Robinson, Joshua J (2011): The effects of asymmetric and symmetric fetal growth restriction on human capital development.
Download (1MB) | Preview
This paper explores the causal pathway by which poor fetal health translates into reducing educational attainment and earnings as an adult. Using insights from the medical literature, I decompose low birth weight infants into two distinct subtypes: a symmetric type, which is characterized by cognitive deficits, and an asymmetric type, which exhibits little to no cognitive problems. Using data from a longitudinal survey of newborns, I establish three results: First, there is empirical evidence of brain sparing in the asymmetric subtype, but not in the symmetric subtype. Second, despite differences in cognitive impairment, both subtypes exhibit similar impairment to physical health. And finally, there is evidence that the causes and timing of onset during pregnancy are different for asymmetric and symmetric growth restriction. The results indicate that differentiating between these subtypes may offer new opportunities to identify the underlying casual relationships between health and human capital development, as well as uncovering the "black box" mechanism behind the fetal origins hypothesis. These results also have broad implications for the timing of policy interventions aimed at pregnant women.
|Item Type:||MPRA Paper|
|Original Title:||The effects of asymmetric and symmetric fetal growth restriction on human capital development|
|Keywords:||Health; Fetal Growth Restriction; Human Capital; Education|
|Subjects:||I - Health, Education, and Welfare > I0 - General
I - Health, Education, and Welfare > I1 - Health > I12 - Health Production
I - Health, Education, and Welfare > I1 - Health > I18 - Government Policy; Regulation; Public Health
J - Labor and Demographic Economics > J2 - Demand and Supply of Labor > J24 - Human Capital; Skills; Occupational Choice; Labor Productivity
I - Health, Education, and Welfare > I1 - Health > I10 - General
|Depositing User:||Joshua J ROBINSON|
|Date Deposited:||18. Oct 2011 01:29|
|Last Modified:||13. Feb 2013 00:53|
Alexander, Greg R., John H. Himes, Rajni B. Kaufman, Joanne Mor, and Michael Kogan. 1996. “A united states national reference for fetal growth.” Obstetrics & Gynecology 87 (2):163 – 168.
Almond, Douglas. 2006. “Is the 1918 Influenza Pandemic Over? Long-Term Effects of In Utero Influenza Exposure in the Post-1940 U.S. Population.” Journal of Political Economy 114 (4):672 – 712.
Almond, Douglas, Kenneth Y. Chay, and David S. Lee. 2005. “The Costs of Low Birth Weight.” The Quarterly Journal of Economics 120 (3):1031–1083.
Almond, Douglas and Janet Currie. 2010. “Human Capital Development Before Age Five.” Working Paper 15827, National Bureau of Economic Research. URL http://www.nber. org/papers/w15827.
Almond, Douglas and Janet Currie. 2011. “Killing Me Softly: The Fetal Origins Hypothesis.” Journal of Economic Perspectives 25 (3):153–72. Almond, Douglas, Lena Edlund, and Mrten Palme. 2009. “Chernobyl’s Subclinical Legacy: Prenatal Exposure to Radioactive Fallout and School Outcomes in Sweden.” The Quarterly Journal of Economics 124 (4):1729–1772.
Almond, Douglas, Hilary W. Hoynes, and Diane Whitmore Schanzenbach. 2011. “Inside the War on Poverty: The Impact of Food Stamps on Birth Outcomes.” Review of Economics and Statistics forthcoming.
Almond, Douglas and Bhaskkar Mazumder. Forthcoming. “Health Capital and the Prenatal Environment: The Effect of Ramadan Observance During Pregnancy.” AEJ:Applied . Behrman, Jere R. and Mark R. Rosenzweig. 2004. “Returns to Birthweight.” Review of Economics and Statistics 86 (2):586–601.
Black, Sandra E., Paul J. Devereux, and Kjell G. Salvanes. 2007. “From the Cradle to the Labor Market? The Effect of Birth Weight on Adult Outcomes.” The Quarterly Journal of Economics 122 (1):409–439.
Breslau, N., E.O. Johnson, and V.C. Lucia. 2001. “Academic Achievement of Low Birth- weight Children at Age 11: The Role of Cognitive Abilities at School Entry.” Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology 29:273–279.
Breslau, Naomi, Jewel E. DelDotto, Gregory G. Brown, Savitri Kumar, Sudhakar Ezhuthachan, Karen G. Hufnagle, and Edward L. Peterson. 1994. “A Gradient Relationship Between Low Birth Weight and IQ at Age 6 Years.” Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 148 (4):377–383.
Campbell, S. and Alison Thoms. 1977. “Ultrasound Measurement of the Fetal Head to Abdomen Circumference Ratio in the Assessment of Growth Retardation.” BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology 84 (3):165–174.
Cunha, Flavio and James Heckman. 2007. “The Technology of Skill Formation.” American Economic Review 97 (2):31–47. Cunningham, F. Gary, Kenneth Leveno, Steven Bloom, John Hauth, Dwight Rouse, and Catherine Spong. 2009. Obstetrics: Normal and Problem Pregnancies. McGraw-Hill, 23rd ed.
Currie, Janet and Jeffrey Grogger. 2002. “Medicaid expansions and welfare contrac- tions: offsetting effects on prenatal care and infant health?” Journal of Health Eco- nomics 21 (2):313 – 335.
Currie, Janet and Rosemary Hyson. 1999. “Is the impact of shocks cushioned by socioeco- nomic status? The case of low birth weight.” American Economic Review 89 (2):245–250. Dashe, Jodi s., Donald D. McIntire, Michael J. Lucas, and Kenneth J. Leveno. 2000. “Effects of Symmetric and Asymmetric Fetal Growth on Pregnancy Outcomes.” Obstetrics & Gynecology 96 (3).
Delpisheh, Ali, Loretta Brabin, Sandra Drummond, and Bernard J. Brabin. 2008. “Prenatal smoking exposure and asymmetric fetal growth restriction.” Annals of Human Biology 35 (6):573–583.
Ekeus, Cecilia, Karolina Lindstrom, Frank Lindblad, Finn Rasmussen, and Anders Hjern. 2010. “Preterm Birth, Social Disadvantage, and Cognitive Competence in Swedish 18- to 19-Year-Old Men.” Pediatrics 125 (1):e67–73.
Geva, Ronny, Rina Eshel, Yael Leitner, Aviva Fattal-Valevski, and Shaul Harel. 2006. “Mem- ory functions of children born with asymmetric intrauterine growth restriction.” Brain Research 1117 (1):186 – 194.
Grossman, Michael. 2008. “The Relationship Between Health and Schooling.” Eastern Economics Journal 34 (3):281 – 292.
Haggarty, P., D.M. Campbell, A. Bendomir, E.S. Gray, and D.R. Abramovich. 2004. “Pon- deral index is a poor predictor of in utero growth retardation.” BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology 111 (2):113–119.
Hoffman, H. J., C.R. Stark, F. E. Lundin, and J.D. Ashbrook. 1974. “Analysis of Birth Weight, Gestational Age, and Fetal Viability, U.S. Births, 1968.” Obstetrical and Gyne- cological Survey 29 (9):651–681.
King, Gary and Langche Zeng. 2001. “Logistic Regression in Rare Events Data.” Political Analysis 9 (2):137–163. Kliegman, Robert, Richard Behrman, Hal Jenson, and Bonita Stanton. 2007. Nelson Text- book of Pediatrics. Elsevier, 18th ed.
Lawlor, JP, E Gladen, D Dhavale, D Tamagoglu, JB Hardy, AK Duggan, WW Eaton, and EF Torrey. 2005. “Modernization and Enhancement of the Collaborative Perinatal Project (1959- 74).” The Johns Hopkins University. URL ftp://sph-ftp.jhsph.edu. Funded by the Stanley Medical Research Institute, Bethesda MD and NIMH grant 070333.
Levene, Malcolm I, David I Tudehope, and M John Thearle. 2000. Essentials of Neonatal Medicine. Blackwell, 3rd ed.
Lubchenco, Lula O., Charlotte Hansman, and Edith Boyd. 1966. “Intrauterine Growth in Length and Head Circumference as Estimated from Live Births at Gestational Ages from 26 to 42 Weeks.” Pediatrics 37 (3):403–408.
Lubchenco, Lula O., Charlotte Hansman, Marion Dressler, and Edith Boyd. 1963. “In- trauterine Growth as Estimated from Liveborn Birth-weight Data at 24 to 42 Weeks of Gestation.” Pediatrics 32 (5):793–800.
Martikainen, M.Anneli. 1992. “Effects of intrauterine growth retardation and its subtypes on the development of the preterm infant.” Early Human Development 28 (1):7 – 17.
Martin, Richard J, Avroy A Fanaroff, and Michele C Walsh. 2005. Fanaroff and Martin’s Neonatal-Perinatal Medicine: Diseases of the Fetus and Infant. Mosby, 8th ed. Miller, Herbert C. and Khatab Hassanein. 1971. “Diagnosis of Impaired Fetal Growth in Newborn Infants.” Pediatrics 48 (4):511–522.
Nikkila, A., B. Kallen, and K. Marsal. 2007. “Fetal growth and congenital malformations.” Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology 29 (3):289–295.
Northam, Gemma B., Frdrique Ligeois, Wui K. Chong, John S. Wyatt, and Torsten Baldeweg. 2011. “Total brain white matter is a major determinant of IQ in adolescents born preterm.” Annals of Neurology .
Oreopoulos, Philip, Mark Stabile, Randy Walld, and Leslie L. Roos. 2008. “Short-, Medium- , and Long-Term Consequences of Poor Infant Health: An Analysis Using Siblings and Twins.” J. Human Resources 43 (1):88–138.
Royer, Heather. 2009. “Separated at Girth: US Twin Estimates of the Effects of Birth Weight.” American Economic Journal: Applied Economics 1 (1):49–85.
Roza, Sabine J., Eric A. P. Steegers, Bero O. Verburg, Vincent W. V. Jaddoe, Henriette A. Moll, Albert Hofman, Frank C. Verhulst, and Henning Tiemeier. 2008. “What Is Spared by Fetal Brain-Sparing? Fetal Circulatory Redistribution and Behavioral Problems in the General Population.” American Journal of Epidemiology 168 (10):1145–1152.
Salafia, Carolyn M., Victoria K. Minior, John C. Pezzullo, Edwina J. Popek, Ted S. Rosenkrantz, and Anthony M. Vintzileos. 1995. “Intrauterine growth restriction in in- fants of less than thirty-two weeks’ gestation: Associated placental pathologic features.” American journal of obstetrics and gynecology 173 (4):1049–1057.
Soria-Pastor, Sara, Nelly Padilla, Leire Zubiaurre-Elorza, Naroa Ibarretxe-Bilbao, Francesc Botet, Carme Costas-Moragas, Carles Falcon, Nuria Bargallo, Josep Maria Mercader, and Carme Junque. 2009. “Decreased Regional Brain Volume and Cognitive Impairment in Preterm Children at Low Risk.” Pediatrics 124 (6):e1161–1170.
Uerpairojkit, Boonchai, Linda Chan, Albert E. Reece, Edilberto Martinez, and Gian- carlo Mari. 1996. “Cerebellar Doppler Velocimetry in the Appropriate- and Small-for- Gestational-Age Fetus.” Obstetrics & Gynecology 87 (6). Usher, Robert and Frances McLean. 1969. “Intrauterine growth of live-born Caucasian infants at sea level: Standards obtained from measurements in 7 dimensions of infants born between 25 and 44 weeks.” The Journal of pediatrics 74 (6):901–910.
Vik, Torstein, Lars Vatten, Geir Jacobsen, and Leiv S Bakketeig. 1997. “Prenatal growth in symmetric and asymmetric small-for-gestational-age infants.” Early human development 48 (1):167–176.
Weisglas-Kuperus, N, E T M Hille, H J Duivenvoorden, M J J Finken, J M Wit, S van Buuren, J B van Goudoever, S P Verloove-Vanhorick, and for the Dutch POPS-19 Collab- orative Study Group *. 2009. “Intelligence of very preterm or very low birthweight infants in young adulthood.” Archives of Disease in Childhood - Fetal and Neonatal Edition 94 (3):F196–F200.
Yogman, Michael W., Helena C. Kraemer, Daniel Kindlon, Jon E. Tyson, Pat Casey, and Ruth T. Gross. 1989. “Identification of intrauterine growth retardation among low birth weight preterm infants.” The Journal of pediatrics 115 (5):799–807.