Mohammad, Irfan (1999): Emigration from Pakistan - 1947-97.
Download (1MB) | Preview
This paper is reflective of an attempt to construct a temporal profile of emigration from Pakistan over the past five decades. As detailed in the paper there have been distinct types of emigration streams distinguished on the basis of size, skill composition, duration of stay abroad and nature of links maintained with the sending country. First part of the paper presents these details.
In the second part of the paper the impact of this emigration on economy and society is discussed briefly. Evidence pertaining to the effects of labour exodus and inflow of remittance on the household, labour market, and economy is examined. Also the return migration and its ramification for settlement are highlighted. Finally while summarising the findings some speculations about existing emigration pressures are presented in the final section.
It needs to be highlighted that the research exercise is based on the data set which suffers from various limitations. The information pertaining to labour exodus is based on either the censuses of the receiving countries or the registration data of Pakistan. The latter set of data is incomplete because it does not cover illegal migration as well as all migrants do not register themselves. Similarly it is difficult to capture all the financial flows (remittances) associated with emigration. Non official transfers, foreign exchange inflow embodied in the commodity transactions particularly smuggling and others are not incorporated in the analysis.
|Item Type:||MPRA Paper|
|Original Title:||Emigration from Pakistan - 1947-97|
|Keywords:||Temporal profile of emigration; Pakistan; emigration streams; impact of emigration; labour; remittances; labor market; return migration; settlement|
|Subjects:||F - International Economics > F2 - International Factor Movements and International Business > F22 - International Migration
O - Economic Development, Technological Change, and Growth > O1 - Economic Development
O - Economic Development, Technological Change, and Growth > O1 - Economic Development > O15 - Human Resources; Human Development; Income Distribution; Migration
R - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics > R2 - Household Analysis
|Depositing User:||Nabeela Arshad|
|Date Deposited:||07. May 2012 13:04|
|Last Modified:||17. Feb 2013 18:15|
Abbasi, N. and M.1rfan (1986) 'Socioeconomic Effects of International Migration on Pakistani Families Left Behind', in Asian Labour Migration: Pipeline to the Middle East, ed. F. Arnold and N. M. Shah, pp. 177-193, London: Westview.
Ahmad, S. Mahmud and S. M. Hasan (1971) Estimation of Brain Drain. Planning Commission, Government of Pakistan.
Amjad, R (1989) 'Economic Impact of Migration to the Middle East on the Major Asian Labour Sending Countries - An Overview', in To the Gulf and Back: Studies on the Economic Impact of Asian Labour Migration, ed. R AIqad, pp. 1-27, New Delhi: ILO-ARTEP.
Appleyard, RT. (1991) International Migration: Challenge for the Nmeties. International Organisation for Migration (OM).
Arif G.M (1995) International Contract Labour Migration and Reintegration of Return Migrants: the Experience of Pakistan, Unpublished Phd Thesis, The Australian National University, Canberra.
Ballard, R (1987) The Political Economy of Migration: Pakistan, Britain and the Middle East. In Jeremy Eades (ed) Migrants, Workers, and the Social Order, Tavistock Publications, London and New York.
Gilani, I. S. (1985) Citizens Slaves Guest-Workers, Institute of Policy Studies, Islamabad.
Griffin, K. (1976) 'On the Emigration of the Peasantry', World Development, 4(5): 353-361.
Hoek. F. J. Van (1970) 'The Migration of High Level Manpower from Developing to Developed Countries, Mouton, The Hague, Paris.
Hugo, G.J. (1989) 'Internal and International Migration Flows: Some Recent Developments in Asia' in Population: Today and Tomorrow - Policies, Theories and Methodologies, Volume II, Proceedings of the International Population Conference, New Delhi, pp. 239-260, New Delhi: B. R. Publishing Corporation.
Irfan, M. (1986) Migration and Development in Pakistan: Some Selected Issues. The Pakistan Development Review. Autumn.
Irfan, M. and Mekal Ahmad (1985) 'Real Wages in Pakistan: Structure and Trends 1970-84'. The Pakistan Development Review, Autumn-Winter 1985.
Irfan M. and R. Amjad (1983) Poverty in Rural Pakistan, in A. R. Khan and E. Lee (ed) , Poverty in Rural Asia, Bangkok: ILO/ARTEP.
Lipton, M. (1980) 'Migration from Rural Areas of Poor Countries: The Impact on Rural Productivity and Income Distribution', World Development, 8(1): 1-24.
Mahmood, R. (1995) Data on Migration from bangladesh. Asian and Pacific Migration Journal, 4(4): 531-542.
Naveed-i-Rahat (1990) Male Outmigration and Matri-Weighted Households: A Case study of a Punj abi Village in Pakistan, Delhi: Hindustan Publishing Corporation.
Oberai, A. S. and H. K. M. Singh (1980) 'Migration, Remittances and Rural Development: Findings of a Case Study in the Indian Punjab', International Labour Review, 119 (2): 229-241.
Sasikumar, S. K. (1995) International Labour Migration Statistics in India, Asian and Pacific Migration Journal,4 (4): 555-564.
Sauvy, A (1969) The Economic and Political Consequences of Selective Migration from One Country to Another. In F. Bechhofer (ed) Population Growth and the Brain Drain, University Press, Edinburgh.
Seccombe, I. J. and R.J. Lawless (1986) 'Foreign Workers Dependence in the Gulf, and the International Oil Companies: 1910-50', International Migration Review, 20(3): 548-574.
Shah, N. M. (1994) An Overview of Present and Future Emigration Dynamics in South Asia, International Migration, 32(2): 217-268.
Stark, 0., J. E. Taylor and S. Yitzhaki (1986) 'Remittances and Inequality', Economic Journal, 96(383), 722-740.
United Nations (UN) (1979) Trends and Characteristics of International Migration Since 1950, Demographic Studies No. 64 New York.
Yapa, K. (1995) Data on International Migration from Sri Lanka, Asian and Pacific Migration Journal, 4(4): 610-612.