Maggioni, Daniela (2010): Learning by exporting in Turkey: an investigation for existence and channels.
Download (441kB) | Preview
Using a rich longitudinal database at the plant level, I shed new light on the causal nexus between exports and productivity for Turkey, a middle-income country. I find evidence for both self-selection into exporting and learning-by-exporting. My main focus is on post-entry effects. To test this hypothesis I follow recent empirical literature and I apply the Propensity Score Matching and a Difference-in-Difference estimator. I find a higher labour productivity and TFP growth for exporting firms in the entry year and some years following the entry. Exports seem to place firms on a superior productivity path. My main contribution is to show the strict linkage between export and import activity: export starters often start also importing. Learning by exporting effects hold when I control for the role of imports and I verify larger productivity gains for firms which start exporting and importing at the same time. Finally, in order to verify if post-entry effects are not only scale eects but work through competition channel and/or technology transfers, I look for a heterogeneity according to the sectoral productivity gap between the domestic market and foreign trade partners. I verify a different timing of efficiency improvements between comparative advantage and disadvantage sectors.
|Item Type:||MPRA Paper|
|Original Title:||Learning by exporting in Turkey: an investigation for existence and channels|
|Keywords:||Exports; Self selection; Learning-by-exporting; Imports|
|Subjects:||F - International Economics > F1 - Trade > F14 - Empirical Studies of Trade
D - Microeconomics > D2 - Production and Organizations > D24 - Production; Cost; Capital; Capital, Total Factor, and Multifactor Productivity; Capacity
|Depositing User:||Daniela Maggioni|
|Date Deposited:||07. Mar 2012 13:02|
|Last Modified:||12. Feb 2013 14:04|
 Aldan, A. and M. Gunay, 2008. Entry to Export Markets and Productivity: Analysis of Matched Firms in Turkey. The Central Bank of the Republic of Turkey, Working Paper 08/05.
 Alvarez, R. and R. Lopez, 2005. Exporting and Performance: Evidence from Chilean Plants. Canadian Journal of Economics, 38(4), 1384-1400.
 Arnold, J.M. and B.S. Javorcik, 2005. Gifted Kids or Pushy Parents? Foreign Acquisitions and Plant Performance in Indonesia. CEPR Discussion Paper 5065.
 Aw, B.Y., S. Chung, and M. Roberts, 2000. Productivity and Turnover in the Export Market: Micro Evidence from Taiwan and South Korea. The World Bank Economic Review, 14(1), 65-90.
 Becker, S.O. and A. Ichino, 2002. Estimation of average treatment effects based on propensity scores. The Stata Journal, 2(4), 358-377.
 Bernard, A. and B. Jensen, 1999. Exceptional exporters performance: cause, effect or both?. Journal of International Economics, 47(1), 1-25.
 Bernard, A., J. Eaton, B. Jensen, and S. Kortum, 2003. Plants and Productivity in International Trade. American Economic Review, 93(4), 1268-1290.
 Blalock, A. and J.B. Jertler, 2004. Learning from exporting revisited in a less developed setting. Journal of Development Economics, 75(2), 397-416.
 Blundell, R. and M. Dias, 2000. Evaluation methods for non-experimental data. Fiscal Studies, 21(4), 427-468.
 Caliendo, M. and S. Kopeinig, 2008. Some practical guidance for the implementation of propensity score matching. Journal of Economic Surveys, 22(1), 31-72.
 Castellani D., 2002. Export behavior and productivity growth: Evidence from Italian manufacturing firms. Review of World Economics, 138(4), 605-628.
 Castellani D., Serti F. and C. Tomasi, 2008. Firms in International Trade: Importers and Exporters Heterogeneity in the Italian Manufacturing Industry. LEM Papers Series 2008/04, Sant'Anna School of Advanced Studies, Pisa.
 Clerides, S., S. Lach, and J. Tybout, 1998. Is learning by exporting important? Microdynamic evidence from Colombia Mexico and Morocco. Quarterly Journal of Economics, 113(3), 903-948.
 Damijan, J.P. and C. Kostevc, 2005. Performance on Exports: Continuous Productivity Improvements or Capacity Utilization. LICOS Discussion Paper 16305.
 Delgado, M., J. Farinas, and S. Ruano, 2002. Firm productivity and export markets: a non-parametric approach. Journal of International Economics, 57(2), 397-422.
 De Loecker, J., 2007. Do Exports Generate Higher Productivity? Evidence from Slovenia. Journal of International Economics, 73(1), 69-98.
 Fernandes, A. and A. Isgut, 2007. Learning-by-Exporting Effects: Are They for Real?. MPRA Paper 3121.
 Girma, S., D. Greenaway, and R. Kneller, 2003. Export market exit and performance dynamics: a causality analysis of matched firms. Economics Letters, 80(2), 181-187.
 Greenaway, D. and R. Kneller, 2007. Industry Differences in the Effect of Export Market Entry: Learning by Exporting? Review of World Economics, 143(3), 416-432.
 Greenaway, D. and R. Kneller, 2008. Exporting, productivity and agglomeration. European Economic Review, 52(5), 919-939.
 Good, D.H., M. Nadiri,and R. Sickles, 1997. Handbook of Applied Econometrics: Micro-econometrics. Blackwell: Oxford.
 Kasahara H. and B. Lapham, 2007. Productivity and the decision to import and export: theory and evidence, mimeo, University of Western Ontario.
 Kasahara H. and J. Rodrigue, 2008. Does the use of imported intermediates increase productivity? Plant-level evidence. Journal of Development Economics, 87, 106-118.
 Kraay, A., 1999. Exportations et Performances Economiques: Etude d'un Panel d'Entreprises Chinoises. Revue d'Economie du Developpement, 1-2, 183-207.
 Levinsohn, J. and A. Petrin, 2003. Estimating Production Functions Using Inputs to Control for Unobservables. Review of Economics Studies, 70(2), 317-341.
 Mayer, T. and G.I.P. Ottaviano, 2007. The Happy Few: The internationalisation of European firms. Bruegel Blueprint Series.
 Melitz, M., 2003. The Impact of Trade on Intra-Industry Reallocations and Aggregate Industry Productivity. Econometrica, 71(6), 1695-1725.
 Muuls, M. and M. Pisu, 2009. Imports and Exports at the Level of the Firm: Evidence from Belgium. World Economy, 32(5), 692-734.
 Pavcnik, N., 2002. Trade Liberalization, Exit, and Productivity Improvements: Evidence from Chilean Plants. Review of Economic Studies, 69(1), 245-276.
 Rosenbaum, P. and D. Rubin, 1983. The central role of the propensity score in observational studies for causal effects. Biometrica, 70(1), 41-55.
 Serti, F. and C. Tomasi, 2008. Self Selection and Post-Entry effects of Exports. Evidence from Italian Manufacturing firms. Review of World Economics, 144(4), 660-694.
 Sianesi, B., 2004. An evaluation of the active labour market programmes in Sweden. Review of Economics and Statistics, 86(1), 33-55.
 Taymaz, E. and K. Yilmaz, 2007. Productivity and trade orientation: Turkish manufacturing industry before and after the customs union. The Journal of International Trade and Diplomacy, 1(1), 127-154.
 Van Biesebroeck, J., 2005. Exporting Raises Productivity in sub-Saharan African Manufacturing Firms. Journal of International Economics, 67(2), 373-391.
 Wagner, J., 2002. The causal effects of exports on firm size and labor productivity: first evidence from a matching approach. Economics Letters, 77(2), 287-292.
 Wagner, J., 2007a. Exports and productivity: A survey of the evidence from firm level data. World Economy, 30(1), 60-82.
 Wagner, J., 2007b. Exports and Productivity in Germany. Applied Economics Quarterly, 53(4), 353-373.
 Yasar, M. and R.M. Rejesus, 2005. Exporting status and firm performance: Evidence from a matched sample. Economics Letters, 88(3), 397-402.