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Is Energy Consumption Per Capita Stationary? Evidence from First and Second Generation Panel Unit Root Tests

Muhammad, Shahbaz and Tiwari, Aviral Kumar and Khan, Saleheen (2012): Is Energy Consumption Per Capita Stationary? Evidence from First and Second Generation Panel Unit Root Tests.

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Abstract

This paper investigates the unit root properties of energy consumption per capita of 103 high, middle and low income countries using first and second generation panel unit root tests. Our results indicate that energy consumption per capita contains stationary process in all groups of countries. This suggests that short run energy policies should be followed to sustain economic growth and to fulfill energy demand.

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