Burkey, Mark L. and Obeng, Kofi (2004): A detailed investigation of crash risk reduction resulting from red light cameras in small urban areas.
Download (1118Kb) | Preview
This is an update to the October, 2003 version of this report. Using the latest available data, we include an additional 12 months of accident data. Additionally, several data coding errors were discovered in the original data set, and corrected for this report. Therefore, results from the October, 2003 report should be disregarded. This paper analyzes the impact of red-light cameras (RLCs) on crashes at signalized intersections. It examines total crashes and also breaks crashes into categories based on both severity (e.g. causing severe injuries or only property damage) and by type (e.g. angle, rear end). Prompted by criticism of the simplistic methods and small data sets used in many studies of red light cameras, we relate the occurrence of these crashes to the characteristics of signalized intersections, presence or absence of RLC, traffic, weather and other variables. Using a large data set including 26 months before the introduction of RLCs, we analyze reported accidents occurring near 303 intersections over a 57 month period, for a total of 17,271 observations.
|Item Type:||MPRA Paper|
|Original Title:||A detailed investigation of crash risk reduction resulting from red light cameras in small urban areas|
|Keywords:||red light cameras; red light running; intersections|
|Subjects:||R - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics > R4 - Transportation Systems > R41 - Transportation: Demand, Supply, and Congestion; Safety and Accidents; Transportation Noise|
|Depositing User:||Mark L. Burkey|
|Date Deposited:||29. Jan 2012 00:14|
|Last Modified:||11. Feb 2013 17:16|
Advocates for Highway and Auto Safety. “Intersection Safety Potential Federal Funding Sources For Safety Improvements” April, 2001. www.saferoads.org.
Andreassen, David. “A Long Term Study of Red Light Cameras and Accidents,” Australian Road Research Board, ARR 261, February 1995.
Blakey, L.T. “Red Light Cameras: Effective Enforcement Measures for Intersection Safety,” ITE Journal, v73 #3, 34-43, 2003.
Cameron, A. Colin and Pravin K. Trivedi. “Econometric Models Based on Count Data: Comparisons and Applications of Some Estimators and Tests,” Journal of Applied Econometrics, Vol. 1, 29-53, 1986.
Flannery, Aimee, and Robert Maccubbin. “Using Meta Analysis Techniques to Assess the Safety Effect of Red Light Running Cameras,” Report from Mitretek Systems, February, 2002.
Fuchs, Mike. “Motorists Plead Their Cases; High Point Drivers are Most Likely to Succeed in Having Their Red-Light Citations Dismissed on Appeal,” The Greensboro News and Record, June 23, 2002, A1.
FWHA. “Motor Vehicle Accident Costs”, Technical Advisory T 7570.2, October 31, 1994.
Garber, Paul. “Study to Show Where Red-Light Cameras May Go,” The Greensboro News and Record, Oct. 23, 2000, B1.
Greene, William H. Econometric Analysis, 5e, Prentice Hall, New Jersey, 2003.
Greensboro City Data Book, 2001. Online at www.ci.greensboro.nc.us/databook/ .
Huber, P. J. “The Behaviour of Maximum Likelihood Estimates Under Non-standard Conditions,” In Proceedings of the Fifth Berkeley Symposium in Mathematical Statistics and Probability. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 221-233, 1967.
IIHS, “Education Alone Won’t Make Drivers Safer. It won’t reduce crashes.” IIHS Status Report vol. 36, no. 5, May 19, 2001.
Kent, S., B. Corben, B. Fildes & D. Dyte. “Red Light Running Behaviour at Red Light Camera and Control Intersections,” Monash University Accident Research Centre Report #73, 1995.
Kulmala, R. “Measuring the Safety Effects of Road Measures at Junctions,” Accident Analysis and Prevention, Vol. 26. No. 4, 1994.
Maccubbin, Robert P., Barbara L. Staples, and Arthur E. Salwin. “Automated Enforcement of Traffic Signals: A Literature Review,” Prepared for USDOT, FHWA by Mitretek Systems, July 2001.
Maddala, G.S. Limited Dependent and Qualitative Variables in Econometrics. Cambridge University Press, 1983.
McFadden, John and Hugh W. McGee. “Synthesis and Evaluation of Red Light Running Automated Enforcement Programs in the United States,” USDOT Publication # FHWA-IF-00-004, September, 1999.
McGee, H. W. and Eccles, K. A. (2003). “The impact of red-light camera enforcement on crash experience,” ITE Journal, 73(3), 44-48.
Milazzo, Joseph S., Joseph E. Hummer, and Leanne M. Prothe. “A Recommended Policy for Automatic Electronic Enforcement of Red Light Running Violations in North Carolina,” for the North Carolina Governor’s Highway Safety Program, June, 2001.
Newstead, Stuart V., Maxwell H. Cameron, and L. Mark W. Leggett. “The Crash Reduction Effectiveness of a Network-wide Traffic Police Deployment System,” Accident Analysis and Prevention 33, 2001.
NOAA. Precipitation data online. http://www.erh.noaa.gov/er/rah/climate/ , accessed 6/10/2004. Porter, B.E. and T.D. Berry. “A Nationwide Survey of Red
Light Running: Measuring Driver Behaviors for the ‘Stop Red Light Running Program’,” Internet Address: http://safety.fhwa.dot.gov/fourthlevel/pdf/OldDomStdy.pdf , 1999.
Reese, Phillip. “Rate of Red-Light Crashes Steady,” The News and Record, March 3, 2002, B1.
Retting, Richard A. and Sergey Y. Kyrychenko. “Reductions in Injury Crashes Associated with Red Light Camera Enforcement in Oxnard, California,” American Journal of Public Health Vol. 92, Nov. 2002.
Retting, R.A.; Williams, A.F.; Preusser, D.F.; and Weinstein, H.B. “Classifying Urban Crashes for Countermeasure Development,” Accident Analysis and Prevention Vol. 27, June 1995.
Retting, R.A., J.F. Chapline, and A.F. Williams. “Changes in Crash Risk Following Re-Timing of Traffic Signal Change Intervals,” Accident Analysis and Prevention, Vol. 34, March 2002.
Retting, Richard A., Allan F. Williams, Charles M. Farmer, and Amy F. Feldman (1999a). “Evaluation of red-light Camera Enforcement in Fairfax, VA., USA,” ITE Journal, 30-34.
Retting, Richard A., Allan F. Williams, Charles M. Farmer, and Amy F. Feldman (1999b). “Evaluation of red-light Camera Enforcement in Oxnard, California,” Accident Analysis and Prevention, 31: 169-174.
Retting, R.A., A.F. Williams, and M.A. Greene. “Red Light Running and Sensible Countermeasures,” Transportation Research Record 1640, Transportation Research Board, 1998.
Skabardonis, Alexander. “ITS Benefits: The Case of Traffic Signal Control Systems,” TRB Paper No. 01-3286, 2001.
Stimpson, W.A., P.L. Zador, and P.J. Tarnoff. “The Influence of the Time Duration of Yellow Traffic Signals on Driver Response,” ITE Journal, November 1980.
Tarawneh, Tarek M., Virenda A. Singh, Patrick McCoy, and Mohammed S. Tarawneh. “Deterring Red Light Violations through Advertising and Enforcement,” TRB Paper No. 01-2555, 2001.
Troy, S.A. Memorandum to Area and Division Traffic Engineers, NCDOT, Dec. 3, 2001. Found at www.doh.dot.state.nc.us/preconstruct/traffic/safety/crashcosts.pdf .
USDOT, NHTSA “Traffic Safety Facts 2000”.
Wiliszowski, Connie H., John H. Lacey, Elizabeth Cyr, and Ralph K. Jones. “A Trend Analysis of Traffic Law Enforcement in the United States,” April 2001 report for NHTSA.
Winn, Ray. “Running the Red: An Evaluation of Strathclyde Police’s Red Light Camera Initiative,” The Scottish Office, Central Research Unit, Development Department Research Program, Research Finding No. 7 (1995). Found at www.scotland.gov.uk/cru/resfinds/drf7-00.htm.
Wissinger, L.M., J.E. Hummer, and J.S. Milazzo II. “Using Focus Groups to Investigate the Issues Surrounding Red Light Running,” Transportation Research Record 1734, Transportation Research Board, 2000.
Zaidel, David M. “The Impact of Enforcement on Accidents,” The ”Escape” Project, Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT), Building and Transport, February 2002.
Zeeger, C. V., H.F. Huang, J.R. Stewart, R. Pfefer, and J. Wang. “Effects of a Towaway Reporting Threshold on Crash Analysis Results,” Transportation Research Record 1635, Transportation Research Board, 1998.