Althaus, Catherine and Tedds, Lindsay M and McAVoy, Allen (2011): The feasibility of implementing a congestion charge on the Halifax Peninsula: filling the 'Missing Link' of implementation. Published in: Canadian Public Policy , Vol. 37, No. 4 (2011)
Download (291kB) | Preview
Congestion charges pose a policy dilemma due to the balance that must be made between the management of a quasi public good along with the correction of negative externalities against the needs of economic, demographic, and urban growth along with citizen acceptance. The literature provides detailed rationales for congestion charges but minimal consideration on how to implement such charges once the decision to proceed has been made. The purpose of this article is to expose some of the technical and administrative issues that come with enacting and implementing congestion charges. The Halifax Peninsula is used as a case study to illuminate the topic. Drawing on this case, we spell out eleven ex ante implementation criteria that can be used to assess implementation considerations in any given congestion charge context. In so doing, we argue that context-specific factors must also be recognized and accommodated by policy and decision makers if congestion charge policy is to present a feasible, and palatable, choice.
|Item Type:||MPRA Paper|
|Original Title:||The feasibility of implementing a congestion charge on the Halifax Peninsula: filling the 'Missing Link' of implementation|
|Keywords:||Congestion charge, user fee, implementation|
|Subjects:||D - Microeconomics > D6 - Welfare Economics > D62 - Externalities
H - Public Economics > H2 - Taxation, Subsidies, and Revenue > H24 - Personal Income and Other Nonbusiness Taxes and Subsidies
K - Law and Economics > K3 - Other Substantive Areas of Law > K34 - Tax Law
H - Public Economics > H2 - Taxation, Subsidies, and Revenue > H23 - Externalities; Redistributive Effects; Environmental Taxes and Subsidies
|Depositing User:||Lindsay Tedds|
|Date Deposited:||03. Jul 2012 12:41|
|Last Modified:||12. Feb 2013 04:46|
Albalate, D., and G. Bel. 2009. “What Local Policy Makers Should know about Urban Road Charging: Lessons from Worldwide Experience.” Public Administration Review 69 (5) (September/October): 962-74.
Albert, G., and D. Mahalel. 2006. “Congestion Tolls and Parking Fees: A Comparison of the Potential Effect on Travel Behavior.” Transport Policy 13 (6) (11): 496-502.
Althaus, C. 2008. Calculating Political Risk. Earthscan Risk in Society Series. London: Earthscan.
Bahl, R., and R.M. Bird. (2008). “Subnational Taxes in Developing Countries: The Way Forward.” Public Budgeting & Finance 28(4): 1-25
Bakvis, H., and L. Juillet. 2004. The Horizontal Challenge: Line Departments, Central Agencies and Leadership. Ottawa: Canada School of Public Service.
Banister, D. 2003. “Critical Pragmatism and Congestion Charging in London.” International Social Science Journal 55 (176) (June): 249-64.
Barber, M. 2008. Instruction to Deliver. Fighting to Transform Britain’s Public Services. London: Methuen.
Bardach, E. 2005. Practical Guide for Policy Analysis: The Eightfold Path to More Effective Problem Solving. Washington, D.C.: Congressional Quarterly Inc. ———. 1998. Getting Agencies to Work Together: The Practice and Theory of Managerial Craftmanship. Washington, D.C.: Brookings.
“Better Transit Would Save Haligonians Time, Money: Study.” 2008. CBC News - Nova Scotia. 20 March. Access 27 October 2010 at http://www.cbc.ca/canada/nova-scotia/story/2008/03/20/traffic-study.html
Bird, R.M. 2009. “Tax System Change and the Impact of Tax Research.” Rotman School of Management Working Paper No. 1500018. Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=1500018
Bird, R.M. and T. Tsiopoulos. 1997. “User Charges for Public Services: Potentials and Problems.” Canadian Tax Journal 45 (1): 25-86.
Blow, L., A. Leicester, and Z. Smith. 2003. London’s Congestion Charge. IFS Briefing Notes (BN31). London, UK: Institute for Fiscal Studies.
Blythe, P.T. 2005. “Congestion Charging: Technical Options for the Delivery of Future UK Policy.” Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice 39 (7-9) (August-November): 571-87.
Bonsall, P., and W. Young. 2010. “Is there a Case for Replacing Parking Charges by Road User Charges?” Transport Policy 17 (5) (9): 323-34.
Bourgault, J., and R. Lapierre. 2000. Horizontality and Public Management. Ottawa: Canadian Centre for Management Development.
Clark, A. 2004. “London Companies Learn to Love Congestion Charge.” The Guardian, 16 February. Accessed 27 October, 2010 at http://www.guardian.co.uk/environment/2004/feb/16/londonpolitics.greaterlondonauthority
Daunfeldt, S., N. Rudholm, and U. Rämme. 2009. “Congestion Charges and Retail Revenues: Results from the Stockholm Road Pricing Trial.” Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice 43 (3) (3): 306-9.
De Palma, A., E. Marcucci, E. Nisanen, and B. Wieland. 2005. “Road Pricing: Is it Needed, is it Possible, is it Inevitable?” European Transport/Transporti Europei 31 (December): 1-5.
Downs, A. 1992. Stuck in Traffic: Coping with Peak-hour Traffic Congestion. Washington, D.C.: The Brookings Intitution.
Downs, A. 1962. “The Law of Peak-Hour Expressway Congestion.” Traffic Quarterly 16(3): 393-409.
Duranton, G., and M.A. Turner. 2009. “The Fundamental Law of Road Congestion: Evidence from US Cities.” American Economic Review (forthcoming).
Ecola, L., and T. Light. 2009. Equity and Congestion Pricing: A Review of the Evidence. Santa Monica, CA: RAND, 680.
Eliasson, J. 2008. “Lessons from the Stockholm Congestion Charging Trial.” Transport Policy 15 (6) (11): 395-404.
Eliasson, J., L. Hultkrantz, L. Nerhagen, and L. Smidfelt Rosqvist. 2009. “The Stockholm Congestion-Charging Trial 2006: Overview of Effects.” Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice 43 (3): 240-50.
Elmore, R. 1979-80. “Backward Mapping: Implementation Research and Policy Decisions.” Political Science Quarterly 94 (4) (Winter): 601-16.
Farrell, S., and W. Saleh. 2005. “Road-user Charging and the Modelling of Revenue Allocation.” Transport Policy 12 (5) (September): 431-42.
Flowerdew, A. D. 1993. Urban Traffic Congestion in Europe: Road Pricing and Public Transport Demand. London, May: The Economics Intelligence Unit.
Foster, K., L. Lindberg, and C. McCarthy. 2003. “Road Congestion Pricing: Theory, Analysis and Critique - the Case for Dublin City.” Student Economic Review 17: 225-44.
Gaunt, M., T. Rye, and S. Ison. 2006. “Gaining Public Support for Congestion Charging: Lessons from Referendum in Edinburgh, Scotland.” Transportation Research Record 1960: 87-93.
Glaister, S., and D.J. Graham. 2006. “Proper Pricing for Transport Infrastructure and the Case of Urban Road cCngestion.” Urban Studies 43 (8) (July): 1395-418. Government of Nova Scotia. (n.d).
“Community Profiles.” Accessed 27 October 2010 at http://www.gov.ns.ca/finance/communitycounts/profiles/community/default.asp?gnum=chb96&gview=1&sub=demographics.
Gunn, L.A., 1978. “Why is implementation so difficult?” Management Services in Government 33: 169–176. Halifax Regional Municipality. 2009.
“Peninsula Halifax.” Accessed 27 October 2010 at http://www.halifax.ca/giss/documents/peninsula_halifax_000.pdf ______. 2008. Five Year Approach to Transit Enhancements. Halifax, N.S.: Halifax Regional Municipality.
———. 2006. Regional Municipality Planning Strategy. Halifax, N.S.: Halifax Regional Municipality.
Hicks, S. 1977. “Urban Freight.” In Urban Transport Economics, edited by David Hensher. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Hill, M. and P. Hupe. 2009. Implementing Public Policy. 2nd Ed. London: Sage.
Holguín-Veras, J. 2008. “Necessary Conditions for Off-hour Deliveries and the Effectiveness of Urban Freight Road Pricing and Alternative Financial Policies in Competitive Markets.” Transportation Research Part A: General 42 (2) (February): 392-413.
Hopkins, M., C. Couture, and E. Moore. 2001. Moving from the Heroic to the Everyday: Lessons Learned from Leading Horizontal Projects. Ottawa: Canadian Centre for Management Development.
IBI Group. Five-year Strategic Operations Plan - Taking Transit to the Next Level. Halifax, N.S.: Halifax Regional Municipality, 2009.
“Industry Stakeholders Address Potential Solutions to Congestion at Marine Terminal Gates.” 2010. August 3. Accessed 27 October, 2010 at http://pierpass.org/news-room/industry-stakeholders-address-potential-solutions-to-congestion-at-marine-terminal-gates/.
Ison, S., and T. Rye. 2003. “Lessons from Travel Planning and Road User Charging for Policy-making: Through Imperfection to Implementation.” Transport Policy 10 (3) (July): 223-33.
Jones, L. 2008. “Users say Convenient Transit Needed in HRM.” Metro Halifax, 30 September. Accessed 27 October, 2010 at http://www.metronews.ca/halifax/local/article/119268
K.T. Analytics. 2008. Lessons Learned From International Experience in Congestion Pricing. Bethesda, MD: K.T. Analytics.
Kelly, P. 2010. “State of the Municipality Address.” September 30. Accessed 27 October, 2010 at http://www.halifax.ca/council/mayor/documents/StateOfTheMunicipality2010.pdf
Knight, F. H. 1924. “Some Fallacies in the Interpretation of Social Cost.” The Quarterly Journal of Economics 38 (4) (August): 582-606.
Leape, J. 2006. “The London Congestion Charge.” The Journal of Economic Perspectives 20 (4) (Fall): 157-76.
Lindsey, R. 2008. “Prospects for Urban Road Pricing in Canada.” Brookings-Wharton Papers on Urban Affairs 9: 235-70.
———. Congestion Relief: Assessing the Case for Road Tolls in Canada. Toronto: CD Howe Institute, 2007.
Maddison, D., D. Pearce, O. Johansson, E. Calthrop, T. Litman, and E. Verhoef. 1996. The True Costs of Road Transport. London: Earthscan Publications.
MariNova Consulting Ltd. 2006. Halifax Inland Terminal and Trucking Options Study. Halifax, N.S.: MariNova Consulting Ltd. McCormick Rankin Corporation. 2008. Cross Harbour Traffic Needs Assessment Report. Halifax, N.S.: McCormick Rankin Corporation.
Metro Transit. 2009. “Park & Ride.” October 2009. Access 27 October, 2010 at http://www.halifax.ca/metrotransit/park_ride.html Newbery, D.M. 1988. “Charging for Roads.” The World Bank Research Observer 3 (2) (July): 119-38.
O'Doherty, J.. 2005. “Determining the Correct Price of a Congestion Charge in Dublin.” Student Economic Review 19: 141-51.
Pal, L.A. 2009. Beyond Policy Analysis: Public Issue Management in Turbulent Times. 4th ed. Toronto: Nelson.
Pigou, A.C. 1920. The Economics of Welfare. 1st ed. London: Macmillan.
Powell, L.A. 2009. “Comment: User Fee or Tax: Does Diplomatic Immunity from Taxation Extend to New York City’s Proposed Congestion Charge?” Emory International Law Review 23: 231-272.
Pressman, J.L., and A. Wildavsky. 1973. Implementation. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Quddus, M.A., M.G. H. Bell, J. Schmöcker, and A. Fonzone. 2007. “The Impact of the Congestion Charge on the Retail Business in London: An Econometric Analysis.” Transport Policy 14 (5): 433-44.
Rao, M.G. and R.M. Bird. 2010. “Urban Governance and Finance in India.” Rotman School of Management Working Paper No. 1568858. Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=1568858
Richards, M.G. 2006. Congestion Charging in London: The Policy and the Politics. Basingstoke: Palgrave MacMillan.
Robichau, R.W., and L.E. Lynn Jr. 2009. “The Implementation of Public Policy: Still the Missing Link.” Policy Studies Journal 37 (1): 21-36.
Rye, T, M. Gaunt, and S. Ison. 2008. “Edinburgh's Congestion Charging Plans: An Analysis of Reasons for Non-implementation.” Transportation Planning and Technology 31 (6): 641.
Safirova, E.A., S. Houde, D. A. Lipman, W. Harrington, and A.D. Bagliano. 2006. Congestion Pricing: Long-term Economic and Land-use Effects. Washington, D.C.: Resources for the Future.
Sandholm, W.H. 2002. “Evolutionary Implementation and Congestion Pricing.” Review of Economic Studies 69 (3): 667-89.
Santos, G., and L. Rojey. 2004. “Distributional Impacts of Road Pricing: The Truth Behind the Myth.” Transportation 31 (1): 21-42.
Santos, G., and D.M. Newbery. 2001. Urban Congestion Charging: Theory, Practice and Environmental Consequences. Munich: Centre for Economic Studies & Ifo Institute for Economic Research Working Paper 568.
Schade, J., and M. Baum. 2007. “Reactance or Acceptance? Reactions Towards the Introduction of Road Pricing.” Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice 41 (1) (1): 41-8.
Schuitema, G., L. Steg, and S. Forward. 2010. “Explaining Differences in Acceptability Before and Acceptance after the Implementation of a Congestion Charge in Stockholm.” Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice 44 (2) (2): 99-109.
Statistics Canada. 2008. Commuting Patterns and Places of Work of Canadians, 2006 Census. Ottawa: Statistics Canada, 97-561-X.
Stopher, P.R. 2004. “Reducing Road Congestion: A Reality Check.” Transport Policy 11 (2) (April): 117-31. Transport Canada. 2006. The Cost of Urban Congestion in Canada. Ottawa: Transport Canada.
Vickrey, W.S. 1963. “Pricing in Urban and Suburban Transport.” The American Economic Review 53 (2) (May): 452-65.
Vojnovic, I. 1998. “Municipal Consolidation in the 1990s: An Analysis of British Columbia, New Brunswick, and Nova Scotia.” Canadian Public Administration 41(2)(Summer): 239-283.
Wanna, J., J. Butcher, and B. Freyens. 2010. Policy In Action: The Challenge of Service Delivery. Sydney: University of New South Wales Press.
Wells, Lynne. 2008. “Council Approves Ragged Lake as Site for New Transit Garage.” Burnside News, 3 November. Access 27 October, 2010 at http://www.burnsidenews.com/index.cfm?sid=%20186329&sc=397.