Scarlato, Margherita (2012): Social Enterprise, Capabilities and Development: Lessons from Ecuador.
Download (354kB) | Preview
The paper analyses how the theoretical framework of social enterprise proposed in the academic debate could be operationalised in the specific socioeconomic context of Ecuador. Recently, this country designed a new economic paradigm based on the solidarity economy model to reconcile an ambitious developmental state platform with the vision of a participatory strategy that pursues democracy, human rights and poverty reduction. This paradigm was enshrined in the constitution and elaborated through the Plan Nacional para el Buen Vivir 2009-2013. The paper explores the peculiar features of the solidarity model in Ecuador and draws more general insights related to development policy.
|Item Type:||MPRA Paper|
|Original Title:||Social Enterprise, Capabilities and Development: Lessons from Ecuador|
|Keywords:||Social enterprise, human development, social protection, development policy, Ecuador|
|Subjects:||O - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth > O5 - Economywide Country Studies > O54 - Latin America ; Caribbean
O - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth > O1 - Economic Development > O15 - Human Resources ; Human Development ; Income Distribution ; Migration
L - Industrial Organization > L3 - Nonprofit Organizations and Public Enterprise > L31 - Nonprofit Institutions ; NGOs ; Social Entrepreneurship
|Depositing User:||Margherita Scarlato|
|Date Deposited:||24. Mar 2012 16:37|
|Last Modified:||25. Jul 2015 21:22|
Adato, M. and Hoddinott, J. (eds) (2010) Conditional Cash Transfers in Latin America (Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press). Amin, A. (ed) (2009) The Social Economy: International Perspectives (London: Zed Press). Andres, A.R. and Ramlogan-Dobson, C. (2011) Is Corruption Really Bad for Inequality? Evidence from Latin America. Journal of Development Studies, 47(7), pp. 959-976. Anheier, H. and Themudo, N. (2002) Organizational forms of Global Civil Society: Implications of Going Global, in: M. Glasius, M. Kaldor and H. Anheier (eds) Global Civil Society 2002 (Oxford: Oxford University Press), pp. 191-216. Araujo, M.C., Ferreira, F.H.G., Lanjouw, P. and Ozler, B. (2006) Local Inequality and Project Choice: Theory and Evidence from Ecuador. World Bank, Policy Research Working Paper, No. 3997, Washington D.C. Baird, S., McIntosh, C. and Ozler, B. (2011) Lessons from a "Multi-arm" Cash Transfer Experiment in Malawi. Paper presented at The World Bank, CCTs: The Second Generation of Evaluations Workshop, October 24-25, Washington D.C. Batley, R. and Mcloughlin, C. (2010) Engagement with Non-State Service Providers in Fragile States: Reconciling State-Building and Service Delivery. Development Policy Review, 28(2), pp. 131-154. Bebbington, A. (2007). Social Movements and the Politicization of Chronic Poverty. Development and Change, 38(5), pp. 793-818. Bebbington, A., Abramovay, R. and Chiriboga, M. (2008) Social Movements and the Dynamics of Rural Development in Latin America, World Development, 36(12), pp. 2109-2526. Bebbington, A., Mitlin, D., Mogaladi, J., Scurrah, M. and Bielich, C. (2010) Decentring Poverty, Reworking Government: Movements and States in the Government of Poverty. Journal of Development Studies, 46(7), pp. 1304-1326. Bebbington, A.J. and Humphreys Bebbington, D. (2011) An Andean Avatar: Post-neoliberal and Neoliberal Strategies for Securing the Unobtainable. New Political Economy, 15(4), pp. 131-145. Birchall, J. (2004) Co-operatives and the Millennium Development Goals (Geneva: ILO). Bjorkman, M. and Svensson, J. (2009) Power to the People: Evidence from a Randomized Field Experiment on Community-Based Monitoring in Uganda. Quarterly Journal of Economics, 124(2), pp. 735-769. Boccagni, P. (2011) Migrants' Social Protection as a Transnational Process: Public Policies and Emigrant Initiative in the Case of Ecuador. International Journal of Social Welfare, 20(3), pp. 318-325. Borzaga, C. and Defourny, J. (2001) The Emergence of Social Enterprise (London: Routledge). Borzaga, C. and Galera, G. (2009) Social Enterprise. An International Overview of Its Conceptual Evolution and Legal Implementation. Social Enterprise Journal, 5(3), pp. 210-228. Bowles, S., Durlauf, N. and Hoff, K. (eds) (2006) Poverty Traps (Princeton: Princeton University Press). Bowles, S. and Gintis, H. (2005) Social Community, Moral Sentiments, and Community Governance, in: S. Bowles, H. Gintis and E. Feher (eds) Moral Sentiments and Material Interests: The Foundation of Cooperation in Economic Life (Cambridge MA: MIT Press), pp. 379-398. Bräutigam, D.A. and Segarra, M. (2007) Difficult Partnerships: The World Bank, States, and NGOs. Latin American Politics and Society, 49(4), pp. 149-181. Bruni, L. (2009) Reciprocity, Altruism and the Civil Society: In Praise of Heterogeneity. Advances in Game Theory Series, Volume 4 (London: Routledge). Bruni, L. and Zamagni, S. (2007) Civil Economy. Efficiency, Equity, Public Happiness (Oxford: Peter Lang). Canelas, M. (2010) Poverty, Inequality, and Income Mobility: The Case of Ecuador. A Pseudo-Panel Approach. Doctoral Dissertation, Paris School of Economics, Paris. Casey, K., Glennerster, R. and Miguel, E. (2011) Reshaping Institutions: Evidence on External Aid and Local Collective Action. NBER Working Paper, No.1712, Cambridge MA. CEPAL (Comisión Económica para América Latina) (2011) Social Panorama of Latin America, (Santiago: United Nations). Cortés Maisonave, A. (2011) The Transnational Governance of Ecuadorian Migration through Co-Development. International Migration, 49(3), pp. 30-51. de Brauw, A. and Hoddinott, J. (2011) Must Conditional Cash Transfer Programs Be Conditioned to Be Effective? The Impact of Conditioning Transfers on School Enrollment in Mexico. Journal of Development Economics, 96(2), pp. 359-370. Defourny, J. and Nyssens, M. (2006) Defining Social Enterprise, in: M. Nyssens (ed) Social Enterprise. At the Crossroads of Market, Public Policies and Civil Society (London: Routledge), pp. 3-26. Defourny, J. and Nyssens, M. (2008) Social Enterprise in Europe: Recent Trends and Developments. Social Enterprise Journal, 5(1), pp. 7-29. Defourny, J. and Nyssens, M. (2010) Conceptions of Social Enterprise and Social Entrepreneurship in Europe and the United States: Convergences and Divergences. Journal of Social Entrepreneurship, 1(1), pp. 32-53. de la Brière, B. and Rawlings, L.B. (2006) Examining Conditional Cash Transfer Programs. A Role for Increased Social Inclusion? World Bank, Social Protection Discussion Paper, No. 603, Washington D.C. Di Gregorio, M., Hagedorn, K., Kirk, M., Korf, B., McCarthy, N., Meinzen-Dick, R. and Swallow, B. (2008) Property Rights, Collective Action and Poverty: The Role of Institutions for Poverty Reduction. CAPRi Working Paper, No.81, International Food Policy Research Institute, Washington D.C. Duflo, E. (2012) Women Empowerment and Economic Development. CEPR Discussion Paper Series, No. 8734, London. EMES European Research Network (2008) Social Enterprise: A New Model for Poverty Reduction and Employment Generation (Bratislava: UNDP Regional Bureau). Erazo, J. (2010) Constructing Indigenous Subjectivities: Economic Collectivism and Identity in the Ecuadorian Amazon. Development and Change, 41(6), pp. 1017-1039. Evans, P. (2002) Collective Capabilities, Culture, and Amartya Sen’s Development as Freedom. Studies in Comparative International Development, 37(2), pp. 55-60. Ferreira, F.H.G. and Robalino, D. (2010) Social Protection in Latin America: Achievements and Limitations. World Bank, Policy Research Working Paper, No. 5305, Washington D.C. Fiszbein, A., Schady, N. (2009) Conditional Cash Transfers: Reducing Present and Future Poverty (Washington D.C.: The World Bank). Fiszbein, A., Ringold, D. and Srinivasan, S. (2011) Cash Transfers, Children and the Crisis: Protecting Current and Future Investments. Development Policy Review, 29(5), pp. 585-601. Funder, M. (2011) The Social Shaping of Participatory Spaces: Evidence from Community Development in Southern Thailand. Journal of Development Sudies, 46(10), pp. 1708-1728. Gaarder, M., Glassman, A. and Todd, J. (2010) Conditional Cash Transfers and Health: Unpacking the Causal Chain. Journal of Development Effectiveness, 2(1), pp. 6-50. Gonzalez-Rozada, M. and Llerena Pinto, F. (2011) The Effects of a Conditional Transfer Program on the Labor Market: The Human Development Bonus in Ecuador. IZA-World Bank, Conference on Employment and Development, Mexico City. Grant, R.W. and Keohane, R.O. (2005) Accountability and Abuses of Power in World Politics. The American Political Science Review, 99(1), pp. 29-43. Green, M. (2010) Making Development Agents: Participation as Boundary Object in International Development. Journal of Development Studies, 46(7), pp. 1240-1263. Gugerty, M.K. and Kremer, M. (2008) Outside Funding and the Dynamics of Participation in Community Associations. American Journal of Political Science, 52(3), pp. 585-602. Hickey, S. (2010) The Government of Chronic Poverty: From Exclusion to Citizenship? Journal of Development Studies, 46(7), pp. 1139-1155. Hickey, S. and Bracking, S. (2005) Exploring the Politics of Chronic Poverty: From Representation to a Politics of Justice? World Development, 35(6), 851-865. Hoff, K. and Stiglitz, J.E. (2001) Modern Economic Theory and Development, in: G. Meier and J.E. Stiglitz (eds) Frontiers of Development Economics (Oxford: Oxford University Press), pp. 389-459. Hulme, D. (2008) Reflections on NGOs and Development: The Elephant, the Dinosaur, Several Tigers but No Owl, in: A. Bebbington, S. Hickey and D. Mitlin (eds) Can NGOs Make A Difference? The Challenge of Development Alternatives (London: Zed Books), pp. 337-345. Ibrahim, S. (2006) From Individual to Collective Capabilities: the Capability Approach as a Conceptual Framework for Self-help. Journal of Human Development, 7(3), pp. 398-416. Ibrahim, S. and Alkire, S. (2008) Agency & Empowerment: A Proposal for Internationally Comparable Indicators. Oxford Development Studies, 35(4), pp. 379-403. Jens, L., Kling, J.R. and Mullainathan, S. (2011) Mechanism Experiments and Policy Evaluations. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 25(3), pp. 17–38. Jones West, K. (2011). Programmatic or Personalistic? Pachakutik Strategies in Ecuador's 2006 Elections. The Latin Americanist, 55(1), pp. 49-68. Kelsall, T. (2011) Going with the Grain in African Development. Development Policy Review, 29(51), pp. 5223-5251. Kennemore, A. and Weeks, G. (2011). Twenty-First Century Socialism? The Elusive Search for a Post-Neoliberal Development Model in Bolivia and Ecuador. Bulletin of Latin American Research, 30(3), pp. 267-281. Kerlin, J.A. (ed) (2009) Social Enterprise: A Global Comparison (Lebanon: Tufts University Press). Kerlin, J.A. (2010) A Comparative Analysis of the Global Emergence of Social Enterprise. Voluntas, 21(2), pp. 162-179. Koslinski, M.C. and Reis, E.P. (2009) Transnational and Domestic Relations of NGOs in Brazil. World Development, 37(3), 714-725. Lay, J. (2012) Millennium Development Goal Achievements and Policies in Education and Health: What Has Been Learnt? Development Policy Review, 30(1), pp. 67-85. Lee, T. (2010) The Rise of International Nongovernmental Organizations: A Top-Down or Bottom-Up Explanation? Voluntas, 21(3), pp. 393-416. León, M. and Younger, S. (2007) Transfer Payments, Mother’s Income, and Child Health in Ecuador. Journal of Development Studies, 43(6), pp. 1126-1143. Maluccio, J., Murphy, A. and Regalia, F. (2010) Does Supply Matter? Initial Schooling Conditions and the Effectiveness of Conditional Cash Transfers fro Grade Progression in Nicaragua. Journal of Development Effectiveness, 2(1), pp. 87-116. Margheritis, A. (2011) "Todos Somos Migrantes" (We are All Migrants): The Paradoxes of Innovative State-led Transnationalism in Ecuador. International Political Sociology, 5(2), pp. 198-217. Meghir, C. (2011) Conditional Cash Transfers: the Solution or Just a Piece of the Puzzle? Paper presented at The World Bank, CCTs: The Second Generation of Evaluations Workshop, October 24-25, Washington D.C. Mena, C.F., Barbieri, A.F., Walsh, S.J., Erlien, C.M., Holt, F.L. and Bilsborrow, R.E. (2006) Pressure on the Cuyabeno Wildlife Reserve: Development and Land Use/Cover Change in the Northern Ecuadorian Amazon. World Development, 34(10), pp. 1831-1849. Mitlin, D., Hickey, S. and Bebbington, A. (2007) Reclaiming Development? NGOs and the Challenge of Alternatives. World Development, 35(10), pp. 1699–1720. Molyneux, M. and Thomson, M. (2011) Cash Transfers, Gender Equity and Women's Empowerment in Peru, Ecuador and Bolivia. Gender & Development, 19(2), pp. 195-212. Mosse, D. (2010) A Relational Approach to Durable Poverty, Inequality and Power. Journal of Development Studies, 46(7), pp. 1156-1178. Mwangi, E. and Markelova, H. (2009) Collective Action and Property Rights for Poverty Reduction: A Review of Methods and Approaches. Development Policy Review, 27(3), pp. 307-331. Nicholls, A. (2006) Social Entrepreneurship (Oxford: Oxford University Press). Offer, A. (1997) Between Gift and the Market: the Economy of Regard. Economic History Review, 50(3), pp. 450-476. Olken, B., Onishi, J. and Wong, S. (2011) Should Aid Reward Performance? Performance Incentives for Communities in Indonesia's PNPM Generasi Program. Paper presented at The World Bank, CCTs: The Second Generation of Evaluations Workshop, October 24-25, Washington D.C. Oosterbeek, H., Ponce, J., and N. Schady, (2008) The Impact of Cash Transfers on School Enrolment: Evidence from Ecuador. World Bank, Policy Research Working Paper, No. 4645, Washington D.C. Ospina Peralta, P., Ortiz A.S., and Arboleda, M. (2008) Neo-corporatism and Territorial Economic Development: the Ecuadorian Indigenous Movement in Local Government. World Development, 36(12), pp. 2921-2936. Ostrom, E. (2005) Understanding Institutional Diversity (Princeton: Princeton University Press). Paxton, P. (2002) Social Capital and Democracy: An Interdependent Relationship. American Sociological Review, 67(2), pp. 254-277. Ponce, J. and Bedi, A.S. (2010) The Impact of a Cash Transfer Program on Cognitive Achievement: The Bono de Desarrollo Humano of Ecuador. Economics of Education Review, 29(1), pp. 116-125. Ponce, J. (2008) Education Policy and Performance. Evaluating the Impact of Targeted Education Programs in Ecuador (Maastricht: Shaker Publishing). Poon, D. (2011) The Emergence and Development of Social Enterprise Sectors. University of Pennsylvania, Social Impact Research Experience Journal, Wharton School, Philadelphia. Ray, D. (2000) What's New in Development Economics? American Economist, 44, pp. 3-16. Roitter, M. and Vivas, A. (2009) Social Enterprise in Argentina, in: J. Kerlin (ed) Social Enterprise: A Global Comparison (Lebanon: Tufts University Press), pp. 139-162. Rudel, T.K. (2006) After the Labor Migrants Leave: The Search for Sustainable Development in a Sending Region of the Ecuadorian Amazon. World Development, 34(5), pp. 838-851. Salomon, L.M. and Anheier, H.K. (eds) (1998) The Nonprofit Sector in the Developing World: A Comparative Analysis (Manchester: Manchester University Press). Salomon, L.M and Sokolowski, S.W. (eds) (1999) Global Civil Society. Dimensions of the Nonprofit Sector. Volume One (Baltimore: John Hopkins Centre for Civil Society Studies). Salomon, L, Sokolowski, S.W. and Anheir, H.K. (2000) Social Origins of Civil Society: An Overview. Working Paper of the John Hopkins Comparative Nonprofit Sector Project, No. 38, The John Hopkins Center for Civil Society Studies, Baltimore. Salomon, L.M. and Sokolowski, S.W. (eds) (2004) Global Civil Society. Dimensions of the Nonprofit Sector. Volume Two (Bloomfield: Kumarian Press). Samaniego, P. and Tejerina, L. (2010) Financial Inclusion Through the Bono de Desarrollo Humano in Ecuador. Inter-American Development Bank, Technical Notes, Washington D.C. Santos, M.F. (2009) A Positive Theory of Social Entrepreneurship. INSEAD Working Paper, No. 23, INSEAD, Fontainbleau. Scarlato, M. (2012) Social Enterprise and Development: Evidence from Italy. Journal of Social Entrepreneurship, 3(1), Forthcoming. Schady, N., and Araujo, M.A. (2006) Cash Transfers, Conditions, School Enrolment, and Child Work: Evidence from a Randomized Experiment in Ecuador. World Bank, Policy Research Working Paper, No. 3930, Washington D.C. Schmitt, C. (2010) Sources of Civic Engagement in Latin America: Empirical Evidence from Rural Ecuadorian Communities. Journal of Development Studies, 46(8), pp. 14421458. Seligson, M.A. (ed) (2011) Political Culture of Democracy in Ecuador, 2010. Latin America Public Opinion Project (Nashville: Vanderbilt University). Sen, A. (1999) Development as Freedom (New York: Anchor). Silva, V. (2011) Supply Side of the CCT Programs. Paper presented at The World Bank, CCTs: The Second Generation of Evaluations Workshop, October 24-25, Washington D.C. Sorj, B. (2005) Civil Societies North-South Relations: NGOs and Dependency (Rio de Janeiro: The Edelstein Center for Social Research). Stark, D., Vedres B. and Bruszt L. (2006) Rooted Transnational Publics: Integrating Foreign Ties and Civic Activism. Theory and Society, 35(3), pp. 323-349. Sumner, A. and Tiwari, M. (2009) After 2015: What are the Ingredients of an 'MDG-PLUS' Agenda for Poverty Reduction? Journal of International Development, 21(6), pp. 834-843. Tabbush, C. (2010) Latin American Women's Protection after Adjustment: A Feminist Critique of Conditional Cash Transfers in Chile and Argentina. Oxford Development Studies, 38(4), pp. 437-459. UNDP (United Nations Development Programme) (2005) The Millennium Development Goals: A Latin American and Caribbean Perspectives (New York: UNDP). UNDP (United Nations Development Programme) (2008) Ecuador. Assessment of Development Results (New York: UNDP). UNDP (United Nations Development Programme) (2011) Human Development Report 2011. Sustainability and Equity: A Better Future for All (New York: UNDP). Uquillas, J.E. and Larreamendy, P. (2006) Applied Anthropology in Ecuador: Development, Practice, and Discourse. NAPA Bullettin, 25, pp. 14-34. Varda, D.M. (2011). A Network Perspective on State-Society Sinergy to Increase Community-Level Social Capital. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, 40(5), pp. 896-923. World Bank (2012) Data Catalog: Ecuador (Washington D.C.: The World Bank). Yujuico, E. (2008) Connecting the Dots in Social Entrepreneurship Through the Capabilities Approach. Socio-Economic Review, 6(3), pp. 493–513. Ziegler, R. (2010) Innovations in Doing and Being: Capability Innovations and the Intersection of Schumpeterian Political Economy and Human Development. Journal of Social Entrepreneurship, 1(2), pp. 255-272.