Parodi, Giuliana and Sciulli, Dario (2012): Disability and Social Exclusion Dynamics in Italian Households.
Download (398kB) | Preview
This paper investigates the dynamics of social exclusion comparing Italian households with and without disabled people, adopting the EU definition of social exclusion and the social model approach to the disability. The analysis applies a dynamic probit model accounting for true state dependence, unobserved heterogeneity and endogenous initial conditions to the 2004-2007 IT-SILC data. Our findings indicate that the incidence of social exclusion for households with disable people is about double with respect to other households, and this disadvantage is especially due to exclusion in the work intensity and material deprivation dimensions. This suggests that analysis based just on income perspective could be insufficient to provide a proper picture of reality. Second, households with disabled people are more likely to persist in social exclusion than other households. Third, persistence in social exclusion for households with disabled people is more likely to be explained by unobserved (and observed) heterogeneity, than by true state dependence. Fourth, households with disabled members experience a stronger severity of social exclusion, explained more in terms of structural factors than in terms of state dependence. Our findings suggest that households with disabled people could benefit more than other households from long-term policies aimed at removing structural factors determining a social exclusion history. The severity of social exclusion, that is stronger for households with disabled members, conforms to the same pattern.
|Item Type:||MPRA Paper|
|Original Title:||Disability and Social Exclusion Dynamics in Italian Households|
|Keywords:||social exclusion, persistence, disability, dynamic probit model, initial conditions|
|Subjects:||J - Labor and Demographic Economics > J1 - Demographic Economics > J14 - Economics of the Elderly ; Economics of the Handicapped ; Non-Labor Market Discrimination
C - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods > C2 - Single Equation Models ; Single Variables > C23 - Panel Data Models ; Spatio-temporal Models
I - Health, Education, and Welfare > I3 - Welfare, Well-Being, and Poverty > I32 - Measurement and Analysis of Poverty
|Depositing User:||Dario Sciulli|
|Date Deposited:||06. Nov 2012 11:17|
|Last Modified:||20. Jul 2015 17:06|
Agovino M. and Parodi G. (2011) “Civilian disability pensions as an antipoverty policy instrument? A spatial analysis of Italian Provinces, 2003-2005”, in: Parodi G., Sciulli D. (eds.), Social Exclusion. Short and long term causes and consequences, Verlag Springer, Heidelberg.
Atkinson, A.B. (1999) “On the poverty measurement”, Econometrica vol. 55, pp. 749-64.
Atkinson A. B. and Merlier E. (2010), Income and Living Conditions In Europe, Eurostat Statistical Books, Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union, 2010, pp. 1-424
Brandolini, A., D’Alessio, G. (1998) “Measuring well-being in the functioning space”, mimeo, Bank of Italy, Rome.
Burchardt, T. (2000) “Social exclusion: Concept and evidence”, in: Gordon, D., Townsend, P. (eds.) Breadline Europe: The Measurement of Poverty, pp. 385–406. Policy, Bristol.
Burchardt, T., LeGrande, J., Piachaud, D. (2002) “Degrees of exclusion: Developing a dynamic multidimensional measure”, in: Hills, J., Le Grand, J., Pichaud, D. (eds.) Understanding Social Exclusion, Ch. 3, Oxford University Press.
Cappellari L. and Jenkins S. (2002) “Who stays poor? Who becomes poor? Evidence from the British household panel survey”, Economic Journal, vol. 112, pp. 60-67.
Contoyannis P., Jones A.M., Rice N., (2004) “The dynamics of health in the British Household Panle Survey”, Journal of Applied Econometrics, vol. 19, pp. 473-503.
Davila-Quintana C.D. and Malo M.A., (2012) “Poverty dynamics and disability: An empirical exercise using the European Community Household Panel”, Journal of Socio-Economics, vol. 41, pp. 350-359.
Dupré D. and Karjalainen A. (2003) “Employment of Disabled People in Europe in 2002”, Statistics in Focus, Population and Social Conditions, Theme 3, Eurostat, Paris.
Eurostat (2012), Population and Social Conditions, Statistics in focus, 9/2012.
Fremstad S., (2009) “Half in Ten: Why Taking Disability into Account is Essential to Reducing Income Poverty and Expanding Economic Inclusion” CEPR Reports and Issue Briefs, n. 30.
Jenkins, S.P. (2000) “Modeling household income dynamics”, Journal of Population Economics, vol. 13 n.4, pp. 529-567.
Heckman, J.J. (1981) “The incidental parameters problem and the problem of initial conditions in estimating a discrete time-discrete data stochastic process”, in C.F. Manski and D. McFadden (eds.), Structural Analysis of Discrete Data with Econometric Applications, 179-195. MIT Press: Cambridge, MA.
Lee, P., Murie, A. (1999) “Literature Review of Social Exclusion”, Scottish Office Central Research Unit, Stationery Office, Edinburgh.
Lelkes O. and Gasior K. (2012) “Income poverty and social exclusion in the EU. Situation in 2008 and trends (based on EU-SILC 2005-2009)”, European Centre, Policy Brief, January.
Meyer B.D. and Mok W.K.C., (2006), "Disability, Earnings, Income and Consumption," Working Papers 0610, Harris School of Public Policy Studies, University of Chicago
Mitra S. (2008), “The Recent Decline in the Employment of Person with Disabilities in South Africa 1998-2006”. Fordham University, Department of Economics, Discussion Paper n. 2008-12.
Nolan B., Whelan C.T., Maitre B. and Layte R. (2001) “Persistent income Poverty and Deprivation in the European Union”, ISER, EPAG working paper n. 17.
Nolan B., Whelan C.T., (2010) Using Non Monetary Deprivation Indicators to Analyze Poverty and Social Exclusion: Lessons From Europe?, Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, Vol.29, No. 2, 305-325
Parodi G. and Sciulli D. (2008). Disability in Italian Households: Income, Poverty and Labour Market Participation. Applied Economics, vol. 40 n. 20; pp. 2615-2630.
Parodi G. and Sciulli D. (2012). Disability and low income persistence in Italian households. International Journal of Manpower, vol. 33 n. 1: pp. 9-26
Poggi A. (2007) “Does persistence of social exclusion exist in Spain?”, Journal of Economic Inequality, vol.5 n.1, pp.53-72;
She P. and Livermore G.A., (2007) “Material Hardship, Poverty, and Disability Among Working-Age Adults,” Social Science Quarterly, vol. 88 n. 4, pp. 970-981.
She P. and Livermore G.A., (2009) “Long-Term Poverty and Disability Among Working-Age Adults,” Journal of Disability Policy Studies, vol. 19 n. 4 pp. 244-268.
Sloane P. J. and Jones M. K., (2012) “Disability and Social Exclusion”, in: Parodi G., Sciulli D. (Eds.), Social Exclusion. Short and long term causes and consequences, Verlag-Springer, Heidelberg.
Solipaca A., Di Nicola F., Mancini F., Rosano A. (2010), Il gap di reddito delle persone con disabilità: un’analisi regionale, Rapporto Osservasalute. Stato di Salute e Qualità dell’Assistenza nelle Regioni italiane, 2010, pp.16-20.
Stevens A.H. (1999) “Climbing out of poverty, falling back”, Journal of Human Resources, vol. 34(3), pp. 557-588.
Shahtamaseb S., Emerson E., Berridge D., Lancaster G. (2011) “Child Disability and the Dynamics of Family Poverty, Hardship and Financial Strain: Evidence from the UK”, Journal of Social Policy, vol. 40 : pp 653-673
Tibble M. (2005) “Review of Existing Research on the Extra Costs of Disability”, Working Paper no. 21, United Kingdom Department for Work and Pensions.
Trivellato U., Giraldo A. and Rettore E. (2002) “The persistence of poverty: true state dependence or unobserved heterogeneity? Some evidence from the Italian survey on household income and wealth”, Paper prepared for the 27th General Conference of the IARIW.
United Nations (2007) “Literature review on social exclusion in the ESCWA Region”, Economic and Social Commission for Western ASIA (ESCWA), New York, 07-0346.
Whelan C.T., Layte R. and Maitre B. (2001) “Persistent Deprivation in the European Union”, EPAG working paper n.23, ISER.
WHO (2001), International Classification of Impairments, Disabilities, and Handicaps, ISBN 92 4 1545429, World Health Organization, Geneva.
Wooldridge J. (2005) “The initial condition problem in dynamic, non linear panel data models with unobserved heterogeneity”, Journal of Applied Econometrics, vol.20, pp. 39-54;
Zaidi A. and Burchardt T. (2003) “Comparing Incomes When Needs Differ: Equivalisation for the Extra Costs of Disability in the UK,” CASE working paper 64.