Bashir, Jibran and Afzal, Sara (2008): The significance of HRM for small enterprises of Pakistan.
Download (428Kb) | Preview
Human resource management practices have become the de facto standard for almost all large organizations. Today’s organizations consider human resource management as an all inclusive practice and view it playing vital role in their development. However, the significance of HRM practices in small enterprises is not yet fully realized and only a handful researches are done so far on HRM practices (Heneman & Berkley, 1999). This paper suggests the imperative role of HRM Function in small enterprises of Pakistan. The propositions made on the basis of literature review in order to emphasize this research are; firstly; HRM practices are likely to be significant for the survival of small enterprises. Secondly; because of this essential role of HRM for the survival of small enterprises, it is also likely to be vital for their growth. Thirdly; it is suggested that HRM practices, if implemented in early stages of the organizational life cycle of small enterprises, are likely to curtail down the unhealthy resistance to change by the old incumbents of organization.
|Item Type:||MPRA Paper|
|Original Title:||The significance of HRM for small enterprises of Pakistan|
|English Title:||The Significance of HRM for Small Enterprises of Pakistan|
|Keywords:||HRM Practices, Small Enterprises|
|Subjects:||O - Economic Development, Technological Change, and Growth > O1 - Economic Development > O15 - Human Resources; Human Development; Income Distribution; Migration|
|Depositing User:||Jibran Bashir|
|Date Deposited:||02. Mar 2012 20:14|
|Last Modified:||12. Feb 2013 01:17|
Adler, R. S., and B. Borys (1996). “Two Types of Bureaucracy: Enabling and Coercive,” Administrative Science Quarterly, 41(1), 61–89.
Arthur, J. B. (1994). Effects of Human Resource systems on manufacturing performance and turnover. Academy of Management Journal, 37(3), 670-687
Bacon, N., Ackers, P., Storey, J., Coates, D., (1996) It's a Small World: managing human resources in small businesses, International Journal of Human Resource Management, 7, (1): 82-100
Baumback, C.M., (1988), How to Organize and Operate a Small Business, Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Bawa, M. A., Jantan, D. M., & Ali, D. J. (2001). HRM Practices in Small, Medium and Large Firms, Malaysian Management Review, 36(1). Bruederl, J., Preisendoerfer, P., & Ziegler, R. (1992). Survival chances of newly founded business organizations. American Sociological Review, 57, 227–242. Dr. Liao, Y. S. (2006), The Effect of Fit between Organizational Life Cycle and Human Resource Management Control on Firm Performance, The Journal of American Academy of Business, Cambridge, 8 (1), 192 - 196
Foulkes, Fred K., (1980), Personnel Policies in Large Non-Union Companies, Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Gilbert, J. & Jones, W.G. (1996) ‘How Do Small Businesses Manage Their Most Valuable Resource? A Study of HRM Practices in a Sample of New Zealand Small Businesses, Paper Presented to the Small Enterprise Association of Australia and New Zealand Conference, Perth.
Gilbert, J. & Jones, G. (1998). How do small businesses manage their most valuable resource? A study of HRM practices in a sample of New Zealand Small Businesses, Small Firm Performance: the value of Discipline, A research publication of Association For Small Business & Entrepreneurship at Small Business Advancement National Center - University of Central Arkansas Retrieved From: http://www.sbaer.uca.edu/research/1998/ICSB/p002.htm
Gulbro, R. D., & Tucker, M. (1993), Small Firm Performance: the value of Discipline, A research publication of Association For Small Business & Entrepreneurship at Small Business Advancement National Center - University of Central Arkansas, Retrieved From: http://www.sbaer.uca.edu/research/ssbia/1993/pdf/03.pdf
Hay, R.K. and D.L. Ross, (1989), An Assessment of Success Factors of Non-urban Start-up Firms Based Upon Financial Characteristics of Successful Versus Failed Firms, Frontiers of Entrepreneurship Research, 148-158.
Heneman, H. G. Ill, & Berkley, R. A. (1999). Applicant attraction practices and outcomes among small businesses. Journal of Small Business Management, 37(\), 53-74.
Heneman, R. L., Tansky, J. W., Camp, S. M., (2000), Human Resource Management Practices in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises: Unanswered Questions and Future Research Perspectives, Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 11-26.
Hornsby, J. & Kuratko, D.( l990) 'Human Resource Management in Small Business: Critical Issues for the l990s', Journal of Small Business Management (July), 9-18.
Hornsby, J. & Kuratko, D.(2003), Human Resource Management in U.S. small Businesses: A replication and extension, Journal of Developmental Entrepreneurship, 8 (1), 73-92
Huselid, Mark, (1994), “Documenting HR’s Effect on Company Performance,” HR Magazine, 79-84.
Huselid, M. A., Jackson, S. E., & Schuler, R. S. (1997). Technical and Strategic human resource management effectiveness as determinants of firm performance. Academy of Management journal, 40(1), 171-188
Jamil, S. (2007). Human resource management — a fad in quandary. Published in Dawn Newspaper, June, 27, 2007 Retrieved from: http://www.dawn.com/2005/06/27/ebr10.htm
Khilji, S. E. (1999a), Management in Pakistan, in M. Warner International Encyclopedia of Business and Management, London: international Thomson Press. Khilji, S. E. (2001). Article: Human Resource Management in Pakistan, pp. 102-120, Published in “Human Resource Management in Developing Countries”, Compiled by: Pawan S. Budhwar, Yaw A. Debrah, A Routledge Publication - ISBN 0415343291 Kilmann, R.H., (1990, January), “A Completely Integrated Program for Creating and Maintaining Organizational Success,” Organizational Dynamics, 5-19.
Kotey, B., & Slade, P., (2005), Formal Human Resource Management Practices in Small Growing Firms, Journal of Small Business Management, Vol. 43(1), pp. 16–40
Kok, J., Thurik, R., & Uhlaner, L., (2003). Professional HRM practices in Family owned-managed enterprises, SCALES Paper: N200319 - Electronic working Paper series of EIM Business and Policy Research, SME and Entrepreneurship Program of Netherlands Ministry of Economic Affairs. Marlow, S. Patton, D, (1993), Managing the employment relationship in the small firm: Possibilities for human resource management. International Small Business Journal, 11(4), 57-64.
Milliman, J., Glinow, M. A. V., Nathan, M., (1991), Organizational Life Cycles and Strategic International Human Resource Management in Multinational Companies: Implications for Congruence Theory, Academy of Management Review, 16(2), 318-339. Mulhern, A. (1995). The SME sector in Europe: A broad perspective. Journal of Small Business Management, 33(3), 83–87. Perumalla, V. S. (2000). Profiles and HRM Practices of Small and Medium-scale Businesses in Atlanta, School of Public Policy Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia Retrieved from: http://www.cherry.gatech.edu/REFS/STUDENT/Perumalla-2000.PDF
Peterson, R.A., G. Kozmetsky, and N.M. Ridgway, (1983, Summer), “Perceived Causes of Small Business Failures: A Research Note,” American Journal of Small Business, 8(1), 15-19.
Qureshi, Z. A. (1995), Impact of management practices on employee effectiveness in South Asia, in R. N. Kanungo (ed.) New approaches to employee management, London: JAI Press, Vol. 3.
Rauch, A. , Frese, M., & Utsch, A.: (2005), Effects of Human Capital and Long-Term Human Resources Development and Utilization on Employment Growth of Small-Scale Businesses: A Causal Analysis, Journal of Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 681-698, 1042-2587, Copyright 2005 by Baylor University.
Schuler, R.S., (1987), Personnel and Human Resource Management. (3rd ed.). St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Co.
Singh, T., Pathak, R. D., Kazmi, A., Sharma, B., & Terzioviski, M. :(2007). An empirical study of small business organizations in Fiji using a competency based framework. South Asian Journal of Management, Vol. 14(2), 7-35.
SMEDA Small Enterprise Definition (proposed under SME act of Pakistan) http://www.smeda.org/main.php?id=2 (accessed at: 12th October, 2007)