Stopnitzky, Yaniv (2012): The Bargaining Power of Missing Women: Evidence from a Sanitation Campaign in India.
Download (370Kb) | Preview
Female bargaining power in rural Haryana, as in much of northern India, is constrained by widespread discrimination against women. In recent years, however, women successfully demand private sanitation facilities from potential husbands as a precondition for marriage. I study this manifestation of bargaining power by modeling latrine adoption as an investment that males can make to improve their desirability on the marriage market, and I show that increasing proportions of females with strong sanitation preferences drive male investment in toilets. Moreover, I demonstrate women’s ability to secure latrines increases when they are relatively scarce in a marriage market. I test these predictions empirically by studying a sanitation program in Haryana, India, known colloquially as “No Toilet, No Bride”. Using a triple difference empirical strategy based on households with and without marriageable boys, in Haryana and comparison states, before and after program exposure, I provide evidence that male investment in sanitation increased by 15% due to the program. Further, the program effect is four times larger in marriage markets where women are scarce (26%) as compared to marriage markets where women are abundant (6%). These results suggest the relative scarcity of women in Haryana has, conditional on women surviving to marriageable age, improved the ability of the remaining women to secure valuable goods.
|Item Type:||MPRA Paper|
|Original Title:||The Bargaining Power of Missing Women: Evidence from a Sanitation Campaign in India|
|Keywords:||intrahousehold bargaining, marriage market, sex ratio, sanitation, India|
|Subjects:||Q - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics > Q5 - Environmental Economics
O - Economic Development, Technological Change, and Growth > O1 - Economic Development > O13 - Agriculture; Natural Resources; Energy; Environment; Other Primary Products
J - Labor and Demographic Economics > J1 - Demographic Economics > J12 - Marriage; Marital Dissolution; Family Structure; Domestic Abuse
D - Microeconomics > D1 - Household Behavior and Family Economics
O - Economic Development, Technological Change, and Growth > O1 - Economic Development > O12 - Microeconomic Analyses of Economic Development
|Depositing User:||Yaniv Stopnitzky|
|Date Deposited:||05. Apr 2012 08:43|
|Last Modified:||12. Feb 2013 22:39|
 ABRAMITZKY, RAN, ADELINE DELAVANDE & LUIS VASCONCELOS, ‘Marrying Up: The Role of Sex Ratio in Assortative Matching.’ American Economic Journal: Applied Economics, 3, pp. 124–157, July, 2011.
 ANGRIST, JOSH, ‘How do Sex Ratios Affect Marriage and Labor Markets? Evidence from America’s Second Generation*.’ Quarterly Journal of Economics, 117 (3), pp. 997–1038, August, 2002.
 ARNOLD, FRED, SUNITA KISHOR & TK ROY, ‘Sex Selection Abortion in India.’ Population and Development Review, 28 (4), pp. 759–785, 2002.
 ARUNACHALAM, RAJ & SURESH NAIDU, ‘The Price of Fertility: Marriage Markets and Family Planning in Bangladesh.’ Working Paper, November, 2006.
 ASHRAF, NAVA, ‘Spousal Control and Intra-Household Decision Making: An Experimental Study in the Philippines.’ American Economic Review, 99 (4), pp. 1245–1277, August, 2009.
 BANERJEE, A, E DUFLO, M GHATAK & J LAFORTUNE, ‘Marry for What: Caste and Mate Selection in Modern India.’ NBER Working Paper (w14958), January, 2009.
 BECKER, GARY S, ‘A Theory of Marriage: Part I.’ The Journal of Political Economy, 81 (4), pp. 813–846, July, 1973.
 BERTRAND, MARIANNE, ESTHER DUFLO & SENDHIL MULLAINATHAN, ‘How Much Should We Trust Difference-in-Difference Estimates?’ Quarterly Journal of Economics, 119 (1), pp. 249– 275, 2004.
 BHARADWAJ, PRASHANT & LEAH NELSON, ‘Discrimination Begins in the Womb: Evidence of Sex-Selective Prenatal Investments.’ Working Paper, October, 2010.
 BLACK, RE, SE MORRIS & J BRYCE, ‘Where and Why Are 10 Million Children Dying Every Year?’ Lancet, 361, pp. 2226–34, 2003.
 BLOCH, FRANCIS, VIJAYENDRA RAO & SONALDE DESAI, ‘Wedding Celebrations as Conspic- uous Consumption: Signaling Social Status in Rural India.’ Journal of Human Resources, 39 (3), pp. 675–695, 2004.
 BOBONIS, GUSTAVO J, ‘Is the Allocation of Resources within the Household Efficient? New Evidence from a Randomized Experiment.’ Journal of Political Economy, 117 (3), pp. 453–503, 2009.
 BROWNING, MARTIN & PIERRE-ANDRÉ CHIAPPORI, ‘Efficient Intra-Household Allocations: A General Characterization and Empirical Tests.’ Econometrica, 66 (6), pp. 1241–1278, 1998.
 BROWNING, M, F BOURGUIGNON, PA CHIAPPORI & V LECHENE, ‘Income and outcomes: A structural model of intrahousehold allocation.’ Journal of Political Economy, 102 (6), pp. 1067– 1096, 1994.
 CHAKRABORTY, TANIKA & SUKKOO KIM, ‘Caste, Kinship, and Sex Ratios in India.’ NBER Working Paper (13828), pp. 1–60. 2008.
 CHIAPPORI, PIERRE-ANDRÉ, BERNANRD FORTIN & GUY LACROIX, ‘Marriage Market, Di- vorce Legislation, and Household Labor Supply.’ Journal of Political Economy, 110 (1), pp. 37– 72, 2002.
 CHIAPPORI, PIERRE-ANDRÉ, MURAT IYIGUN & YORAM WEISS, ‘Investment in Schooling and the Marriage Market.’ American Economic Review, 99 (5), pp. 1689–1713, December, 2009.
 DAS GUPTA, MONICA, ‘Selective Discrimination Against Female Children in Rural Punjab, India.’ Population and Development Review, 13 (1), pp. 77–100, 1987.
 DESAI, SONALDE & LESTER ANDRIST, ‘Gender Scripts and Age at Marriage in India.’ Demog- raphy, 47 (3), pp. 667–687, 2010.
 DUTT, ASHOK K, ALLEN G NOBLE & SATISH K DAVGUN, ‘Socioeconomic Factors Affecting Marriage Distance in Two Sikh Villages of Punjab.’ Journal of Cultural Geography, 2 (1), pp. 13–26, 1981.
 ESWARAN, MUKESH, BHARAT RAMASWAMI & WILIMA WADHWA, ‘Status, Caste, and the Time Allocation of Women in Rural India.’ Working Paper, 2009.
 GALE, DAVID & LLOYD S SHAPLEY, ‘College Admissions and the Stability of Marriage.’ The American Mathematical Monthly, 69 (1), pp. 9–15, January, 1962.
 GOULD, HAROLD A, ‘A Further Note on Village Exogamy in North India.’ Southwestern Journal of Anthropology, 17 (3), pp. 297–300, 1961.
 IYIGUN, MURAT & RANDALL P WALSH, ‘Building the Family Nest: Premarital Investments, Marriage Markets, and Spousal Allocations.’ Review of Economic Studies, 74 (2), pp. 507–535, April, 2007.
 LAFORTUNE, JEANNE, ‘Making Yourself Attractive: Pre-Marital Investments and the Returns to Education in the Marriage Market.’ Working Paper, pp. 1–49, September, 2010.
 MUNSHI, KAIVAN & MARK R ROSENZWEIG, ‘Traditional Institutions Meet the Modern World: Caste, Gender, and Schooling Choice in a Globalizing Economy.’ American Economic Review, 96 (4), pp. 1225–1252, 2006.
 OSTER, EMILY & REBECCA THORNTON, ‘Menstruation, Sanitary Products, and School At- tendance: Evidence from a Randomized Evaluation.’ American Economic Journal: Applied Eco- nomics, 3 (1), pp. 91–100, 2011.
 PATIL, SUMEET & ALICIA SALVATORE, ‘India Impact Evaluation Baseline Survey: Descriptive Report.’Technical report, Water and Sanitation Program of the World Bank, 2010.
 QIAN, NANCY, ‘Missing Women and the Price of Tea in China: The Effect of Sex-Specific Earnings on Sex Imbalance.’ Quarterly Journal of Economics, 123 (3), pp. 1251–1285, August, 2008.
 ROSENZWEIG, MARK R & ODED STARK, ‘Consumption Smoothing, Migration, and Marriage: Evidence from Rural India.’ Journal of Political Economy, 97 (4), pp. 905–926, January, 1989.
 SHAPLEY, LLOYD S & MARTIN SHUBIK, ‘The Assignment Game I: The Core.’ International Journal of Game Theory, 1 (1), pp. 111–130, 1972.
 WORLD BANK, ‘Toolkit on Hygiene, Sanitation and Water in Schools: Gender Roles and Impact.’Technical report, Water and Sanitation Program of the World Bank, 2005. 17