Fahim, Muhammad Amir (2011): Impact of water scarcity on food security at meso level in Pakistan.
Download (247Kb) | Preview
Pakistan is confronting the problem of water scarcity which is rendering an adverse impact on food security. The study examines the impact of water scarcity on food security in an era of climate change. It further focuses on projecting the future trends of water and food stock. The research effort probes the links among water scarcity, climate change, food security, water security, food inflation, poverty and management of water resources. Data on food security was collected from the FSA (Food Security analysis) of the Sustainable development Policy institute (SDPI) and Food insecurity and Vulnerability Information mapping system (FIVIMS). Simultaneous, structural and reduced form equations have been employed to catch the effect of water scarcity on three components of food security separately. In fact, the present study develops a series of models that captures the impact of water scarcity on the components of food security at Meso level. The models have traced an adverse impact of water scarcity water scarcity on food security at Meso levels. The findings so obtained may help in proposing the policy guidelines for overcoming water scarcity and handling with food insecurity caused by water scarcity and other factors.
|Item Type:||MPRA Paper|
|Original Title:||Impact of water scarcity on food security at meso level in Pakistan|
|English Title:||Impact of water scarcity on food security at meso level in Pakistan|
|Keywords:||Water scarcity, Water supply, Water Demand, Food security, Meso level, Simultaneous equations|
|Subjects:||Q - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics > Q0 - General > Q01 - Sustainable Development|
|Depositing User:||Muhammad Amir Fahim|
|Date Deposited:||06. Jan 2012 03:27|
|Last Modified:||14. Feb 2013 00:52|
Ahamad, Alam, Shakoor, Kalim, Pakistan Engineering Congress 701 annaual session prodceedings, (Lahore). Meeting Pakistan’ future food demands under scarce waters, 2006.
Ahmad, A. and S.Siddiqui (1995) “Food Security in Pakistan: can it be achieved “, The Pakistan Development Review. Billig, P. et al. 1999: Water and sanitation indicators measurement guide. Food and
CGIR, (2009) “Basin Focal Project Working paper NO 1:2
CLI (2002) “Water and improved technology are key to Sustainable Agriculture and Food Security”, Press Release. Crop life international (CLI), Brussels.
Cline, W.R.,200/-*7. World Agriculture Faces Serious Decline from Global Warming. Centre for Global Development, Washington, DC, L, 2007.
Calow, R., MacDonald, A., Nicol, A., Robins, N. and Kerbed, S. (2002) ‘the struggle for water: drought, water security and livelihood’. Groundwaters Systems and Water Quality Programmed Commissioned Report CR/02/226 FAO, 2003.
Chambers, R. 1989: Vulnerability, coping, and policy. IDS Bulletin 20 (2): 1-7Christiansen, L. and Tollens, E., Chung, K. et al. 1997: Identifying the food insecure: The application of mixed method approaches in India. International Food Policy Research Institute, Washington Clay, E. 1997: Food security: A status review of the literature. Research Report ESCOR No. R5911. ODA, London Cohen, MJ und Feldbrügge, T. 2000: Akute Ernährungskrisen und gewaltsame Konflikte. In: Deutsche Welthun World Agriculture: Towards 2015/2030. An FAO perspective, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations/Earth scan, Rome, Italy/USA.
FAO, 2008. Food Outlook: Global Market Analysis.FAO, Rome (November).
FAO, 2010. Enduring Farms: Climate Change, Smallholders and Traditional Farming Communities. FAO, Rome.
Funk, C., Hettinger, M.D., Michelson, J.C., Verdi, J.P., Brown, M.E, Barlow, M., Hanja, MA. Gichuki, F., 2008. Inverstments in Agriculture water management for poverty reduction in Africa: case studies of Limpopo, Nile, and Vota river basins.Natural Rsources Forum 32 (3), 185-202.
Foster, P. 1992: The world food problem: Tackling the causes of under nutrition in the Third World. Boulder Gross, R. et al. 1998: Community nutrition: definition and approaches. Encyclopedia of human nutrition. Ed.: M. Sadler, S. Strain and B. Caballero. London Gross, R. et al. 2000: The four dimensions of food and nutrition security: definitions and concepts.
Hanja, M.A., Ferede, T., Gutta, D.G., 2009a.Pathways to breaking the proverty trap in Ethiopia: Investment in agriculture water, education, and markets. Agriculture Water Management 93 (13), 2-11.
Hussain, I., Hanja, M.A., 2003. Does irrigation water matter for rural poverty alleviation? Evidence from South and South-East Asia. Water policy 5(5), 429-455
Hanja, M.E.Qureshi (2010) Global water crisis and future food security in an era of climate change, Food Policy, Amaco,(2007); Barnett, (2005); Doll and Siebert, (2002); Droogers, (2004) and Aerts, (2005); Arnell, (2004); Rosenweig and Parry, (1994) kanilkar and Risbey, 2000XXX.
IWMI, (2002).World water supply and demand: 1995 to 2025. International Water Management Institute (IWMI), Colombo, Sri Lanka. IFPRI 1999: Technical guides for operationalizing household food security in development projects. Food Consumption and Nutrition Division, Washington IFPRI: Women. The key to food security. Looking into the household. Www. ifpri. Org
Khalil, J.K., 2007.Food security with special reference to Pakistan, D.G.Administration, Higher Education Commission, Islamabad; 71-120.
Ludi.E. and Bird, K. (2007)’Risk and Vulnerability’ Poverty Brief NO 3.Poverty wellbeing Net.Bern: SDC. Maxwell S. and Frankenberger T. 1992: Household food security: Concepts, indicators, measurements: A technical review. IFAD/UNICEF, Rome Maxwell, S. 1995: Measuring Food Insecurity: The frequency and severity of coping strategies, IFPRI FCND Discussion Paper No 8, Washington Molle, F. and Mollinga, P.2003. Water poverty indicators: conceptual problems and policy issues. Water Policy 5:529---
Molden, 2003.A water productivity framework for understanding and action.In: Kijne, J.W., Barker, R., Molden, D. (Eds.) Water productivity in agriculture: Limits and oppurtunities for improvement CABI publishing, Wallingford, UK, pp.1—18.
Molden, D., 2007. Water responses to urbanization. Paddy and Water Environment (Special Issue Water Transfers) 5 (4), 207—209 Molden., Oweis, T., Steduto, P., Bindraban, P.,Hanja, M.A., Kijne, J., 2010. Improving agriculture productivity: between optimism and caution.Agriculture Water Management, Comprehensive assessment of water management in Agriculture 97 (4), 528—535.
Nicol, A. and Slaymaker, T. (2003) ‘Secure Water? Poverty, Livelihoods and Demand-Responsive Approaches’. Water policy Brief 4. London: ODI.
Pretty, J. (2001) “Farmer Based Agroechological Technology”. Focus 7 Policy Brief 2 of 9, International Food policy Research Institute. Washington, D.C. Riely F. et al. 1995: Food security indicators and framework for use in the monitoring of food security, Literature survey, CABI Publishing
Pakistan Water Partnership, “South Asia Water Vision, Country Report Pakistan.” 2001
Pakistan Water Partnership, “Supplement to the Framework for Action (FF‘Pakistan Water Sector Strategy’, Ministry of Water and Power, Office of the Chief Engineering Advisor/ Chairman federal Flood Commission, Vol 5 October 2002 ‘Pakistan Environmental Protection Act, 1997‘Water Quality Status’ Third Report
Robert C.johnson, .2003 Pricing irrigation water a literature survey, World Bank Washington, D.C.
Schimidhuber, J. and Tubiello, F. B. (2007) ‘Global Food Security under climate change’, PNAS 104 (50):19703-08.
Rosegran, M.W., CAI, X., 2000. Water scarcity and food security: alternative futures for the 21st century. Journal of Water science and Technology 43 (4), 61-70.
Rosegrant, M.W., Cline, S.A., 2003. Global food security: Challenges and Policies .Science 302 (5652), 1917-1919.
SDPI, (2003) Food Insecurity in Rural Pakistan 2003. Sustainable Development Policy Institute, Karachi and United Nations World Food Program, Pakistan. Sen, AK 1981: Poverty and famines: An essay on entitlement and deprivation. Oxford Smith, LC et al. 2003: The importance of women’s status for child nutrition in developing countries. IFPRI Re- search Report 131. Washington.
Sampath, R.K., 1992. Issues in irrigation pricing in developing countries. World Development, 967-97
SOFI (2006). The state of food insecurity in the world. Eradicating World hunger taking stock ten years after the world summit. Food and Agriculture Organization, Rome, Italy.
Kamal, 2009, running on empty, Pakistan’s water crisis, and Pakistan’s water challenges: Entitlement, Access, Efficiency, and Equity. Wood words Wilson centre for Scholars, Asia Program.
Simi Kamal, “Apocalypse Now,” Newsline magazine, April 2001.
Sardar Tariq, “Water Productivity,” presentation made at National Seminar on Integrated Water Resources Management, Islamabad, December 21-22, 2005
Sher Baz Khan, “Diamer-Bhasha project gets go-ahead,” Dawn, November
Spash, C.I., 2008a. Climate change: need for new economic thought. Economics and political weekly 43(16).
Spash, C.L., 2008b. The economics of climate change impacts a la Stern: novel and nuanced or rhetorically restricted? Ecological Economics 7 (6), 713.
The Water Accord-1991.” Available from www.pakissan.com/english/ Water crisis/the.water.accord.shtml.
Tilman, D., Cassman, K.G., Matson, P.A., Naylor, R, Polasky, S., 2002. Agriculture Review.
UNDPI (1998) Universal Declaration of Human Rights. United Nations Department of Public Information (UNDPI), New York.
UNDP, 2007. Human Development Report 2006--- Beyond Scarcity: Power, Poverty and Global Water Crisis. United Nations Development Programme, New York. UNDP (2008). Fighting climate change--- Human Solidarity in a Divided World. New York: UNDP.
USAID, 2009, Food and Agriculture System in Pakistan, USAID, New York.
The World Bank ‘Pakistan Country Water Resources Assistance Strategy Water Economy Running Dry’ November 14, 2005
World Bank, 2008. World Development Report 2008: Agriculture for Development. The World Bank, Washington, DC.
World Bank, 2005, World Development Report 2006: World Development Report: Water for Development. The World Bank, Washington, DC.
World Bank 2001: Nutrition at a glance. Washington. Www. WorldBank. Org World Bank née: To nourish a nation. Investing in nutrition with World Bank assistance. Washington www.unesco.org/education/tlsf/TLSF/intro/glossary_links/glossa… www.feedingamericaky.org/truth-about-hunger/terms www.inuitknowledge.ca/glossary www.vancouverislanddiet.com/glossary_vancouver_island_diet.… www.parl.gc.ca/Content/LOP/researchpublications/prb0617_glos… sustainablefoodcenter.wordpress.com/glossary-of-terms/ www.foodsafety.psu.edu/angel/fssbook/glossary.html www.enotes.com/public-health-encyclopedia/climate-change-hu… www.urbanag.org.uk/glossary-of-terms-acronyms/ www.slimming4all.com/african-diet-encyclopedia-of-diet/ www.green-bee.ca/about ec.europa.eu/agriculture/glossary/index_en.htm , www.vancouverislanddiet.com/glossary_vancouver_island_diet.…