Khan, Rana Ejaz Ali and Jamal, Warda Najeeb (2008): Legislation for child labor and compulsory schooling in Pakistan: some issues. Published in: Asian Journal of Development Matters , Vol. 3, (1. March 2009): pp. 68-78.
Download (175Kb) | Preview
The lack of proper legislation about child labor and compulsory schooling, and its enforcement sustains child labor and a bulk of out of school children in Pakistan. This is manifested in different ways. In this paper we have discussed the issues of legislation and its implementation. Since child labor legislation do not cover informal sector, it is further hampered by the collusion of parents with employers in violating the law. There are also inconsistencies in legislation, which may pose problems. For example, there is no uniform definition of child labor in different Acts of legislation, and the penalties for offenders are generally too light to have a deterrent effect. Statutory provisions clearly defining the nature of work do not accompany a legal ban on child labor. Moreover child legislation is not done according to the ratifications of international conventions.
|Item Type:||MPRA Paper|
|Original Title:||Legislation for child labor and compulsory schooling in Pakistan: some issues|
|English Title:||Legislation for child labor and compulsory schooling in Pakistan: some issues|
|Keywords:||child welfair,national legislation pakistan,child labour|
|Subjects:||J - Labor and Demographic Economics > J0 - General > J08 - Labor Economics Policies
O - Economic Development, Technological Change, and Growth > O5 - Economywide Country Studies
O - Economic Development, Technological Change, and Growth > O1 - Economic Development > O15 - Human Resources; Human Development; Income Distribution; Migration
K - Law and Economics > K3 - Other Substantive Areas of Law > K31 - Labor Law
|Depositing User:||Rana Ejaz Ali Khan|
|Date Deposited:||04. Nov 2011 18:09|
|Last Modified:||19. Feb 2013 05:24|
ILO (1999) Targeting the Intolerable: A New International Convention to Eliminate the Worst Forms of Child Labor. ILO, Geneva.
India: A Multidimensional Problem in Need of a Orchestrated Policy Response”, Working Paper No. 00-02. Department of Economics, University of Wollongong.
Kemal, A. R. and Z. Mahmood (1993) Labor Absorption in The Informal Sector and Economic Growth in Pakistan. Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung, Islamabad.
Chiswick, B. R. (1969) “Minimum Schooling Legislation and the Cross-sectional Distribution of Income”, Economic Journal, 79(3).
Lang, K. and D. Kropp (1986) “Human Capital Versus Sorting: The Effect of Compulsory Attendance Laws”, Quarterly Journal of Economics, 101(3).
Dessy, S. and S. Pallage (2003) “The Economics of Child Trafficking”, CIRPEE Working Paper 03-23. CIRPEE and Department of Economics, University of Quebec.
Lleras-Muney, A. (2001) “Were Compulsory Attendance and Child Labor Laws Effective? An Analysis from 1915 to 1939”, NBER Working Paper No.8563. National Bureau of Economic Research, USA.
Eisenberg, M. (1994) “Did Compulsory School Attendance Work? Evidence from 1990 Census”, Department of Economics, Knox College.
Hamid, N. A. (1993) Health and Nutritional Status of Working Children in Brick Kiln, Carpet Weaving Industry and Garages. Department of Social Work, Punjab University, Lahore.
Margo, R. A. and T. P. Finegan (1996) “Compulsory Schooling Legislation and School Attendance in Turn of the Century: A Natural Experiment Approach”, Historical Paper 89. National Bureau of Economic Research, USA.
Heywood, C. (1988) Childhood in Nineteenth Century France: Work, Health and Education among the “Classes Populaires”. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Schmidt, S. (1996) “School Quality, Compulsory Education Laws, and the Growth of American High School Attendance”, MIT, Ph.D. Dissertation.
Hussain, Akmal (1998) “Child Workers in Hazardous Industries in Pakistan” The Lahore Journal of Economics, 2(2).
Scholliers, P. (1995) “Grown-ups, Boys and Girls in the Ghent Cotton Industry, the Voorman Mills, 1835-1914”, Social History, 20.
ILO (1997) ILO Technical Paper: Legislation and Enforcement. International Conference on Child Labor. Oslo Norway. International Labor Office, Geneva
Thijs, Guy (1997) Child Labor-Trends and Challenges in Asia. Background Document prepared for the Asian Regional Consultation on Child Labor, Lahore. ILO Regional Office for Asia and Pacific, Bangkok.
ILO (1998) Child Labor: Targeting the Intolerable. Sixth Item on Agenda 1998 [Report VI (1)]. International Labor Conference 86th Session 1998. ILO, Geneva.