Yawson, Robert M. and Yawson, Ivy (2008): Policy options of agricultural biotechnology R&D in Sub-Saharan Africa: key issues and aspects. Published in: University of Minnesota
Download (263kB) | Preview
This paper reviews the status of Agricultural Biotechnology in Sub-Saharan Africa. It addresses the potential economic benefits to Sub-Saharan Africa and the effect biotechnology policies may have on growth, production and poverty reduction. The extent to which agricultural biotechnology will compound or mitigate the constraints faced by smallholders/subsistence farmers is also discussed. The status of crop biotechnology research worldwide is reviewed and the influence of intellectual property rights (IPRs) and market concentration on the development and diffusion of biotechnology in Sub-Saharan Africa is analyzed. The paper also explores the potential of public-private partnerships and recommends policy measures and investments that could focus more biotechnology research on the problems of the poor and alleviate some of the concerns about the impacts of biotechnology.
|Item Type:||MPRA Paper|
|Original Title:||Policy options of agricultural biotechnology R&D in Sub-Saharan Africa: key issues and aspects|
|Keywords:||Policy Options; Intellectual Property; Biotechnology; Sub-Saharan Africa; Technology Diffusion|
|Subjects:||N - Economic History > N5 - Agriculture, Natural Resources, Environment, and Extractive Industries > N57 - Africa; Oceania
O - Economic Development, Technological Change, and Growth > O5 - Economywide Country Studies
N - Economic History > N2 - Financial Markets and Institutions
L - Industrial Organization > L6 - Industry Studies: Manufacturing > L65 - Chemicals; Rubber; Drugs; Biotechnology
Q - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics > Q1 - Agriculture > Q16 - R&D; Agricultural Technology; Biofuels; Agricultural Extension Services
O - Economic Development, Technological Change, and Growth > O1 - Economic Development
N - Economic History > N7 - Transport, Trade, Energy, Technology, and Other Services > N77 - Africa; Oceania
L - Industrial Organization > L2 - Firm Objectives, Organization, and Behavior
P - Economic Systems > P3 - Socialist Institutions and Their Transitions
N - Economic History > N5 - Agriculture, Natural Resources, Environment, and Extractive Industries
N - Economic History > N1 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics; Industrial Structure; Growth; Fluctuations
N - Economic History > N6 - Manufacturing and Construction > N67 - Africa; Oceania
N - Economic History > N6 - Manufacturing and Construction
L - Industrial Organization > L6 - Industry Studies: Manufacturing
O - Economic Development, Technological Change, and Growth > O1 - Economic Development > O13 - Agriculture; Natural Resources; Energy; Environment; Other Primary Products
N - Economic History > N7 - Transport, Trade, Energy, Technology, and Other Services
P - Economic Systems > P3 - Socialist Institutions and Their Transitions > P32 - Collectives; Communes; Agriculture
L - Industrial Organization > L2 - Firm Objectives, Organization, and Behavior > L24 - Contracting Out; Joint Ventures; Technology Licensing
O - Economic Development, Technological Change, and Growth > O1 - Economic Development > O14 - Industrialization; Manufacturing and Service Industries; Choice of Technology
Q - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics > Q1 - Agriculture
O - Economic Development, Technological Change, and Growth > O5 - Economywide Country Studies > O55 - Africa
Q - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics > Q1 - Agriculture > Q17 - Agriculture in International Trade
N - Economic History > N1 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics; Industrial Structure; Growth; Fluctuations > N17 - Africa; Oceania
|Depositing User:||Prof. Robert M Yawson|
|Date Deposited:||20. Nov 2011 21:38|
|Last Modified:||01. Mar 2013 03:08|
The Convention on Biological Diversity, (1992) http://www.cbd.int/convention/convention.shtml
The Convention on Biological Diversity, (2000) The Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety http://www.cbd.int/biosafety/protocol.shtml
FAO (2000). Agriculture: towards 2015/30. Technical Interim Report. Economic and Social Department, FAO. www.fao.org/es
Kitch, L, M., Koch, and Sithole-Niang, I. (2002). Crop biotechnology: A working paper for administrators and policy makers in sub-Saharan Africa. Plant Production and Protection, FAO. Harare, Zimbabwe.
Spielman, D. J. (2007). Pro-poor agricultural biotechnology: Can the international research system deliver the goods? Food Policy, 32(2), 189-204.
Pray, C. E. (2002). The growing role of the private sector in agricultural research. In: D. Byerlee and R.G. Echeverrı´a, Editors, Agricultural Research Policy in an Era of Privatization (Chapter 2), CABI Publishing, Oxon, UK
Binenbaum, E., Nottenburg, C., Pardey, P.G., Wright, B.D., Zambrano, P., (2000). South–North Trade, Intellectual Property Jurisdictions and Freedom to Operate in Agricultural Research on Staple Crops. Environment and Production Technology Division Discussion Paper 70. Washington DC: International Food Policy Research Institute
Bodulovic, G. (2005) Is the European attitude to GM products suffocating African development?, Functional Plant Biology, 32, 1069–1075.
Binenbaum, E., Pardey, P.G., & Wright, B.D. (2001). Public–private research relationships: The Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research. American Journal of Agricultural Economics, 83(3), 748–753.
James, C. (2007). Global Status of Commercialized/GM Crops: 2006. ISAAA Briefs No. 35, Ithaca, NY: ISAAA.
Sankula, S. (2006). Quantification of the Impacts on US Agriculture of Biotechnology-Derived Crops Planted in 2005, National Center for Food and Agricultural Policy 2006: www.ncfap.org/whatwedo/pdf/2005biotechimpacts-finalversion.pdf
WTO: Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures http://www.wto.org/english/tratop_e/sps_e/spsagr_e.htm
Codex Alimentarius Guideline for the Conduct of Food Safety Assessment of Foods Produced Using Recombinant-DNA Microorganisms http://www.codexalimentarius.net/download/standards/10025/CXG_046e.pdf
The EU Regulation on GMOs; www.eubios.info/EJ131/ej131h.htm
Evenson, R.E., & Gollin, D. (2003). Assessing the Impact of the Green Revolution, 1960-2000’, Science 300 (May 2), 758-62.
Byerlee, D., & Traxler, G. (2002). The role of technology spillovers and economies of size in the efficient design of agricultural research systems: In J. M. Alston, P. G. Pardey and M. J. Taylor, eds. Agricultural science policy: changing global agendas. Baltimore, USA: Johns Hopkins University Press.
FAO (2005). The State of Food and Agriculture 2003-2004; www.fao.org/docrep/006/Y5160E/y5160e08.htm
Alliance for a Green Revolution in Africa (AGRA) http://www.agra-alliance.org
Pingali, P.L., & Heisey, P.W. (2001). Cereal Crop Productivity in Developing Countries: Past Trends and Future Prospects. In J.M. Alston, P.G. Pardey, and M. Taylor (eds.) Agricultural Science Policy: Changing Global Agendas. Baltimore and London: IFPRI/The Johns Hopkins University Press.
Alston, J.M., Norton, G.W., & Pardey, P.G. (1995); Science under scarcity: Principles and practice for agricultural research evaluation and priority setting. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press. (Reprinted in 1998, Wallingford, U.K.: CAB International)
Anderson, K., & Jackson, L. (2005). Some implications of GM food technology policies for sub-Saharan Africa. J Af Economies, 14, 385–410.
Vitale, J., Boyer, T., Uaiene, R., & Sanders, J. H. (2005). The Economic Impacts of Introducing Bt Technology in Smallholder Cotton Production Systems of West Africa: A Case Study from Mali. J. of Agrobiotechnology Management and Economics, 10(2), http://www.agbioforum.org/v10n2/v10n2a02-vitale.htm
Marra, M. C., Pardey, P. G., Alston, J. M. (2002). The Payoffs to Agricultural Biotechnology: An Assessment of the Evidence. EPTD Discussion Paper No. 87. Washington, DC: IFPRI
Yawson R. M., Amoa-Awua, W. K., Sutherland A. J., Smith D. R., & Noamesi S. K. (2006) Developing a Performance Measurement Framework to Enhance the Impact Orientation of the Food Research Institute, Ghana. R&D Management, 36(2), 161 – 172.
Yawson R. M., Sutherland, A. J & Smith D. R. (2007) Institutionalizing Performance Management in R & D Organizations: Key Concepts And Aspects In: "Management of Technology for the Service Economy" IAMOT 2007-16th International Conference on Management of Technology. Miami Beach Resort & Spa, Miami Beach, Florida, USA, May 13-17, 2007
WHO/NHD/00.7: Turning the tide of malnutrition: Responding to the challenge of the 21st century www.who.int/mip2001/files/2232/NHDbrochure.pdf