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Education and armed conflict: the Kashmir insurgency in the nineties

Parlow, Anton (2011): Education and armed conflict: the Kashmir insurgency in the nineties.

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Abstract

The experience of the Kashmir insurgency is used, to assess the impact of this armed conflict on educational outcomes of girls and boys who were of school age during the 90's. Girls and boys who went to primary and secondary schools in urban areas of Kashmir during 1990 and 1996 are affected the most by the insurgency. I compare their outcomes to women and men who finished their schooling before 1990 and girls and boys living in less affected regions of Jammu and Kashmir. Girls in urban Kashmir have up to 3.5 years less schooling compared to girls less affected by the violence. Boys and girls more affected by violence are less likely to complete their primary schooling, as well as enroll less in primary schooling, compared to boys and girls less-affected by the insurgency. Secondary education is not affected negatively by the insurgency. The results remain qualitatively robust once accounting for migration, different age cohorts, a different identification of Kashmiri and continuous measurements of violence. The first phase of the insurgency has a negative impact on education, especially for girls in primary schools. Literacy and employment programs should be designed to target these women.

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