Nunn, Nathan (2007): The Long-Term Effects of Africa's Slave Trades. Forthcoming in: Quarterly Journal of Economics
Download (2MB) | Preview
Can part of Africa’s current underdevelopment be explained by its slave trades? To explore this question, I use data from shipping records and historical documents reporting slave ethnicities to construct estimates of the number of slaves exported from each country during Africa’s slave trades. I find a robust negative relationship between the number of slaves exported from a country and current economic performance. To better understand if the relationship is causal, I examine the historical evidence on selection into the slave trades, and use instrumental variables. Together the evidence suggests that the slave trades have had an adverse effect on economic development.
|Item Type:||MPRA Paper|
|Institution:||University of British Columbia|
|Original Title:||The Long-Term Effects of Africa's Slave Trades|
|Keywords:||Africa; Slave trade; Economic development|
|Subjects:||O - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth > O1 - Economic Development
F - International Economics > F1 - Trade
O - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth > O5 - Economywide Country Studies > O55 - Africa
|Depositing User:||Nathan Nunn|
|Date Deposited:||17. Jul 2007|
|Last Modified:||10. Feb 2015 01:20|
Acemoglu, Daron, Simon Johnson, and James A. Robinson, “The Colonial Origins of Comparative Development: An Empirical Investigation,” American Economic Review, XCI (2001), 1369–1401. ———, “Reversal of Fortune: Geography and Institutions in the Making of the Modern World Income Distribution,” Quarterly Journal of Economics, CXVII (2002), 1231– 1294. Aghion, Philippe, Alberto Alesina, and Francesco Trebbi, “Endogenous Political Institutions,” Quarterly Journal of Economics, CXIX (2004), 565–613. Alesina, Alberto, Reza Baquir, and William Easterly, “Public Goods and Ethnic Divisions,” Quarterly Journal of Economics, CXIV (1999), 1243–1284. Alesina, Alberto, Arnaud Devleeschauwer, William Easterly, Sergio Kurlat, and Romain Wacziarg, “Fractionalization,” Journal of Economic Growth, VIII (2003), 155–194. Alpers, Edward A., “Trade, State, and Society among the Yao in the Nineteenth Century,” The Journal of African History, X (1969), 405–420. ———, Ivory and Slaves in East Central Africa (Heinemann International, London, 1975). Austen, Ralph A., “The Trans-Saharan Slave Trade: A Tentative Census,” in Henry A. Gemery and Jan S. Hogendorn, eds., The Uncommon Market: Essays in the Economic History of the Atlantic Slave Trade (Academic Press, New York, 1979), 23–75. ———, “The 19th Century Islamic Slave Trade from East Africa (Swahili and Red Sea Coasts): A Tentative Census,” Slavery & Abolition, IX (1988), 21–44. ———, “The Mediterranean Islamic Slave Trade out of Africa: A Tentative Census,” Slavery & Abolition, XIII (1992), 214–248. Azevedo, Mario, “Power and Slavery in Central Africa: Chad (1890–1925),” Journal of Negro History, LXVII (1982), 198–211. Bairoch, Paul, Economics and World History: Myths and Paradoxes (University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1993). Banerjee, Abhijit, and Rohini Somanathan, “The Political Economy of Public Goods: Some Evidence from India,” (2006), mimeo. Barry, Boubacar, “Senegambia from the Sixteenth to the Eighteenth Century: Evolution of the Wolof, Sereer, and ‘Tukuloor’,” in B.A. Ogot, ed., General History of Africa: Volume 5, Africa from the Sixteenth to the Eighteenth Century (University of California Press, Berkeley, 1992), 262–299. ———, Senegambia and the Atlantic Slave Trade (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, U.K., 1998). Bertocchi, Graziella, and Fabio Canova, “Did Colonization Matter for Growth? An Empirical Exploration into the Historical Causes of Africa’s Underdevelopment,” European Economic Review, XLVI (2002), 1851–1871. Bockstette, Valeri, Areendam Chanda, and Louis Putterman, “States and Markets: The Advantage of an Early Start,” Journal of Economic Growth, VII (2002), 347–369. Bratton, Michael, and Nicolas van de Walle, “Political Regimes and Regime Transitions in Africa, 1910–1994,” Technical Report 6996, ICPSR (1997). Chanda, Areendam, and Louis Putterman, “State Effectiveness, Economic Growth, and the Age of States,” in Matthew Lange and Dietrich Rueschemeyer, eds., States and Development: Historical Antecedents of Stagnation and Advance (Palgrave MacMillan, New York, 2005), 69–91. Colson, Elizabeth, “African Society at the Time of the Scramble.” in L.H. Gann and Peter Duignan, eds., Colonialism in Africa, 1870–1960. Volume 1: The History and Politics of Colonialism, 1870–1914. (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1969), 27–65. Curtin, Philip D., The Atlantic Slave Trade: A Census (The University of Wisconsin Press, Madison, 1969). Easterly, William, and Ross Levine, “Africa’s Growth Tragedy: Policies and Ethnic Divisions,” Quarterly Journal of Economics, CXII (1997), 1203–1250. Easterly, William, Jozef Ritzan, and Michael Woolcock, “Social Cohesion, Institutions, and Growth,” Working Paper 94, Center for Global Development (2006). Elbl, Ivana, “Volume of the Early Atlantic Slave Trade, 1450–1521,” Journal of African History, XXXVIII (1997), 31–75. Eltis, David, Stephen D. Behrendt, David Richardson, and Herbert S. Klein, The Trans- Atlantic Slave Trade: A Database on CD-Rom (Cambridge University Press, New York, 1999). Eltis, David, and David Richardson, “Missing Pieces and the Larger Picture: Some Implications of the New Database,” in David Eltis and David Richardson, eds., The New Transatlantic Slave Trade Database: Missing Pieces and Fresh Perspectives (forthcoming). Engerman, Stanley L., and Kenneth L. Sokoloff, “Factor Endowments, Institutions, and Differential Paths of Growth Among New World Economies: A View from Economic Historians of the United States,” in Stephen Harber, ed., How Latin America Fell Behind (Stanford University Press, Stanford, 1997), 260–304. ———, “Factor Endowments, Inequality, and Paths of Development Among New World Economies,” Working Paper 9259, National Bureau of Economic Research (2002). Englebert, Pierre, “Pre-Colonial Institutions, Post-Colonial States, and Economic Development in Tropical Africa,” Political Research Quarterly, LIII (2000a), 7–36. ———, “Solving the Mystery of the Africa Dummy,” World Development, XXVIII (2000b), 1821–1835. Fage, John D., An Introduction to the History of West Africa, 3rd ed. (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1962). Gennaioli, Nicola, and Ilia Rainer, “The Modern Impact of Precolonial Centralization in Africa,” (2006), mimeo, Stockholm University. Grier, Robin M., “Colonial Legacies and Economic Growth,” Public Choice, XCVIII (1999), 317–335. Hall, Gwendolyn Midlo, Slavery and African Ethnicities in the Americas: Restoring the Links (University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill, 2005). Hargreaves, John D., “West African States and the European Conquest,” in L.H. Gann and Peter Duignan, eds., Colonialism in Africa, 1870–1960 (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1969), 199–219. Harms, Robert, River of Wealth, River of Sorrow: The Central Zaire Basin in the Era of the Slave and Ivory Trade, 1500–1891 (Yale University Press, New Haven, 1981). Hawthorne, Walter, “The Production of Slaves Where There was no State: The Guinea- Bissau Region, 1450–1815,” Slavery & Abolition, XX (1999), 97–124. ———, Planting Rice and Harvesting Slaves: Transformations along the Guinea-Bissau Coast, 1400–1900 (Heinemann, Portsmouth, NH, 2003). Herbst, Jeffrey, “Responding to State Failure in Africa,” International Security, XXI (1997), 120–144. ———, States and Power in Africa (Princeton University Press, Princeton, 2000). Higman, Barry W., Slave Populations of the British Caribbean, 1807–1834 (The John Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, 1984). Hilton, Anne, The Kingdom of Kongo (Claredon, Oxford, 1985). Hubbell, Andrew, “A View of the Slave Trade from the Margin: Souroudougou in the Late Nineteenth-Century Slave Trade of the Niger Bend,” Journal of African History, XLII (2001), 25–47. Inikori, Joseph E., “Africa and the Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade,” in Toyin Falola, ed., Africa Volume I: African History Before 1885 (Carolina Academic Press, North Carolina, 2000), 389–412. ———, “The Struggle against the Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade,” in A. Diouf, ed., Fighting the Slave Trade: West African Strategies (Ohio University Press, Athens, Ohio, 2003), 170–198. Isaacman, Allen F., “The Countries of the Zambezi Basin,” in J.F.A. Ajayi, ed., General History of Africa, VI (Heinemann International, Paris, 1989), 179–210. Kamarck, Andrew M., The Tropics and Economic Development (John Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, md, 1976). Karasch, Mary C., Slave Life in Rio de Janeiro (Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ, 1987). Kimambo, I.N., “The East African Coast and Hinterland, 1845–1880,” in J.F.A. Ajayi, ed., General History of Africa, VI (Heinneman International, Paris, 1989), 234–269. Klein, Martin, “The Slave Trade and Decentralized Societies,” Journal of African History, XLII (2001), 49–65. Koelle, Sigismund Wilhelm, Polyglotta Africana; or A Comparative Vocabulary of Nearly Three Hundred Words and Phrases, in More than One Hundred Distinct African Lan- guages (Church Missionary House, London, 1854). Kusimba, ChapurukhaM., “Archaeology of Slavery in East Africa,” African Archaeological Review, XXI (2004), 59–88. La Porta, Rafael, Florencio Lopez-de-Silanes, Andrei Shleifer, and Robert W. Vishny, “The Quality of Government,” Journal of Law, Economics, and Organization, XV (1999), 222–279. Lagerl¨of, Nils-Petter, “Geography, Institutions and Growth: The United States as a Microcosm,” (2005), mimeo, York University. Lange, Matthew K., “British Colonial Legacies and Political Development,” World Devel- opment, XXXII (2004), 905–922. Lovejoy, Paul E., “Background to Rebellion: The Origins of Muslim Slaves in Bahia,” Slavery & Abolition, XV (1994), 151–180. ———, Transformations in Slavery: A History of Slavery in Africa, Second Edition (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 2000). Maddison, Angus, The World Economy: Historical Statistics (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Paris, 2003). Mahadi, Abdullahi, “The Aftermath of the Jih¯ad in the Central Sudan as a Major Factor in the Volume of the Trans-Saharan Slave Trade in the Nineteenth Century,” in Elizabeth Savage, ed., The Uncommon Market: Essays in the Economic History of the Atlantic Slave Trade (Frank Cass, London, 1992), 111–128. Manning, Patrick, “Contours of Slavery and Social Change in Africa,” American Historical Review, LXXXVIII (1983), 835–857. ———, Slavery and African Life (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 1990). Mbajedwe, Patrick U., “Africa and the Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade,” in Toyin Falola, ed., Africa Volume I: African History Before 1885 (Carolina Academic Press, North Carolina, 2000), 335–358. McEvedy, Colin, and Richard Jones, Atlas of World Population History (Penguin Books, Harmondsworth, 1978). Miguel, Edward, and Mary Kay Gugerty, “Ethnic Diversity, Social Sanctions, and Public Goods in Kenya,” Journal of Public Economics, LXXXIX (2005), 2325–2368. Mitchener, Kris James, and IanW. McLean, “The Productivity of U.S. States Since 1880,” Journal of Economic Growth, VIII (2003), 73–114. Moreira, Marcelo J., “A Conditional Likelihood Ratio Test for Structural Models,” Econo- metrica, LXXI (2003), 1027–1048. Moreno Fraginals, Manuel, “Africa in Cuba: A Quantitative Analysis of the African Population in the Island of Cuba,” in Vera Rubin and Arthur Truden, eds., Comparative Perspectives on Slavery in New World Plantation Societies (New York Academy of Sciences, New York, 1977), 187–201. Murdock, George Peter, Africa: Its Peoples and Their Cultural History (McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York, 1959). ———, Ethnographic Atlas (University of Pittsburgh Press, Pittsburgh, 1967). Northrup, David, Trade Without Rulers: Pre-Colonial Economic Development in South- Eastern Nigeria (Claredon Press, Oxford, 1978). Nunn, Nathan, “Data Appendix for The Long-Term Effects of Africa’s Slave Trades,” (2007), mimeo, University of British Columbia. Oldendorp, Christian Georg Andreas, C.G.A. Oldendorp’s History of the Mission of the Evangelical Brethren on the Caribbean Islands of St. Thomas, St. Croix, and St. John (Reprinted by Karoma Publishers Inc. in 1987, Ann Arbor, 1777). Parker, Philip M., National Cultures of the World: A Statistical Reference (Greenwood Press, London, 1997). Rodney, Walter, A History of the Upper Guinea Coast (Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1970). Sachs, Jeffrey D., Andrew D. Mellinger, and John L. Gallup, “The Geography of Poverty and Wealth,” Scientific American, CCLXXXIV (2001), 70–76. Tardieu, Jean-Pierre, “Origins of the Slaves in the Lima Region in Peru (Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries),” in Doudou Diene, ed., From Chains to Bonds: The Slave Trade Revisited (2001), 43–55. Vansina, Jan, Kingdoms of the Savanna (University of Wisconsin Press, Madison, 1966). ———, “Deep-Down Time: Political Tradition in Central Africa,” History in Africa, XVI (1989), 341–362. ———, Paths in the Rainforests (The University of Wisconsin Press, Wisconsin, 1990). Wax, Darold D., “Preferences for Slaves in Colonial America,” Journal of Negro History, LVIII (1973), 371–401.