May (Business Section): 6. Weber, Alfred. 1909. Reine Theorien des Standortes. Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck.
Yusuf, Shahid and Kaoru Nabeshima. 2009. Tiger Economies under Threat: a Comparative Analysis of Malaysia’s Industrial Prospects and Policy Options. Washington D.C: World Bank