Jellal, Mohamed and Nordman, Christophe and wolff, François charles (2008): Evidence on the glass ceiling effect in France using matched worker-firm data. Published in: Applied Economics No. 40, 3233–3250
Download (176kB) | Preview
In this article, we investigate the relevance of the glass ceiling hypothesis in France, according to which there exist larger gender wage gaps at the upper tail of the wage distribution. Using a matched worker-firm data set of about 1 30 000 employees and 14 000 employers, we estimate quantile regressions and rely on a principal component analysis to summarize information specific to the firms. Our different results show that accounting for firm-related characteristics reduces the gender earnings gap at the top of the distribution, but the latter still remains much higher at the top than at the bottom. Furthermore, a quantile decomposition shows that the gender wage gap is mainly due to differences in the returns to observed characteristics rather than in differences in characteristics between men and women.
|Item Type:||MPRA Paper|
|Original Title:||Evidence on the glass ceiling effect in France using matched worker-firm data|
|Keywords:||Gender, Wage, Gap, Glass Ceiling, France|
|Subjects:||J - Labor and Demographic Economics > J7 - Labor Discrimination
J - Labor and Demographic Economics > J1 - Demographic Economics > J16 - Economics of Gender; Non-labor Discrimination
|Depositing User:||Mohamed Jellal|
|Date Deposited:||05. May 2012 17:51|
|Last Modified:||03. Mar 2013 06:36|
Abowd, J. M. and Kramarz, F. (1999) The analysis of labor markets using matched employer–employee data, in Handbook of Labor Economics, Vol. 3B (Eds)O. C. Ashenfelter and D. Card, Elsevier, North- Holland, pp. 2629–710.
Abowd, J. M., Kramarz, F. and Margolis, D. N. (1999) High-wage workers and high-wage firms,Econometrica, 67, 251–333.
Abowd, J., Kramarz, F., Margolis, D. N. and Troske, K. R. (2001) The relative importance of employer and employee effects on compensation: a comparison of France and the United States, Journal of the Japanese and International Economies, 15, 419–36.
Albrecht, J., Bjo¨ rklund, A. and Vroman, S. (2003) Is there a glass ceiling in Sweden?, Journal of Labor Economics, 21, 145–77.
Albrecht, J., van Vuuren, A. and Vroman, S. (2006) Counterfactual distributions with sample selection adjustments: econometric theory and an application to the Netherlands, mimeo, University of Georgetown.
Altonji, J. G. and Blank, R. M. (1999) Race and gender in the labor market, in Handbook of Labor Economics, Vol. 3C (Eds) O. C. Ashenfelter and D. Card, Elsevier, North-Holland, pp. 3143–258.
Arulampalam, W., Booth, A. L. and Bryan, M. L. (2004) Is there a glass ceiling over Europe? Exploring the gender pay gap across the wages distribution, mimeo, University of Auckland
Bayard, K., Hellerstein, J., Neumark, D. and Troske, K. (2003) New evidence on sex segregation and sex differences in wages from matched employer–employee data, Journal of Labor Economics, 21, 887–922.
Blau, F. and Kahn, L. (2000) Gender differences in pay, Journal of Economic Perspectives, 14, 75–99.
Booth, A., Francesconi, M. and Frank, J. (2003) A sticky floors model of promotion, pay and gender, European Economic Review, 47, 295–322.
Buchinsky, M. (1998) Recent advances in quantile regression models: a practical guideline for empirical research, Journal of Human Resources, 33, 88–126.
Cardoso, A. R. (1999) Firms’ wage policies and the rise in labor market inequality: the case of Portugal,Industrial and Labor Relations Review, 53, 87–102.
Caroli, E., Greenan, N. and Guellec, D. (2001) Organizational change and skill accumulation, Industrial and Corporate Change, 10, 481–506.
De la Rica, S., Dolado, J. J. and Llorens, S. (2005) Ceiling and floors: gender wage gaps by education in Spain, IZA Discussion Paper No. 1483.
Destre´ , G. (2003) Fonctions de gains et diffusion du savoir: une estimation sur donneés franc¸ aises apparie´ es,Economie et Pre´vision, 158, 89–104.
Destre´ , G. and Nordman, C. (2002) The impacts of informal training on earnings: evidence from French, Moroccan and Tunisian employer–employee matched data, L’Actualite´ E´conomique, 78, 179–205.
Greenan, N. (2003) , Organisational change, technology, employment and skills: an empirical study of French manufacturing, Cambridge Journal of Economics, 27, 287–317.
Hahn, J. (1995) Bootstrapping quantile regression estimators,Econometric Theory, 11, 105–21.
Hellerstein, J. and Neumark, D. (2005) Using matched employer–employee data to study labor market discrimination, IZA Discussion Paper No. 1555.
Hinks, T. (2002) Gender wage differentials and discrimination in the New South Africa, Applied Economics, 34,2043–52.
Ichino, A. and Filippin, A. (2005) Gender wage gap in expectations and realizations, Labour Economics, 12, 125–45.
Jellal, M., Nordman, C. and Wolff, F.-C. (2006) Theory and evidence on the glass ceiling effect using matched worker-firm data, DIAL Working Paper, DT/2006/03, DIAL, Paris.
Koenker, R. (2005) Quantile Regression, Econometric Society Monograph Series. Cambridge University Press.
Koenker, R. and Bassett, G. (1978) Regression quantiles, Econometrica, 46, 33–50.
Lindbeck, A. and Snower, D. J. (2000) Multitask learning and the reorganization of work: from tayloristic to holistic organization, Journal of Labor Economics, 18, 353–76.
Machado, J. A. and Mata, J. (2005) Counterfactual decomposition of changes in wage distributions using quantile regression, Journal of Applied Econometrics, 20, 445–65.
Meng, X. (2004) Gender earnings gap: the role of firm specific effects, Labour Economics, 11, 555–73.
Meng, X. and Meurs, D. (2004) The gender earnings gap: effects of institutions and firms – a comparative study of French and Australian private firms, Oxford Economic Papers, 56, 189–208.
Muller, C. and Nordman, C. (2004) Which human capital matters for rich and poor’s wages? Evidence from matched worker-firm data from Tunisia, DIAL Working Paper, DT/2004/09, DIAL, Paris.
Muller, C. and Nordman, C. (2006) Interpreting firm effects on wages from French firm-worker matched data, mimeo, University of Alicante.
Nielsen, H. S. (2000) Wage discrimination in Zambia: an extension of the Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition, Applied Economics Letters, 7, 405–8.
Sakellariou, C. (2004) The use of quantile regressions in estimating gender wage differentials: a case study of the Philippines, Applied Economics, 34,1001–7.
Silber, J. and Weber, M. (1999) Labour market discrimination: are there significant differences between the various decomposition procedures?, Applied Economics, 31, 359–65.