Rowthorn, Robert and Guzmán, Ricardo Andrés and Rodríguez-Sickert, Carlos (2011): The economics of social stratification in premodern societies.
This is the latest version of this item.
Download (202kB) | Preview
We present a microeconomic model of social stratification, which includes an endogenous fertility component. In the model, egalitarian and stratified societies coexist. The latter are divided into two hereditary classes: a warrior elite and a productive class. The model entails that the extra cost warriors must incur to train and equip their children for war determines the relative sizes of both classes and the degree of economic inequality. Higher costs of warrior children imply a greater economic advantage for warriors and a smaller ratio of warriors to producers. These results are consistent with the historical evidence. Finally, we explore conditions under which the social contributions of the warrior elite could discourage a revolution.
|Item Type:||MPRA Paper|
|Original Title:||The economics of social stratification in premodern societies|
|Keywords:||Social stratification; income inequality; warfare; military participation ratio|
|Subjects:||Z - Other Special Topics > Z1 - Cultural Economics; Economic Sociology; Economic Anthropology
J - Labor and Demographic Economics > J1 - Demographic Economics
N - Economic History > N4 - Government, War, Law, International Relations, and Regulation
|Depositing User:||Ricardo Andrés Guzmán|
|Date Deposited:||26. Dec 2011 03:39|
|Last Modified:||15. Feb 2013 19:38|
Acemoglu, D., and J. A. Robinson. 2001. A theory of political transitions. The American Economic Review 91: 938--63.
Andreski, S. 1968. Military Organization and Society. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Ashraf, Q., and Galor, O. 2008. Dynamics and stagnation in the Malthusian epoch: Theory and evidence. CEPR Discussion Paper No. DP7057.
Baker, M. J., Bulte, E. H., and Weisdorf, J. 2010. The origins of governments: from anarchy to hierarchy. Journal of Institutional Economics 6: 215--42.
Bardhan, P., Bowles S., and H. Gintis. 2000. Wealth inequality, wealth constraints, and economic performance. In Handbook of Income Distribution 1, ed. A. B. Atkinson and F. Bourguignon, 541--603. Amsterdam: North-Holland.
Beaucage, P. 1976. Enfer ou paradis perdu: Les societés de chasseurs-cueilleurs. Revue Canadienne de Sociologie et d'Anthropologie 13: 397--412.
Bell, A. V., and B. Winterhalder. 2011. The population ecology of despotism: Habitat in-fill under the ideal despotic distribution. Unpublished manuscript.
Betzig, L. 1986. Despotism and Differential Reproduction. New York: Aldine.
Boehm, C. 1999. Hierarchy in the Forest. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
Boone, J. L. 1992. Competition, conflict, and the development of social hierarchies. In Evolutionary Ecology and Human Behavior, ed. E. A. Smith and B. Winterhalder, 301--37. New York: Aldine de Gruyter.
Bowles, S., J. K. Choi, and A. Hopfensitz. 2003. Journal of Theoretical Biology 223: 135--47.
Cashdan, E. A. 1980. Egalitarianism among hunter--gatherers. American Anthropologist 82: 116--20.
Cashdan, E. A. 1985. Natural fertility, birth spacing, and the first demographic transition. American Anthropologist 87: 650--53.
Childe, V. G. 1942. What Happened in History? Baltimore: Penguin.
Childe, V. G. 1954. Early forms of society. In A History of Technology 1, ed. C. Singer, E. J. Holmyard, A. R. Hall and T. I. Williams, 38--5. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Cioffi-Revilla, C. 2005. A canonical theory of origins and development of social complexity. The Journal of Mathematical Sociology 29: 133--53.
Coleman, D., and R. Schofield. 1986. The State of Population Theory: Forward from Malthus. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.
Costabile, L., and R. E. Rowthorn. 1985. Malthus's theory of wages and growth. Economic Journal 95: 418--37.
Cronk, L. 1994. Evolutionary theories of morality and the manipulative use of signals. Zygon 29: 81--101.
Davis, K. 1949. Human Society. New York: Macmillan. DeMarrais, E., L. J. Castillo, and T. Earle. 1996. Ideology, materialization, and power strategies. Current Anthropology 37: 15--31.
Douglas, M. 1966. Population control in primitive groups. The British Journal of Sociology 17: 263--73.
Eberhard, W. 1962. Social Mobility in Traditional China. Leiden: E. J. Brill.
Erlandson, J. M. 2001. The archaeology of aquatic adaptations: Paradigms for a new millennium. Journal of Archaeological Research 9: 287--350.
Finney, B. R. 1996. Putting voyaging back into Polynesian prehistory. In Oceanic Culture History: Essays in Honour of Roger Green, ed. J. Davidson, G. Irwin, F. Leach, A. Pawley and D. Brown, 365--76. Dunedin: New Zealand Journal of Archaeology, Special Publication.
Fried, M. H. 1967. The Evolution of Political Society: An Essay in Political Economy. New York: Random House.
Gat, A. 2006. War in Human Civilization. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Griffith, P. 1970. The Viking Art of War. London: Greenhill.
Grossman, H. I. 2002. Make us a king: Anarchy, predation, and the state. European Journal of Political Economy 18: 31--46.
Hayden, B. 1995. Pathways to power: principles for creating socioeconomic inequalities. In Foundations of Social Inequality, ed. T. D. Price and G. M. Feinman, 15--85. New York: Plenum Press.
Henrich, J. 2004. Cultural group selection, coevolutionary processes, and large-scale cooperation. Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization 53: 3--35.
Henrich, J., and Boyd, R.. 2008. Division of labour, economic specialization, and the evolution of social stratification. Current Anthropology 49: 715--24.
Hollingsworth, T. H.. 1957. A demographic study of the British ducal families. Population Studies 11: 4--26. Johnson, A., and Earle, T. 2000. The Evolution of Human Societies: From Foraging Group to Agrarian State. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
Kaplan, D. 2000. The darker side of the original affluent society. Journal of Anthropological Research 56: 301--24.
Kennett, D. J. 2005. The Island Chumash: Behavioral ecology of a maritime society. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Kennett, D. J., and B. Winterhalder. 2008. Demographic expansion, despotism and the colonisation of East and South Polynesia. In Islands of Inquiry: Colonisation, Seafaring and the Archaeology of Maritime Landscapes, ed. G. R. Clark, S. O'Connor and F. Leach, 87--96. Canberra: ANU E. Press.
Kennett, D. J., B. Winterhalder, J. Bartruff, and J. M. Erlandson. 2009. An ecological model for the emergence of institutionalized social hierarchies on California's Northern Channel Islands. Pattern and Process in Cultural Evolution, ed. S. Shennan, 297--314. Los Angeles: University of California Press.
Kets, W., G. Iyengar, R. Sethi, and S. Bowles. 2011. Inequality and network structure. Games and Economic Behavior 73: 215--26.
Knauft, B. 1994. Culture and cooperation in human evolution. In The Anthropology of Peace and Nonviolence, ed. L. E. Sponsel and T. Gregor, 37--67. Boulder: Lynne Rienner.
Kniffen, F. B. 1939. Pomo geography. University of California Publications in American Archaeology and Ethnology 36: 353--400.
Lagerlöf, N. P. 2009. Slavery and other property rights. Review of Economic Studies 76: 319--42.
Leeson, P. T. 2006. Efficient anarchy. Public Choice 130: 41--53.
Lenski, G. E. 1984. Power and Privilege: A Theory of Social Stratification. Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press.
Lundberg, S., and R. Startz. 1998. On the persistence of racial inequality. Journal of Labour Economics 16: 292--323.
Macfarlane, A. 1997. The Savage Wars of Peace: England, Japan and the Malthusian Trap. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.
Malthus, T. R. 1820. Principles of Political Economy. London: John Murray.
Mandel, E. 1962. Traité d'Économie Marxiste. Paris: Julliard.
O'Connell, R. 2002. Soul of the Sword: An Illustrated History of Weaponry and Warfare from Prehistory to the Present. New York: The Free Press.
Pálsson, G. 1988. Hunters and gatherers of the sea. In Hunters and Gatherers 1: History, Evolution and Social Change, ed. T. Ingold, D. Riches and J. Woodburn, 189--204. New York: Berg.
Pearson, H. W. 1957. The economy has no surplus: Critique of a theory of development. In Trade and Market in the Early Empires, ed. K. Polanyi, C. M. Arensberg and H. W. Pearson, 320--41. Glencoe: The Free Press.
Prestwich, M. 1968. Edward I's wars and their financing, 1294--1307. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Prestwich, M. 1996. Armies and Warfare in the Middle Ages: The English Experience. New Haven: Yale University Press.
Price, T. D., and A. Gebauer. 1995. New perspectives on the transition to agriculture. In Last Hunters, First Farmers, ed. T. D. Price and A. Gebauer, 132--9. Santa Fe: School of American Research Press.
Raper, A. F., and I. D. Reid. 1941. Sharecroppers All. Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press.
Ricardo, D. 1821. On the Principles of Political Economy and Taxation. London: John Murray.
Rowthorn, R., and P. Seabright. 2009. Property rights, warfare and the Neolithic Transition. IDEI Working Paper 654.
Sahlins, M. 1972/1998. The original affluent society. in Limited Wants, Unlimited Means: A Hunter-Gatherer Reader on Economics and the Environment, ed. J. M. Gowdy, 5--41. Washington: Island Press.
Sauvy, A. 1969. General Theory of Population. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson. (English translation of the French 1952--54 editions, Paris: Presses Universitaires de France.)
Scott, J. 2010. The Art of Not Being Governed: An Anarchist History of Upland Southeast Asia. New Haven: Yale University Press.
Service, E. R. 1962. Primitive Social Organization: An Evolutionary Perspective. New York: Random House.
Soffer, O. 1985. The Upper Paleolithic of the central Russian plain. Orlando: Academic Press.
Soffer, O. 1989. Storage, sedentism and the Eurasian Palaeolithic record. Antiquity 63: 719--732.
Summers, K.. 2005. The evolutionary ecology of despotism. Evolution and Human Behavior 26: 106--35.
Testart, A. 1982. The significance of food storage among hunter-gatherers: Residence patterns, population densities, and social inequalities. Current Anthropology 23: 523--537.
Van den Bergh, J. C. J. M., and J. M. Gowdy. 2009. A group selection perspective on economic behavior, institutions and organizations. Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization 72: 1--20.
Vanhaeren, M., and F. d'Errico. 2005. Grave goods from the Saint-Germain-la-Riviere burial: Evidence for social inequality in the Upper Palaeolithic. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 24: 117--134.
Winterhalder, B. 2001. The behavioral ecology of hunter-gatherers. In Hunter--Gatherers: An Interdisciplinary Perspective, ed. C. Panter-Brick, R. Layton and P. Rowley-Conwy, 12--38. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Winterhalder, B., D. J. Kennett, M. N. Grote, and J. Bartruff. 2010. Ideal free settlement of California's Northern Channel Islands. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 29: 469--90.
Wolf, E. R. 1966. Peasants. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall.
Wrigley, E. A. 1978. Fertility strategy for the individual and the group. In Historical Studies of Changing Fertility, ed. C. Tilly, 135--54. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Wrigley, E. A. 1997. English Population History from Family Reconstitution: 1580--1837. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Yesner, D. R. 1980. Maritime hunter-gatherers: Ecology and prehistory. Current Anthropology 21: 727--50.
Available Versions of this Item
The economics of early social stratification. (deposited 21. Aug 2008 01:24)
The economics of early social stratification. (deposited 10. Jul 2009 00:33)
The economics of early social stratification. (deposited 05. Sep 2009 07:58)
- The economics of social stratification in premodern societies. (deposited 26. Dec 2011 03:39) [Currently Displayed]
- The economics of early social stratification. (deposited 05. Sep 2009 07:58)
- The economics of early social stratification. (deposited 10. Jul 2009 00:33)